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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • Neural stem cells transplanted into intact brains as neurospheres form solid grafts composed of neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors. 15744380

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are tissue-specific stem cells with self-renewal potential that can give rise to neurons and glia in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to transplant NSCs as whole neurospheres into intact brain and assess the fate and phenotype of their progeny generated in vivo. We isolated NSCs from E14 foetal rat forebrains and cultured them in basic fibroblast and epidermal growth factor-supplemented serum-free medium in the form of neurospheres in vitro. Neurospheres were transplanted into the intact brains of 2 Wistar rats and after a period of 3 weeks, grafted brains were examined immunohistochemically. Neurospheres formed solid grafts that were found in the lateral ventricle and in the velum interpositum under the hippocampus. The majority of cells in the transplanted tissue were identified as beta-III-tubulin(+), NeuN(+), PanNF(+) and synaptophysin(+) neurons and were accumulated throughout the graft centre. GFAP(+) astrocytes were scattered throughout the entire graft and astrocyte processes delimited the outer and perivascular surfaces. A great number of NG2(+) oligodendrocyte precursors was detected. Nestin(+) endothelial cells were found to line capillaries growing in the transplant. These data indicate that nestin(+) NSCs prevailing in neurospheres differentiate following transplantation into nestin(-) neuronal and glial cells which confirms the multipotency of NSCs. Three weeks posttransplantation neuronal and astrocyte cells reached terminal differentiation (formation of synaptic vesicles and superficial and perivascular limiting membranes) while elements of oligodendroglial cell lineage remained immature. Grafting stem cells as non-dissociated neurospheres provide cells with favourable conditions which facilitate cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, in the intact brain, grafted neurosphere cells were not found to integrate with the brain parenchyma and formed a compact structure demarcated from its surroundings.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Neural stem cells confer unique pinwheel architecture to the ventricular surface in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. 18786414

    Neural stem cells (NSCs, B1 cells) are retained in the walls of the adult lateral ventricles but, unlike embryonic NSCs, are displaced from the ventricular zone (VZ) into the subventricular zone (SVZ) by ependymal cells. Apical and basal compartments, which in embryonic NSCs play essential roles in self-renewal and differentiation, are not evident in adult NSCs. Here we show that SVZ B1 cells in adult mice extend a minute apical ending to directly contact the ventricle and a long basal process ending on blood vessels. A closer look at the ventricular surface reveals a striking pinwheel organization specific to regions of adult neurogenesis. The pinwheel's core contains the apical endings of B1 cells and in its periphery two types of ependymal cells: multiciliated (E1) and a type (E2) characterized by only two cilia and extraordinarily complex basal bodies. These results reveal that adult NSCs retain fundamental epithelial properties, including apical and basal compartmentalization, significantly reshaping our understanding of this adult neurogenic niche.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Neural stem cells reduce hippocampal tau and reelin accumulation in aged Ts65Dn Down syndrome mice. 20875225

    Tau accumulation, in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), is an early neuropathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and early onset AD frequently seen in Down syndrome (DS). We investigated the presence of tau accumulation in the brains of aging DS mice using the Ts65Dn mouse model. All aged mice appeared to have substantial clusters of extracellular granules that were positive for tau and reelin, but not for amyloid-? or APP. These clusters were found primarily in CA1 of the hippocampus. In addition, the aged trisomic DS mice had a significantly greater accumulation of extracellular tau/reelin granular deposits compared to disomic littermates. These granules were similar to those described by others who also found extracellular proteinous granules in the brains of non-DS mice engineered to model aging and/or AD. When neural stem cells (NSC) were implanted unilaterally into the hippocampus of the Ts65Dn mice, the tau/reelin-positive granules were significantly reduced in both trisomic and disomic mice. Our findings indicate that changes in tau/reelin-positive granules could be used as an index for neuropathological assessment in aging DS and AD. Furthermore, changes in granule density could be used to test the efficacy of novel treatments, such as NSC implantation. Lastly, it is speculated that the unique abilities of NSC to migrate and express growth factors might be a contributing factor to reducing tau/reelin accumulation in aging DS and AD.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB360
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Antibody, clone GA5
  • Neural stem cells inhibit melanin production by activation of Wnt inhibitors. 24016750

    Melanin for skin pigmentation is synthesized from tyrosine via an enzymatic cascade that is controlled by tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase/tyrosinase related protein 2 (Dct/TRP2), which are the targets of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). MITF is a master regulator of pigmentation and a target of β-catenin in Wnt/β-catenin signaling during melanocyte differentiation. Stem cells have been used in skin pigmentation studies, but the mechanisms were not determined for the conditioned medium (CM)-mediated effects.In this study, the inhibition and mechanisms of melanin synthesis were elucidated in B16 melanoma cells and UV-B irradiated C57/BL-6 mice that were treated with human neural stem cell-conditioned medium (NSC-CM).B16-F10 melanoma cells (1.5×10(4)cells/well) and the shaved dorsal skin of mice were pretreated with various amount (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100%) of NSC-CM. Melanin contents and TYR activity were measured by a Spectramax spectrophotometer. The expression of TYR, TRP1, Dct/TRP2, MITF, β-catenin and Wnt inhibitors were evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot. The dorsal skin samples were analyzed by immunofluorescence with various antibodies and compared with that control of tissues.Marked decreases were evident in melanin content and TYR, TRP1, DCT/TRP2, MITF, and β-catenin expression in B16 cells and C57/BL-6 mice. NSC-CM negatively regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by decreasing the expression of β-catenin protein, which resulted from robust expression of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2).These results demonstrate that NSC-CM suppresses melanin production in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that factors in NSC-CM may play an important role in deregulation of epidermal melanogenesis.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-371
    Product Catalog Name:
    EZ-ChIP™
  • Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 24307555

    CD13 is a multifunctional cell surface molecule that regulates inflammatory and angiogenic mechanisms in vitro, but its contribution to these processes in vivo or potential roles in stem cell biology remains unexplored. We investigated the impact of loss of CD13 on a model of ischemic skeletal muscle injury that involves angiogenesis, inflammation, and stem cell mobilization. Consistent with its role as an inflammatory adhesion molecule, lack of CD13 altered myeloid trafficking in the injured muscle, resulting in cytokine profiles skewed toward a prohealing environment. Despite this healing-favorable context, CD13(KO) animals showed significantly impaired limb perfusion with increased necrosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Capillary density was correspondingly decreased, implicating CD13 in skeletal muscle angiogenesis. The number of CD45-/Sca1-/α7-integrin+/β1-integrin+ satellite cells was markedly diminished in injured CD13(KO) muscles and adhesion of isolated CD13(KO) satellite cells was impaired while their differentiation was accelerated. Bone marrow transplantation studies showed contributions from both host and donor cells to wound healing. Importantly, CD13 was coexpressed with Pax7 on isolated muscle-resident satellite cells. Finally, phosphorylated-focal adhesion kinase and ERK levels were reduced in injured CD13(KO) muscles, consistent with CD13 regulating satellite cell adhesion, potentially contributing to the maintenance and renewal of the satellite stem cell pool and facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MABC950
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibody, clone SL13
  • Mesenchymal stem cells secrete multiple cytokines that promote angiogenesis and have contrasting effects on chemotaxis and apoptosis. 22558198

    We have previously shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improve function upon integration in ischemic myocardium. We examined whether specific cytokines and growth factors produced by MSCs are able to affect angiogenesis, cellular migration and apoptosis. Conditioned media (CM) was prepared by culturing MSC for 48 hours. CM displayed significantly elevated levels of VEGF, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) compared to control media. MSC contained RNA for these factors as detected by RT-PCR. CM was able to induce angiogenesis in canine vascular endothelial cells. MCP-1 and MIP-1α increased cell migration of MSC while VEGF reduced it. H9c2 cells treated with CM under hypoxic conditions for 24 hours displayed a 16% reduction in caspase-3 activity compared to controls. PI 3-kinase γ inhibitor had no effect on controls but reversed the effect of CM on caspase-3 activity. MCP-1 alone mimicked the protective effect of CM while the PI 3-Kγ inhibitor did not reverse the effect of MCP-1. CM reduced phospho-BAD (Ser112) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) while increasing phospho-Akt (Thr308). MCP-1 reduced the level of phospho-Akt (Ser473) while having no effect on the other two; the PI 3-Kγ inhibitor did not alter the MCP-1 effect. ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was reduced in CM treated H9c2 cells, and inhibition of ERK 1/2 reduced the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), Akt (Thr308) and Bad (Ser112). In conclusion, MSC synthesize and secrete multiple paracrine factors that are able to affect MSC migration, promote angiogenesis and reduce apoptosis. While both MCP-1 and PI3-kinase are involved in the protective effect, they are independent of each other. It is likely that multiple pro-survival factors in addition to MCP-1 are secreted by MSC which act on divergent intracellular signaling pathways.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    ECM630
    Product Catalog Name:
    Fibrin In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay