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  • A 10-amino acid domain within human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 tax protein sequences is responsible for their divergent subcellular distribution. 15269214

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/2) are related retroviruses that infect T-lymphocytes. Whereas HTLV-1 infection can cause leukemia, HTLV-2 has not been demonstrated to be the agent of a hematological malignant disease. Nevertheless, the virally encoded Tax-1 and Tax-2 transactivators display a high percentage of similarity. Tax-1 is a shuttling protein that contains a noncanonical nuclear localization signal as well as a nuclear export signal. The presence of the nuclear localization signal and the nuclear export signal domains in the Tax-2 sequence has not been determined. The distribution of Tax-2 in infected cells is not known but has been assumed to be similar to that of Tax-1. By using a Tax-2-specific antibody, we report here that Tax-2 is located predominantly in the cytoplasm of the HTLV-2 immortalized or transformed infected T-cells. These results were confirmed after transient transfection of untagged Tax-1 and Tax-2 constructs, histidine tag Tax1/Tax2, GFP-Tax, and Tax-GFP fusion constructs in several cell lines. We show that this unanticipated localization is not due to a default in the Tax-2 nuclear localization signal functions nor to major differences in Tax-2 versus Tax-1 binding to the IKKgamma/NEMO protein. In addition, we demonstrate that inhibiting the proteasome results in a relocalization of Tax-1 in the cytoplasm, similar to that of Tax-2. By using a series of Tax-1/Tax-2 chimeras, we determined that the minimal domain that is necessary for Tax-2 peculiar distribution encompasses amino acids 90-100. Finally, we show a high correlation between intracellular localization of Tax and their NF-kappaB or CREB transactivating ability.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    2500
    Product Catalog Name:
    ReBlot Plus Kit
  • A 110-kDa nuclear shuttle protein, nucleolin, specifically binds to adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) capsid. 10329548

    A 110-kDa protein was copurified with adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) virions after CsCl density gradient isopycnic centrifugation. Amino acid sequence of peptides derived from this protein after tryptic digestion, monoclonal antibody production, and Western blot analysis showed that the copurified protein was the major nucleolar phosphoprotein, human nucleolin. Virus overlay assays demonstrated that AAV-2 capsid specifically bound to the human nucleolin, and immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the in vitro binding of nucleolin and intact AAV-2 capsids but not denatured viral proteins. Double-immunofluorescence staining of infected cells showed that AAV capsid and nucleolin were colocalized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. In addition, when cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions were extracted from AAV-infected KB cells at different time points postinfection, immunoprecipitation data and Western blotting showed that AAV capsid formation and nucleolin interact specifically and share their subcellular localization in infected cells. With the known functions of nucleolin in the synthesis of rRNA and ribosome assembly, binding to single-stranded DNA, and acting as a shuttle between cytoplasm and nucleolus, our data showing that AAV-2 capsid binds specifically to nucleolin both in vitro and in vivo suggest a key role of nucleolin in AAV-2 replication, particularly in capsid assembly.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MABC587
  • A beta 3 integrin mutation abolishes ligand binding and alters divalent cation-dependent conformation. 2392682

    The ligand-binding function of integrin adhesion receptors depends on divalent cations. A mutant alpha IIb beta 3 integrin (platelet gpIIb/IIIa) that lacks ligand recognition shows immunologic evidence of a perturbed interaction with divalent cations. This was found to be caused by a G----T mutation that resulted in an Asp119----Tyr119 substitution in the beta 3 subunit. This residue is proximal to bound ligand and is in a conserved region among integrins that are enriched in oxygenated residues. The spacing of these residues aligns with the calcium-binding residues in EF hand proteins, suggesting interaction with receptor-bound divalent cation as a mechanism of ligand binding common to all integrins.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1876-Z
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Integrin αVβ3 Antibody, clone 27.1 (VNR-1) (Azide Free)
  • A beta2 adrenergic receptor signaling complex assembled with the Ca2+ channel Cav1.2. 11441182

    The existence of a large number of receptors coupled to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) raises the question of how a particular receptor selectively regulates specific targets. We provide insight into this question by identifying a prototypical macromolecular signaling complex. The beta(2) adrenergic receptor was found to be directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(v)1.2. This complex also contained a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase PP2A. Our electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons demonstrate highly localized signal transduction from the receptor to the channel. The assembly of this signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by a G protein-coupled receptor.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB5617-50UG
  • A biochemical and functional protein complex involving dopamine synthesis and transport into synaptic vesicles. 19903816

    Synaptic transmission depends on neurotransmitter pools stored within vesicles that undergo regulated exocytosis. In the brain, the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT(2)) is responsible for the loading of dopamine (DA) and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles. Prior to storage within vesicles, DA synthesis occurs at the synaptic terminal in a two-step enzymatic process. First, the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) converts tyrosine to di-OH-phenylalanine. Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) then converts di-OH-phenylalanine into DA. Here, we provide evidence that VMAT(2) physically and functionally interacts with the enzymes responsible for DA synthesis. In rat striata, TH and AADC co-immunoprecipitate with VMAT(2), whereas in PC 12 cells, TH co-immunoprecipitates with the closely related VMAT(1) and with overexpressed VMAT(2). GST pull-down assays further identified three cytosolic domains of VMAT(2) involved in the interaction with TH and AADC. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays demonstrated that TH directly interacts with VMAT(2). Additionally, using fractionation and immunoisolation approaches, we demonstrate that TH and AADC associate with VMAT(2)-containing synaptic vesicles from rat brain. These vesicles exhibited specific TH activity. Finally, the coupling between synthesis and transport of DA into vesicles was impaired in the presence of fragments involved in the VMAT(2)/TH/AADC interaction. Taken together, our results indicate that DA synthesis can occur at the synaptic vesicle membrane, where it is physically and functionally coupled to VMAT(2)-mediated transport into vesicles.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    PP40
    Product Catalog Name:
    IgG, Goat
  • A biochemical approach reveals cell-surface molecules utilised by Picornaviridae: Human Parechovirus 1 and Echovirus 1. 11135368

    Although receptor virus interactions of several Picornaviridae have been studied in the past, it is becoming apparent that these interactions might be more complex than previously thought. In this study, we have chosen to identify the cell-surface molecules involved in the infectious cycle of two common human pathogens and members of the Piconaviridae family, Echovirus 1 (Echo1) and Human Parechovirus 1 (HPEV1) also known as Echovirus 22. In order to identify the specific cell-surface protein molecules involved in Echo1 and HPEV1 infectious cycles, we have deviced a method, by which free virions were used as an affinity surface, allowing either Echo1 or HPEV1 to bind to solubilised proteins from cells susceptible to the virus infection. The virus-cell-surface protein complexes were then analysed by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Echo1 was shown to bind to two integrin-like proteins of 150 and 120 kDa. While HPEV1 attached to two integrin-like proteins of 120 and 100 kDa. The identity of these proteins was identified via Western blotting. Thus, overall we can conclusively report that Echo1 utilises integrin alpha2beta1, whereas HPEV1 utilises integrin alphavbeta3 on the cell surface.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A bioinformatics approach identifies signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and checkpoint kinase 1 as upstream regulators of kidney injury molecule-1 after k ... 24158981

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)/T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein-1 (TIM-1) is upregulated more than other proteins after AKI, and it is highly expressed in renal damage of various etiologies. In this capacity, KIM-1/TIM-1 acts as a phosphatidylserine receptor on the surface of injured proximal tubular epithelial cells, mediating phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and it may also act as a costimulatory molecule for immune cells. Despite recognition of KIM-1 as an important therapeutic target for kidney disease, the regulators of KIM-1 transcription in the kidney remain unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified upstream regulators of KIM-1 after AKI. In response to tubular injury in rat and human kidneys or oxidant stress in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs), KIM-1 expression increased significantly in a manner that corresponded temporally and regionally with increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and STAT3. Both ischemic and oxidant stress resulted in a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species that phosphorylated and activated Chk1, which subsequently bound to STAT3, phosphorylating it at S727. Furthermore, STAT3 bound to the KIM-1 promoter after ischemic and oxidant stress, and pharmacological or genetic induction of STAT3 in HPTECs increased KIM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, inhibition of STAT3 using siRNAs or dominant negative mutants reduced KIM-1 expression in a kidney cancer cell line (769-P) that expresses high basal levels of KIM-1. These observations highlight Chk1 and STAT3 as critical upstream regulators of KIM-1 expression after AKI and may suggest novel approaches for therapeutic intervention.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-20000
    Product Catalog Name:
    Magna ChIP™ G Tissue Kit
  • A biotin switch-based proteomics approach identifies 14-3-3ζ as a target of Sirt1 in the metabolic regulation of caspase-2. 21884983

    While lysine acetylation in the nucleus is well characterized, comparatively little is known about its significance in cytoplasmic signaling. Here we show that inhibition of the Sirt1 deacetylase, which is primarily cytoplasmic in cancer cell lines, sensitizes these cells to caspase-2-dependent death. To identify relevant Sirt1 substrates, we developed a proteomics strategy, enabling the identification of a range of putative substrates, including 14-3-3ζ, a known direct regulator of caspase-2. We show here that inhibition of Sirtuin activity accelerates caspase activation and overrides caspase-2 suppression by nutrient abundance. Furthermore, 14-3-3ζ is acetylated prior to caspase activation, and supplementation of Xenopus egg extract with glucose-6-phosphate, which promotes caspase-2/14-3-3ζ binding, enhances 14-3-3ζ-directed Sirtuin activity. Conversely, inhibiting Sirtuin activity promotes14-3-3ζ dissociation from caspase-2 in both egg extract and human cultured cells. These data reveal a role for Sirt1 in modulating apoptotic sensitivity, in response to metabolic changes, by antagonizing 14-3-3ζ acetylation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    06-933
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-acetyl-Lysine Antibody
  • A blocking antibody to the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE) inhibits hyaluronan clearance by perfused liver. 12645574

    Hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate clearance from lymph and blood is mediated by the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE). The purification and molecular cloning (Zhou, B., Weigel, J. A., Saxena, A., and Weigel, P. H. (2002) Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 2853-2868) of this cell surface receptor were finally achieved after we developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HARE. There are actually two independent isoreceptors for HA, which in rat are designated the 175-kDa HARE and 300-kDa HARE. Only one mAb (number 174) effectively and completely blocked the specific uptake of 125I-HA at 37 degrees C by rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. 125I-HA binding to both the 175-kDa and 300-kDa HARE proteins in a ligand blot assay was almost completely inhibited by <1 microg/ml mAb-174, whereas mouse IgG had little or no effect. MAb-174 also performed very well in Western analysis, indirect fluorescence microscopy, and a variety of immuno-procedures. Immunohistochemistry using mAb-174 localized HARE to the sinusoidal cells of rat liver, spleen, and lymph node. Western analysis using mAb-174 revealed that the sizes of both HARE glycoproteins were the same in these three tissues. 125I-HA was taken up and degraded by excised rat livers that were continuously perfused ex vivo with a recirculating medium. This HA clearance and metabolism by liver, which is a physiological function of HARE, was very effectively blocked by mAb-174 but not by mouse IgG. The results indicate that mAb-174 will be a useful tool to study the functions of HARE and the physiological significance of HA clearance.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MABC76
  • A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology. 25919028

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v) in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC) Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple