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  • Thin filament protein dynamics in fully differentiated adult cardiac myocytes: toward a model of sarcomere maintenance. 10385527

    Sarcomere maintenance, the continual process of replacement of contractile proteins of the myofilament lattice with newly synthesized proteins, in fully differentiated contractile cells is not well understood. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of epitope-tagged tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin I (TnI) into adult cardiac myocytes in vitro along with confocal microscopy was used to examine the incorporation of these newly synthesized proteins into myofilaments of a fully differentiated contractile cell. The expression of epitope-tagged TnI resulted in greater replacement of the endogenous TnI than the replacement of the endogenous Tm with the expressed epitope-tagged Tm suggesting that the rates of myofilament replacement are limited by the turnover of the myofilament bound protein. Interestingly, while TnI was first detected in cardiac sarcomeres along the entire length of the thin filament, the epitope-tagged Tm preferentially replaced Tm at the pointed end of the thin filament. These results support a model for sarcomeric maintenance in fully differentiated cardiac myocytes where (a) as myofilament proteins turnover within the cell they are rapidly exchanged with newly synthesized proteins, and (b) the nature of replacement of myofilament proteins (ordered or stochastic) is protein specific, primarily affected by the structural properties of the myofilament proteins, and may have important functional consequences.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1691
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Troponin I Antibody, a.a. 186-192, clone C5
  • Thyroid-hormone-dependent negative regulation of thyrotropin beta gene by thyroid hormone receptors: study with a new experimental system using CV1 cells. 14611644

    The molecular mechanism involved in the liganded thyroid hormone receptor suppression of the TSHbeta (thyroid-stimulating hormone beta, or thyrotropin beta) gene transcription is undetermined. One of the main reasons is the limitation of useful cell lines for the experiments. We have developed an assay system using non-pituitary CV1 cells and studied the negative regulation of the TSHbeta gene. In CV1 cells, the TSHbeta-CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter was stimulated by Pit1 and GATA2 and suppressed by T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine)-bound thyroid hormone receptor. The suppression was dependent on the amounts of T3 and the receptor. Unliganded receptor did not stimulate TSHbeta activity, suggesting that the receptor itself is not an activator. Analyses using various receptor mutants revealed that the intact DNA-binding domain is crucial to the TSHbeta gene suppression. Co-activators and co-repressors are not necessarily essential, but are required for the full suppression of the TSHbeta gene. Among the three receptor isoforms, beta2 exhibited the strongest inhibition and its protein level was the most predominant in a thyrotroph cell line, TalphaT1, in Western blotting. The dominant-negative effects of various receptor mutants measured on the TSHbeta-CAT reporter were not simple mirror images of those in the positive regulation under physiological T3 concentration.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    06-540
  • TNFR1-mediated signaling is important to induce the improvement of liver fibrosis by bone marrow cell infusion. 21987217

    The importance of TNF-α signals mediated by tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR1) in inflammation and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), and in post-injury liver regeneration including a GFP/CCl(4) model developed as a liver repair model by bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion, was investigated. In mice in which TNFR1 was suppressed by antagonist administration or by knockout, liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4) was significantly decreased. In these mice, intrahepatic macrophage infiltration and TGF-β1 expression were reduced and stellate cell activity was decreased; however, expression of MMP-9 was also decreased. With GFP-positive BMC (TNFR1 wild-type, WT) infusion in these mice, fibrosis proliferation, including host endogenous intrahepatic macrophage infiltration, TGF-β1 expression and stellate cell activity, increased significantly. There was no significant increase of MMP-9 expression. In this study, TNFR1 in hosts had a promoting effect on CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and fibrosis, whereas BMC infusion in TNFR1 knockout mice enhanced host-derived intrahepatic inflammation and fibrosis proliferation. These findings differed from those in WT recipient mice, in which improvement in inflammation and fibrosis with BMC infusion had previously been reported. TNFR1-mediated signaling might be important to induce the improvement of liver fibrosis by bone marrow cell infusion.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB430
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced proteolytic activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 by human skin is controlled by down-regulating tissue inhibitor of metallopro ... 12004062

    The proteolytic activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by conversion of the 92-kDa precursor into an 82-kDa active form has been observed in chronic wounds, tumor metastasis, and many inflammation-associated diseases, yet the mechanistic pathway to control this process has not been identified. In this report, we show that the massive expression and activation of MMP-9 in skin tissue from patients with chronically unhealed wounds could be reconstituted in vitro with cultured normal human skin by stimulation with transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. We dissected the mechanistic pathway for TNF-alpha induced activation of pro-MMP-9 in human skin. We found that proteolytic activation of pro-MMP-9 was mediated by a tissue-associated chymotrypsin-like proteinase, designated here as pro-MMP-9 activator (pM9A). This unidentified activator specifically converted pro-MMP-9 but not pro-MMP-2, another member of the gelatinase family. The tissue-bound pM9A was steadily expressed and not regulated by TNF-alpha, which indicated that the cytokine-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 might be regulated at the inhibitor level. Indeed, the skin constantly secreted tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at the basal state. TNF-alpha, but not transforming growth factor-beta, down-regulated this inhibitor. The TNF-alpha-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 was tightly associated with down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in a dose-dependent manner. To establish this linkage, we demonstrate that the recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 could block the activation of pro-MMP-9 by either the intact skin or skin fractions. Thus, these studies suggest a novel regulation for the proteolytic activation of MMP-9 in human tissue, which is mediated by tissue-bound activator and controlled by down-regulation of a specific inhibitor.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB13437
  • Tumor necrosis factor inhibits growth hormone-mediated gene expression in hepatocytes. 16574984

    Growth hormone (GH) stimulates STAT5 phosphorylation by JAK2, which activates IGF-I and serine protease inhibitor 2.1 (Spi 2.1) transcription, whereas STAT5 dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) terminates this signal. We hypothesized that the inhibitory effects of TNF on GH signaling and gene transcription were responsible for hepatic GH resistance. CWSV-1 hepatocytes were treated with TNF, pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor), or both, before GH stimulation. Total and tyrosine-phosphorylated JAK2, STAT5, ERK1/2, SHP-1 and SHP-2, IGF-I, and Spi 2.1 mRNA levels were measured. GH stimulated STAT5 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, IGF-I, and Spi 2.1 mRNA expression. TNF attenuated JAK2/STAT5 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and IGF-I and Spi 2.1 mRNA expression following GH stimulation. SHP-1 and SHP-2 protein levels were unaltered by TNF or GH, and the GH-induced increase in SHP-1 PTP activity was not further increased by TNF. In TNF-treated cells, pervanadate restored STAT5 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation to control levels following GH stimulation but did not restore IGF-I or Spi 2.1 mRNA induction. Cells transfected with a Spi 2.1 promoter-luciferase vector demonstrate a 50-fold induction in luciferase activity following GH stimulation or cotransfection with a constitutively active STAT5 vector. TNF prevented the induction of Spi 2.1 promoter activity by GH and the STAT5 construct. We conclude that TNF does not inhibit GH activity by inducing SHP-1 or -2 expression and that correction of GH signaling defects in TNF-treated cells by pervanadate does not restore GH-induced gene expression. The inhibitory effects of TNF on GH-mediated gene transcription appear independent of STAT5 activity and previously identified abnormalities in JAK2/STAT5 signaling.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-125
    Product Catalog Name:
    PTP Assay Kit 1
  • Up-regulation of DNA-methyltransferase 3A expression is associated with hypomethylation of intron 25 in human testicular germ cell tumors. 17548962

    From a developmental point of view, human testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) can be traced back to the primordial germ cells in the embryo, which, upon transformation, become either seminoma or non-seminoma. Thus, TGCT provides a useful model system for the study of gene regulation involved in oncogenesis as well as development. In this study, we focused and analyzed the expression and epigenetic alteration of DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT) genes in TGCT tissues. The examined genes included DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B that function to maintain or generate a methylation status of genomic DNA. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found that the expression of DNMT3A, but not DNMT1 or DNMT3B, was up-regulated markedly in TGCT specimens compared to non-tumor testicular tissues. To explore mechanisms involved in the up-regulation of DNMT3A, we examined the methylation status of CpGs in the gene. The distal and proximal promoter regions of DNMT3A were non-methylated in both TGCT and non-tumor tissues. In contrast, non-tumor testicular tissues exhibited a mixture of methylated and non-methylated CpGs in intron 25 of DNMT3A, whereas most CpGs in intron 25 were demethylated in TGCT specimens. This difference in the degree of methylation was confirmed by Southern blot analysis, in which an EcoRI site in intron 25 could be digested only when the CpG was non-methylated. Thus, epigenetic alteration of intron 25 toward de-methylation is associated with increased expression of DNMT3A in TGCT. The intron 25 may represent a differentially-methylated region in DNMT3A that is modulated during development and/or tumorigenesis of germ cells.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    S7820
  • Wnt-3a and Dickkopf-1 stimulate neurite outgrowth in Ewing tumor cells via a Frizzled3- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent mechanism. 18212053

    Recombinant Wnt-3a stimulated the rapid formation of elongated processes in Ewing sarcoma family tumor (ESFT) cells that were identified as neurites. The processes stained positively for polymerized actin and microtubules as well as synapsin I and growth-associated protein 43. Inhibition of the Wnt receptor, Frizzled3 (Fzd3), with antiserum or by short interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced neurite extension. Knockdown of Dishevelled-2 (Dvl-2) and Dvl-3 also suppressed neurite outgrowth. Surprisingly, disruption of the Wnt/Fzd/lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) complex and the associated beta-catenin signaling by treating cells either with the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) or LRP5/LRP6 siRNA enhanced neuritogenesis. Neurite outgrowth induced by Dkk1 or with LRP5/LRP6 siRNA was inhibited by secreted Fzd-related protein 1, a Wnt antagonist that binds directly to Wnt. Moreover, Dkk1 stimulation of neurite outgrowth was blocked by Fzd3 siRNA. These results suggested that Dkk1 shifted endogenous Wnt activity from the beta-catenin pathway to Fzd3-mediated, noncanonical signaling that is responsible for neurite formation. In particular, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) was important for neurite outgrowth stimulated by both Wnt-3a and Dkk1. Our data demonstrate that Fzd3, Dvl, and JNK activity mediate Wnt-dependent neurite outgrowth and that ESFT cell lines will be useful experimental models for the study of Wnt-dependent neurite extension.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB5220
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Growth Associated Protein-43 (GAP-43) Antibody