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  • Conversion of non-endocrine human pancreatic cells to insulin-producing cells for treatment of diabetes. 22057446

    Type I diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic ?-cells, affecting many millions of people worldwide. The optimal treatment is to restore the endogenous supply of insulin either through the transplantation of pancreas or the transplantation of islets of langerhans or simply the ?-cells. However, the donated pancreas organs are limited and the available organs are only able to treat a small portion of the diabetes patients. Thus, glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells from human origin are urgently needed. The aim of this chapter is to give some insight views to how to turn the potential human pancreatic non-endocrine cells into cells that are capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose and ameliorating insulin-deficient diabetes conditions after transplantation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB5326
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Nestin Antibody, clone 10C2
  • A novel 160-kDa phosphotyrosine protein in insulin-treated embryonic kidney cells is a new member of the insulin receptor substrate family. 9261155

    We have previously identified a 160-kDa protein in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells that undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin (PY160) (Kuhné, M. R., Zhao, Z., and Lienhard, G. E. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 211, 190-197). The phosphotyrosine form of PY160 was purified from insulin-treated HEK 293 cells by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoaffinity chromatography, the sequences of peptides determined, and its cDNA cloned. The PY160 cDNA encodes a 1257-amino acid protein that contains, in order from its N terminus, a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, and, spread over the C-terminal portion, 12 potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Several of these sites are in motifs expected to bind specific SH2 domain-containing proteins: YXXM (7 sites), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; YVNM (1 site), Grb-2; and YIEV (1 site), either the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 or phospholipase Cgamma. Furthermore, the PH and PTB domains are highly homologous (at least 40% identical) to those found in insulin receptor substrates 1, 2, and 3 (IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-3). Thus, PY160 is a new member of the IRS family, which we have designated IRS-4.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
  • Proinsulin maturation, misfolding, and proteotoxicity. 17898179

    As a tool to explore proinsulin (PI) trafficking, a human PI cDNA has been constructed with GFP fused within the C peptide. In regulated secretory cells containing appropriate prohormone convertases, the hProCpepGFP construct undergoes endoproteolytic processing to CpepGFP and native human insulin, which are specifically detected and cosecreted in parallel with endogenous insulin. Expression of C(A7)Y mutant PI results in autosomal dominant diabetes in Akita mice. We directly identify the misfolded PI in Akita islets and also show that C(A7)Y mutant PI, either in the context of the hProCpepGFP chimera or not, engages directly in protein complexes with nonmutant PI, impairing the trafficking and recovery of nonmutant PI. This trapping mechanism decreases insulin production in beta cells. Thereafter we observe a loss of beta cell viability. The data imply that PI misfolding leading to impaired endoplasmic reticulum exit of nonmutant PI may be a key early step in a chain reaction of beta cell dysfunction and demise leading to onset and progression of diabetes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Small molecules induce efficient differentiation into insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. 22056147

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells have potential uses for drug discovery and cell therapy, including generation of pancreatic β-cells for diabetes research and treatment. In this study, we developed a simple protocol for generating insulin-producing cells from hiPS cells. Treatment with activin A and a GSK3β inhibitor enhanced efficient endodermal differentiation, and then combined treatment with retinoic acid, a bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, and a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitor induced efficient differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from definitive endoderm. Expression of the pancreatic progenitor markers PDX1 and NGN3 was significantly increased at this step and most cells were positive for anti-PDX1 antibody. Moreover, several compounds, including forskolin, dexamethasone, and a TGF-β inhibitor, were found to induce the differentiation of insulin-producing cells from pancreatic progenitor cells. By combined treatment with these compounds, more than 10% of the cells became insulin positive. The differentiated cells secreted human c-peptide in response to various insulin secretagogues. In addition, all five hiPS cell lines that we examined showed efficient differentiation into insulin-producing cells with this protocol.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-633
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-HNF3β/FOXA2 Antibody
  • Monoclonal antibodies to receptors for insulin and somatomedin-C. 6304046

    Three monoclonal antibodies, designated alpha IR-1, alpha IR-2, and alpha IR-3, were prepared by fusing FO myeloma cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with a partially purified preparation of insulin receptors from human placenta. These antibodies were characterized by their ability to immunoprecipitate solubilized receptors labeled with 125I-insulin or 125I-somatomedin-C in the presence or absence of various concentrations of unlabeled insulin or somatomedin-C. alpha IR-1 preferentially immunoprecipitates insulin receptors and also less effectively immunoprecipitates somatomedin-C receptors, while alpha IR-2 and alph IR-3 preferentially immunoprecipitate somatomedin-C receptors, but may also weakly immunoprecipitate insulin receptors. These three monoclonal antibodies, as well as A410, a rabbit polyclonal antibody, were used to immunoprecipitate insulin and somatomedin-C receptors from solubilized human lymphoid (IM-9) cells and human placenta membranes that had been 125I-labeled with lactoperoxidase. Analysis of the immunoprecipitates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that both receptors are composed of alpha and beta subunits. The beta subunit of the insulin receptor (immunoprecipitated by alpha IR-1 and A410) has a slightly more rapid mobility than the corresponding subunit of the somatomedin-C receptor (immunoprecipitated by alpha IR-2 and alpha IR-3). Interestingly, the alpha subunit of the placenta somatomedin-C receptor has a slightly faster mobility than its counterpart from IM-9 cells. Immunoprecipitation of receptor that had been reduced and denatured to generate isolated subunits indicates that alpha IR-2 and alpha IR-3 interact with the alpha subunit of the somatomedin-C receptor while A410 interacts with both subunits of the insulin receptor. alpha IR-1 failed to react with reduced and denatured receptors.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MABS192
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-IGF-IR Antibody, clone αIR3 (Azide Free)
  • Purified hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptors bind insulin-like growth factor-I, but not insulin, with high affinity. 8452530

    Hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors have previously been described in human placenta, but it has not been possible to study their properties in the presence of classical insulin receptors and type I IGF receptors. To facilitate the purification of hybrids, we produced an anti-peptide monoclonal antibody IGFR 1-2, directed against the C-terminal peptide of the type I IGF receptor beta-subunit. The antibody bound native human and rat type I IGF receptors, and reacted specifically with the beta-subunit on immunoblots. Solubilized placental microsomal membranes were depleted of classical type I IGF receptors by incubation with an immobilized monoclonal antibody IGFR 24-55, which reacts well with type I receptors but very poorly with hybrid receptors. Residual hybrid receptors were then isolated by incubation with immobilized antibody IGFR 1-2, and recovered by elution with excess of synthetic peptide antigen. Binding properties of hybrids were compared with those of immuno-affinity-purified insulin receptors and type I IGF receptors, by using the radioligands 125I-IGF-I and 125I-insulin. Hybrids bound approx. 20 times as much 125I-IGF-I as 125I-insulin at tracer concentrations (approx. 0.1 nM). The binding of 125I-insulin, but not 125I-IGF-I, to hybrids increased after treatment with dithiothreitol to reduce disulphide bonds between the alpha-subunits. Hybrids behaved very similarly to type I receptors with respect to the inhibition of 125I-IGF-I binding by unlabelled IGF-I and insulin. By contrast, the affinity of hybrids for insulin was approx. 10-fold lower than that of classical insulin receptors, as assessed by inhibition of 125I-insulin binding by unlabelled hormone. It is concluded that the properties of insulin receptors, but not IGF receptors, are markedly affected by assembly as hybrid compared with classical structures, and that hybrids are more likely to be responsive to IGF-I than insulin under physiological conditions.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1120
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Antibody, α-subunit, clone 24-31
  • C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2 chondrocytes as well as human primary articular chondrocytes express sex hormone and insulin receptors--Useful cells in study of cartilage metabolism ... 20971625

    Sex hormones and insulin have been implicated in articular cartilage metabolism. To supplement previous findings on the regulation of matrix synthesis with 17?-estradiol and insulin and to find a possible model to study cartilage metabolism in vitro, we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptors ? and ? (ER?, ER?), androgen receptor (AR) and insulin receptor (IR), in immortalized C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and in human primary articular cartilage cells. Chondrocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of 17?-estradiol, dihydrotestosterone or insulin and analyzed by means of RT-PCR and Western blotting. Both cell lines as well as human articular chondrocytes expressed ER ? and ?, AR and IR at mRNA and protein levels. In immortalized C-28/I2 chondrocytes, we showed that increasing concentrations of 17?-estradiol diminished the 95kDa band of IR. Since 17?-estradiol suppresses insulin-induced proline incorporation and type II collagen synthesis, as we have previously demonstrated, our findings give the first clue that 17?-estradiol may have negative effects on cartilage anabolism triggered by insulin during hormonal imbalance. Compared to chondrocytes cultured without hormones, immunostaining for ER?/?, AR and IR was decreased in both cell lines after incubation of cells with the receptor-specific hormones. It can be assumed that C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2 chondrocytes interact with the respective hormones. Our findings provide a reproducible model for investigating sex hormone and insulin receptors, which are present in low concentrations in articular chondrocytes, in the tissue-specific context of cartilage metabolism.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1410
  • A small molecule that directs differentiation of human ESCs into the pancreatic lineage. 19287398

    Stepwise differentiation from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to functional insulin-secreting beta cells will identify key steps in beta-cell development and may yet prove useful for transplantation therapy for diabetics. An essential step in this schema is the generation of pancreatic progenitors--cells that express Pdx1 and produce all the cell types of the pancreas. High-content chemical screening identified a small molecule, (-)-indolactam V, that induces differentiation of a substantial number of Pdx1-expressing cells from human ESCs. The Pdx1-expressing cells express other pancreatic markers and contribute to endocrine, exocrine and duct cells, in vitro and in vivo. Further analyses showed that (-)-indolactam V works specifically at one stage of pancreatic development, inducing pancreatic progenitors from definitive endoderm. This study describes a chemical screening platform to investigate human ESC differentiation and demonstrates the generation of a cell population that is a key milepost on the path to making beta cells.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-633
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-HNF3β/FOXA2 Antibody
  • Expression of c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase and effect on beta-cell development in the human fetal pancreas. 17519280

    The receptor, c-Kit, and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), are critical for hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and have been implicated in the development, function, and survival of rodent islets. Previously, we reported that exogenous SCF treatments of cultured human fetal (14-16 wk fetal age) islet-epithelial clusters enhanced islet cell differentiation and proliferation (Li J, Goodyer CG, Fellows F, Wang R. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38: 961-972, 2006). In the present study, we examined the expression pattern of c-Kit in early to midgestation human fetal pancreata and the relevance of c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin gene expression and beta-cell survival. c-Kit is expressed in the intact pancreas in a cell-specific manner, with a significant decrease in immunoreactivity in the duct regions from 8 to 21 wk fetal age, paralleled by a significant increase in expression within endocrine regions. These c-Kit-positive cells are highly proliferative and show frequent coexpression with insulin and glucagon. Treatment of islet-epithelial clusters with anti-ACK45 antibody stimulates c-Kit phosphorylation paralleled by a significant increase in PDX-1 and insulin expression, increased cell proliferation, and reduced beta-cell death. In contrast, transient transfection with c-Kit siRNA results in a three- to fourfold decrease in c-Kit, PDX-1, and insulin expression and decreased cell proliferation. This study describes important changes in the distribution and dynamics of c-Kit-expressing cells during human fetal pancreatic neogenesis, suggesting that c-Kit may be a marker for human pancreatic islet progenitor cells. Functional analysis of the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase provides evidence that phosphorylation of c-Kit receptor may be involved in mediating early beta-cell differentiation and survival.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1162
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-c-Kit Antibody, clone YB5.B8
  • Indolactam V/GLP-1-mediated differentiation of human iPS cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting progeny. 21048796

    Nuclear reprogramming of somatic tissue enables derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from an autologous, non-embryonic origin. The purpose of this study was to establish efficient protocols for lineage specification of human iPS cells into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-producing progeny. We generated human iPS cells, which were then guided with recombinant growth factors that mimic the essential signaling for pancreatic development. Reprogrammed with four stemness factors, human fibroblasts were here converted into authentic iPS cells. Under feeder-free conditions, fate specification was initiated with activin A and Wnt3a that triggered engagement into definitive endoderm, followed by priming with fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and KAAD-cyclopamine. Addition of retinoic acid, boosted by the pancreatic endoderm inducer indolactam V (ILV), yielded pancreatic progenitors expressing pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), neurogenin 3 (NGN3) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NEUROD1) markers. Further guidance, under insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), was enhanced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) to generate islet-like cells that expressed pancreas-specific markers including insulin and glucagon. Derived progeny demonstrated sustained expression of PDX1, and functional responsiveness to glucose challenge secreting up to 230 pM of C-peptide. A pancreatogenic cocktail enriched with ILV/GLP-1 offers a proficient means to specify human iPS cells into glucose-responsive hormone-producing progeny, refining the development of a personalized platform for islet-like cell generation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple