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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • A novel ESX-1 locus reveals that surface-associated ESX-1 substrates mediate virulence in Mycobacterium marinum. 24610712

    EsxA (ESAT-6) and EsxB (CFP-10) are virulence factors exported by the ESX-1 system in mycobacterial pathogens. In Mycobacterium marinum, an established model for ESX-1 secretion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genes required for ESX-1 export reside at the extended region of difference 1 (RD1) locus. In this study, a novel locus required for ESX-1 export in M. marinum was identified outside the RD1 locus. An M. marinum strain bearing a transposon-insertion between the MMAR_1663 and MMAR_1664 genes exhibited smooth-colony morphology, was deficient for ESX-1 export, was nonhemolytic, and was attenuated for virulence. Genetic complementation revealed a restoration of colony morphology and a partial restoration of virulence in cell culture models. Yet hemolysis and the export of ESX-1 substrates into the bacteriological medium in vitro as measured by both immunoblotting and quantitative proteomics were not restored. We show that genetic complementation of the transposon insertion strain partially restored the translocation of EsxA and EsxB to the mycobacterial cell surface. Our findings indicate that the export of EsxA and EsxB to the cell surface, rather than secretion into the bacteriological medium, correlates with virulence in M. marinum. Together, these findings not only expand the known genetic loci required for ESX-1 secretion in M. marinum but also provide an explanation for the observed disparity between in vitro ESX-1 export and virulence.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    12-348
    Product Catalog Name:
    Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody, HRP-conjugate
  • A novel feeder-free culture system for human pluripotent stem cell culture and induced pluripotent stem cell derivation. 24098444

    Correct interactions with extracellular matrix are essential to human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) to maintain their pluripotent self-renewal capacity during in vitro culture. hPSCs secrete laminin 511/521, one of the most important functional basement membrane components, and they can be maintained on human laminin 511 and 521 in defined culture conditions. However, large-scale production of purified or recombinant laminin 511 and 521 is difficult and expensive. Here we have tested whether a commonly available human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR, which produces high quantities of laminins, supports the growth of undifferentiated hPSCs. We were able to maintain several human pluripotent stem cell lines on decellularized matrix produced by JAR cells using a defined culture medium. The JAR matrix also supported targeted differentiation of the cells into neuronal and hepatic directions. Importantly, we were able to derive new human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines on JAR matrix and show that adhesion of the early hiPSC colonies to JAR matrix is more efficient than to matrigel. In summary, JAR matrix provides a cost-effective and easy-to-prepare alternative for human pluripotent stem cell culture and differentiation. In addition, this matrix is ideal for the efficient generation of new hiPSC lines.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A novel mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with chronic estrogen deficiency leads to glial cell activation and hypertrophy. 21969914

    The role of estrogens in Alzheimer's disease (AD) involving β-amyloid (Aβ) generation and plaque formation was mostly tested in ovariectomized mice with or without APP mutations. The aim of the present study was to explore the abnormalities of neural cells in a novel mouse model of AD with chronic estrogen deficiency. These chimeric mice exhibit a total FSH-R knockout (FORKO) and carry two transgenes, one expressing the β-amyloid precursor protein (APPsw, Swedish mutation) and the other expressing presenilin-1 lacking exon 9 (PS1Δ9). The most prominent changes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of these hypoestrogenic mice were marked hypertrophy of both cortical neurons and astrocytes and an increased number of activated microglia. There were no significant differences in the number of Aβ plaques although they appeared less compacted and larger than those in APPsw/PS1Δ9 control mice. Similar glia abnormalities were obtained in wild-type primary cortical neural cultures treated with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor. The concordance of results from APPsw/PS1Δ9 mice with or without FSH-R deletion and those with letrozole treatment in vitro (with and without Aβ treatment) of primary cortical/hippocampal cultures suggests the usefulness of these models to explore molecular mechanisms involved in microglia and astrocyte activation in hypoestrogenic states in the central nervous system.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB5804
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) Antibody
  • A novel oligodendrocyte cell line OLP6 shows the successive stages of oligodendrocyte development: late progenitor, immature and mature stages. 16181743

    The successive stages of development from oligodendrocyte progenitor to mature oligodendrocyte have been investigated in detail by using stage-specific antibodies. However, no cell lines are available that show stepwise differentiation from oligodendrocyte progenitors to mature oligodendrocytes. Here we show the establishment of an immortalized oligodendrocyte cell line, OLP6, from adult transgenic rats harboring the temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene. The OLP6 cells had a fibroblastic morphology and continuously proliferated at 33 degrees C. They displayed growth arrest and multipolar morphology when they were cultured at 39 degrees C. They express the oligodendrocytic markers O4, 2'-3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, galactocerebroside and second endothelial differentiation gene receptor-2 at 39 degrees C. The OLP6 cells underwent apoptosis upon serum withdrawal at 39 degrees C. Lysophosphatidic acid inhibited this apoptosis and promoted the expression of myelin basic protein. These results demonstrate that the activation of endothelial differentiation gene receptor-2 exerts anti-apoptosis and myelinogenesis effects on the OLP6 cells. Taken together, the OLP6 cells in the late oligodendrocyte progenitor stage can progress to the immature oligodendrocyte stage by shifting culture temperature. Furthermore, lysophosphatidic acid promoted the maturation of OLP6 cells in the immature oligodendrocyte stage. Such OLP6 cells should provide a potent model system for studying the precise mechanism involved in stepwise differentiation of oligodendrocytes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB342
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Galactocerebroside Antibody, clone mGalC
  • A novel stromal lncRNA signature reprograms fibroblasts to promote the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma via LncRNA-CAF/interleukin-33. 29346528

    Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) was mainly located in the stroma and positively co-expressed with Lnc-CAF to elevate the expression of CAF markers (α-SMA, vimentin and N-cadherin) in fibroblasts. In a co-culture system, IL-33 knockdown impaired Lnc-CAF-mediated stromal fibroblast activation, leading to decreased proliferation of tumor cells. Mechanistically, Lnc-CAF up-regulated IL-33 levels and prevented p62-dependent autophagy-lysosome degradation of IL-33, which was independent of LncRNA-protein scaffold effects. Treatment with the autophagy inducer, rapamycin, impaired the proliferative effect of Lnc-CAF/IL-33 by promoting IL-33 degradation. In turn, tumor cells further increased Lnc-CAF levels in stromal fibroblasts via exosomal Lnc-CAF. In patients with OSCC, high Lnc-CAF/IL-33 expression correlated with high TNM stage (n = 140). Moreover, high Lnc-CAF expression predicted poor prognosis. In vivo, Lnc-CAF knockdown restricted tumor growth and was associated with decreased Ki-67 expression and α-SMA+ CAF in the stroma. In conclusion, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature, which reprograms NFs to CAFs via Lnc-CAF/IL-33 and promotes OSCC development.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-700
    Product Catalog Name:
    Magna RIP™ RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation Kit
  • A novel, lactase-based selection and strain improvement strategy for recombinant protein expression in Kluyveromyces lactis. 22905717

    The Crabtree-negative yeast species Kluyveromyces lactis has been established as an attractive microbial expression system for recombinant proteins at industrial scale. Its LAC genes allow for utilization of the inexpensive sugar lactose as a sole source of carbon and energy. Lactose efficiently induces the LAC4 promoter, which can be used to drive regulated expression of heterologous genes. So far, strain manipulation of K. lactis by homologous recombination was hampered by the high rate of non-homologous end-joining.Selection for growth on lactose was applied to target the insertion of heterologous genes downstream of the LAC4 promoter into the K. lactis genome and found to yield high numbers of positive transformants. Concurrent reconstitution of the β-galactosidase gene indicated the desired integration event of the expression cassette, and β-galactosidase activity measurements were used to monitor gene expression for strain improvement and fermentation optimization. The system was particularly improved by usage of a cell lysis resistant strain, VAK367-D4, which allowed for protein accumulation in long-term fermentation. Further optimization was achieved by increased gene dosage of KlGAL4 encoding the activator of lactose and galactose metabolic genes that led to elevated transcription rates. Pilot experiments were performed with strains expressing a single-chain antibody fragment (scFvox) and a viral envelope protein (BVDV-E2), respectively. scFvox was shown to be secreted into the culture medium in an active, epitope-binding form indicating correct processing and protein folding; the E2 protein could be expressed intracellularly. Further data on the influence of protein toxicity on batch fermentation and potential post-transcriptional bottlenecks in protein accumulation were obtained.A novel Kluyveromyces lactis host-vector system was developed that places heterologous genes under the control of the chromosomal LAC4 promoter and that allows monitoring of its transcription rates by β-galactosidase measurement. The procedure is rapid and efficient, and the resulting recombinant strains contain no foreign genes other than the gene of interest. The recombinant strains can be grown non-selectively in rich medium and stably maintained even when the gene product exerts protein toxicity.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AP308P
    Product Catalog Name:
    Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody, (H+L) HRP conjugate
  • A paradigm for functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage via applied physiologic deformational loading. 14964720

    Deformational loading represents a primary component of the chondrocyte physical environment in vivo. This review summarizes our experience with physiologic deformational loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels to promote development of cartilage constructs having mechanical properties matching that of the parent calf tissue, which has a Young's modulus E(Y) = 277 kPa and unconfined dynamic modulus at 1 Hz G* = 7 MPa. Over an 8-week culture period, cartilage-like properties have been achieved for 60 x 10(6) cells/ml seeding density agarose constructs, with E(Y) = 186 kPa, G* = 1.64 MPa. For these constructs, the GAG content reached 1.74% ww and collagen content 2.64% ww compared to 2.4% ww and 21.5% ww for the parent tissue, respectively. Issues regarding the deformational loading protocol, cell-seeding density, nutrient supply, growth factor addition, and construct mechanical characterization are discussed. In anticipation of cartilage repair studies, we also describe early efforts to engineer cylindrical and anatomically shaped bilayered constructs of agarose hydrogel and bone (i.e., osteochondral constructs). The presence of a bony substrate may facilitate integration upon implantation. These efforts will provide an underlying framework from which a functional tissue-engineering approach, as described by Butler and coworkers (2000), may be applied to general cell-scaffold systems adopted for cartilage tissue engineering.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB3391
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Collagen Type I Antibody, clone 5D8-G9
  • A phenotypic culture system for the molecular analysis of CNS myelination in the spinal cord. 25064806

    Studies of central nervous system myelination lack defined in vitro models which would effectively dissect molecular mechanisms of myelination that contain cells of the correct phenotype. Here we describe a co-culture of purified motoneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, isolated from rat embryonic spinal cord using a combination of immunopanning techniques. This model illustrates differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors into fully functional mature oligodendrocytes that myelinate axons. It also illustrates a contribution of axons to the rate of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin gene expression. The defined conditions used allow molecular analysis of distinct stages of myelination and precise manipulation of inductive cues affecting axonal-oligodendrocyte interactions. This phenotypic in vitro myelination model can provide valuable insight into our understanding of demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and traumatic diseases such as spinal cord injury where demyelination represents a contributing factor to the pathology of the disorder.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A population of human brain parenchymal cells express markers of glial, neuronal and early neural cells and differentiate into cells of neuronal and glial lineages. 17241264

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells derived from the neurogenic areas of the brain can be stem/progenitor cells and give rise to new neurons in vitro and in vivo. We report here that a population of GFAP-positive cells derived from fetal human brain parenchyma coexpress markers of early neural and neuronal cells, and have neural progenitor cell characteristics. We used a monolayer culture system to expend and differentiate these cells. During the initial proliferative phase, all cells expressed GFAP, nestin and low levels of betaIII-tubulin. When these cells were cultured in serum and then basic fibroblast growth factor, they generated two distinct progenies: (i) betaIII-tubulin- and nestin-positive cells and (ii) GFAP- and nestin-positive cells. These cells, when subsequently cultured in serum-free media without growth factors, ceased to proliferate and differentiated into two major neural cell classes, neurons and glia. In the cells of neuronal lineage, nestin expression was down-regulated and betaIII-tubulin expression became robust. Cells of glial lineage differentiated by down-regulating nestin expression and up-regulating GFAP expression. These data suggest that populations of parenchymal brain cells, initially expressing both glial and neuronal markers, are capable of differentiating into single neuronal and glial lineages through asymmetric regulation of gene expression in these cells, rather than acquiring markers through differentiation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1637
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tubulin Antibody, beta III isoform, CT, clone TU-20 (Similar to TUJ1)
  • A proapoptotic effect of valproic acid on progenitors of embryonic stem cell-derived glutamatergic neurons. 23788034

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a branched-chain saturated fatty acid with a long history of clinical use as an antiepileptic drug (AED). VPA is also known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and to cause diverse effects on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons. Although the neuroprotective or neurodestructive effects of VPA have been investigated in heterogeneous cell populations, in this study, we used homogeneous populations of NPCs and glutamatergic cortical pyramidal neurons, which were differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells. At therapeutic concentrations, VPA had a proapoptotic effect on ES cell-derived NPCs of glutamatergic neurons, but not on their progeny. This effect of VPA most likely occurred through the inhibition of HDACs, because similar phenotypes were observed following treatment with other HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate. The proapoptotic phenotype was not observed when cells were exposed to a structural analog of VPA, valpromide (VPM), which has the same antiepileptic effect as VPA, but does not inhibit HDACs. Western blotting confirmed that treatment with HDACis, but not VPM, significantly increased the levels of histone H3 acetylation in NPCs. HDACi treatments did not affect the survival of neurons, although the acetylation levels were increased to a limited extent. These results, which are based on a homogeneous culture system, suggest that VPA inhibits HDAC activity and induces the apoptosis of NPCs that are fated to differentiate into glutamatergic neurons. The dose-dependent effects of VPA both on apoptosis and hyperacetylation of histone H3 in NPCs supported this notion. These cell type- and differentiation stage-specific effects of VPA imply that dysfunction of HDACs during pregnancy significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations associated with VPA administration.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple