The age-related decline in gonadal steroids is associated with changes in mood and memory function. It appears that normal physiological concentrations of the steroids are required for adequate synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of high levels of androgens subsequent to misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are largely unknown. In this study, rats were given i.m. nandrolone as a single dose or daily for 14 days and the effects on synaptic components in hippocampal synaptoneurosomes were measured 24h after the last injection. Western blot analysis revealed that a single injection of AAS increased phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B and ERK1/2, while the levels of phosphorylated CaMKIIalpha were unaltered. No changes were seen in other synaptic proteins tested, i.e., BDNF, Arc, TUC-4, and beta-tubulin III. Daily administration of nandrolone for 2 weeks did not affect the content of any of the proteins tested. From this in vivo study, it is concluded that important synaptic components respond to a single high dose of nandrolone, an effect that may influence synapse function.
The 14-3-3 proteins stimulate the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme. To explore if particular endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms specifically affected TH activity and dopamine synthesis, we utilized rodent nigrostriatal tissues and midbrain-derived MN9D dopaminergic cells. Extracts from ventral midbrain and MN9D cells contained similar pools of 14-3-3 mRNAs, with 14-3-3zeta being relatively abundant in both. Protein levels of 14-3-3zeta were also abundant. [(32)P]Orthophosphate labeling of MN9D cells, followed by co-immunoprecipitation with pan-TH and pan-14-3-3 antibodies brought down similar amounts of phosphorylated TH in each, confirming that 14-3-3-bound phosphorylated TH in our cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of striatal tissues with a pan-TH antibody precipitated 14-3-3zeta but not another potential TH regulatory isoform, 14-3-3eta. In whole cell extracts from MN9D cells after 14-3-3 small interfering RNA treatments, we found that 14-3-3zeta knockdown significantly reduced TH activity and dopamine synthesis whereas knockdown of 14-3-3eta had no effect. 14-3-3zeta was found co-localized on mitochondria with TH, and its knockdown by small interfering RNA reduced TH phosphorylation and TH activity in the mitochondrial pool. Together the data support a role for 14-3-3zeta as an endogenous activator of TH in midbrain dopaminergic neurons and furthermore, identify mitochondria as a potential novel site for dopamine synthesis, with implications for Parkinson disease.
In the 9 + 2 axoneme, radial spokes are structural components attached to the A-tubules of the nine outer doublet microtubules. They protrude toward the central pair microtubule complex with which they have transient but regular interactions for the normal flagellar motility to occur. Flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in entire radial spokes or spoke heads are paralyzed. In this study the importance of two radial spoke proteins in the flagellar movement is exemplified by the potent inhibitory action of two monoclonal antibodies on the axonemal motility of demembranated-reactivated Chlamydomonas models. We show that one of these proteins is localized on the stalk of the radial spokes, whereas the other is a component of the head of the same structure and most likely correspond to radial spoke protein 2 and 1, respectively. Fine motility analysis by videomicrography further indicates that these two anti-radial spoke protein antibodies at low concentration affect motility of demembranated-reactivated Chlamydomonas by changing the flagellar waveform without modifying axonemal beat frequency. They also modify wave amplitude differently during motility inhibition. This brings more direct evidence for the involvement of both radial spoke stalk and head in the fine tuning of the waveform during flagellar motility.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are established from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos, are capable of self-renewal, and exhibit pluripotency. Given these unique properties, ESCs are expected to have therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine and as a powerful tool for in vitro differentiation studies of stem cells. Various growth factors and extracellular matrix components regulate the pluripotency and differentiation of ESC progenies. Thus, the cell surface receptors that bind these regulatory factors are crucial for the precise regulation of stem cells. To identify membrane proteins that are involved in the regulation of pluripotent stem cells, the membrane proteins of murine ESCs cultured with or without leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were purified and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. 2-D PAGE-based analysis using fluorescently labeled proteins and shotgun-based analysis with isotope-labeled peptides identified 338 proteins, including transmembrane, membrane-binding, and extracellular proteins, which were expressed specifically in pluripotent or differentiated murine ESCs. Functions of the identified proteins revealed cell adhesion molecules, channels, and receptors, which are expected to play important roles in the maintenance of murine ESC pluripotency. Membrane proteins that are expressed in pluripotent ESCs but not in differentiated cells such as Slc16a1 and Bsg could be useful for the selection of the stem cells in vitro.