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  • A comprehensive map of insulator elements for the Drosophila genome. 20084099

    Insulators are DNA sequences that control the interactions among genomic regulatory elements and act as chromatin boundaries. A thorough understanding of their location and function is necessary to address the complexities of metazoan gene regulation. We studied by ChIP-chip the genome-wide binding sites of 6 insulator-associated proteins-dCTCF, CP190, BEAF-32, Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4), and GAF-to obtain the first comprehensive map of insulator elements in Drosophila embryos. We identify over 14,000 putative insulators, including all classically defined insulators. We find two major classes of insulators defined by dCTCF/CP190/BEAF-32 and Su(Hw), respectively. Distributional analyses of insulators revealed that particular sub-classes of insulator elements are excluded between cis-regulatory elements and their target promoters; divide differentially expressed, alternative, and divergent promoters; act as chromatin boundaries; are associated with chromosomal breakpoints among species; and are embedded within active chromatin domains. Together, these results provide a map demarcating the boundaries of gene regulatory units and a framework for understanding insulator function during the development and evolution of Drosophila.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-449
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-trimethyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) Antibody
  • A comprehensive survey of 3' animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3' adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness. 20719920

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3' nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3' adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1-EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3' addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3' adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A conserved role for p48 homologs in protecting dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress. 25340742

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Although several genes linked to rare familial PD have been identified, endogenous risk factors for sporadic PD, which account for the majority of PD cases, remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sporadic PD in neurodevelopmental genes including the transcription factor p48/ptf1a. Here we investigate whether p48 plays a role in the survival of DA neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a Drosophila p48 homolog, 48-related-2 (Fer2), is expressed in and required for the development and survival of DA neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster. Loss of Fer2 expression in adulthood causes progressive PAM neuron degeneration in aging flies along with mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to the progressive locomotor deficits. The oxidative stress challenge upregulates Fer2 expression and exacerbates the PAM neuron degeneration in Fer2 loss-of-function mutants. hlh-13, the worm homolog of p48, is also expressed in DA neurons. Unlike the fly counterpart, hlh-13 loss-of-function does not impair development or survival of DA neurons under normal growth conditions. Yet, similar to Fer2, hlh-13 expression is upregulated upon an acute oxidative challenge and is required for the survival of DA neurons under oxidative stress in adult worms. Taken together, our results indicate that p48 homologs share a role in protecting DA neurons from oxidative stress and degeneration, and suggest that loss-of-function of p48 homologs in flies and worms provides novel tools to study gene-environmental interactions affecting DA neuron survival.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB152
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
  • A CROSS-SPECIES STUDY OF PI3K PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS REVEALS THE DIRECT INTERACTION OF P85 AND SHP2 26839216

    Using a series of immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) experiments and reciprocal BLAST, we conducted a fly-human cross-species comparison of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) interactome in a drosophila S2R+ cell line and several NSCLC and human multiple myeloma cell lines to identify conserved interacting proteins to PI3K, a critical signaling regulator of the AKT pathway. Using H929 human cancer cells and drosophila S2R+ cells, our data revealed an unexpected direct binding of Corkscrew, the drosophila ortholog of the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase type II (SHP2) to the Pi3k21B (p60) regulatory subunit of PI3K (p50/p85 human ortholog) but no association with Pi3k92e, the human ortholog of the p110 catalytic subunit. The p85-SHP2 association was validated in human cell lines, and formed a ternary regulatory complex with GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 (GAB2). Validation experiments with knockdown of GAB2 and Far-Western blots proved the direct interaction of SHP2 with p85, independent of adaptor proteins and transfected FLAG-p85 provided evidence that SHP2 binding on p85 occurred on the SH2 domains. A disruption of the SHP2-p85 complex took place after insulin/IGF1 stimulation or imatinib treatment, suggesting that the direct SHP2-p85 interaction was both independent of AKT activation and positively regulates the ERK signaling pathway.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    C5737
    Product Catalog Name:
    ZipTip® Pipette Tips
  • A deficiency screen of the major autosomes identifies a gene (matrimony) that is haplo-insufficient for achiasmate segregation in Drosophila oocytes. 14573476

    In Drosophila oocytes, euchromatic homolog-homolog associations are released at the end of pachytene, while heterochromatic pairings persist until metaphase I. A screen of 123 autosomal deficiencies for dominant effects on achiasmate chromosome segregation has identified a single gene that is haplo-insufficient for homologous achiasmate segregation and whose product may be required for the maintenance of such heterochromatic pairings. Of the deficiencies tested, only one exhibited a strong dominant effect on achiasmate segregation, inducing both X and fourth chromosome nondisjunction in FM7/X females. Five overlapping deficiencies showed a similar dominant effect on achiasmate chromosome disjunction and mapped the haplo-insufficient meiotic gene to a small interval within 66C7-12. A P-element insertion mutation in this interval exhibits a similar dominant effect on achiasmate segregation, inducing both high levels of X and fourth chromosome nondisjunction in FM7/X females and high levels of fourth chromosome nondisjunction in X/X females. The insertion site for this P element lies immediately upstream of CG18543, and germline expression of a UAS-CG18543 cDNA construct driven by nanos-GAL4 fully rescues the dominant meiotic defect. We conclude that CG18543 is the haplo-insufficient gene and have renamed this gene matrimony (mtrm). Cytological studies of prometaphase and metaphase I in mtrm hemizygotes demonstrate that achiasmate chromosomes are not properly positioned with respect to their homolog on the meiotic spindle. One possible, albeit speculative, interpretation of these data is that the presence of only a single copy of mtrm disrupts the function of whatever glue holds heterochromatically paired homologs together from the end of pachytene until metaphase I.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1864
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tubulin Antibody, clone YL1/2
  • A Distinct Perisynaptic Glial Cell Type Forms Tripartite Neuromuscular Synapses in the Drosophila Adult. 26053860

    Previous studies of Drosophila flight muscle neuromuscular synapses have revealed their tripartite architecture and established an attractive experimental model for genetic analysis of glial function in synaptic transmission. Here we extend these findings by defining a new Drosophila glial cell type, designated peripheral perisynaptic glia (PPG), which resides in the periphery and interacts specifically with fine motor axon branches forming neuromuscular synapses. Identification and specific labeling of PPG was achieved through cell type-specific RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of a glial marker, Glutamine Synthetase 2 (GS2). In addition, comparison among different Drosophila neuromuscular synapse models from adult and larval developmental stages indicated the presence of tripartite synapses on several different muscle types in the adult. In contrast, PPG appear to be absent from larval body wall neuromuscular synapses, which do not exhibit a tripartite architecture but rather are imbedded in the muscle plasma membrane. Evolutionary conservation of tripartite synapse architecture and peripheral perisynaptic glia in vertebrates and Drosophila suggests ancient and conserved roles for glia-synapse interactions in synaptic transmission.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB302
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Glutamine Synthetase Antibody, clone GS-6
  • A DNA element regulates drug tolerance and withdrawal in Drosophila. 24086565

    Drug tolerance and withdrawal are insidious responses to drugs of abuse; the first increases drug consumption while the second punishes abstention. Drosophila generate functional tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation by increasing neural expression of the slo BK-type Ca(2+) activated K(+) channel gene. After drug clearance this change produces a withdrawal phenotype-increased seizure susceptibility. The drug-induced histone modification profile identified the 6b element (60 nt) as a drug responsive element. Genomic deletion of 6b produces the allele, slo (Δ6b), that reacts more strongly to the drug with increased induction, a massive increase in the duration of tolerance, and an increase in the withdrawal phenotype yet does not alter other slo-dependent behaviors. The 6b element is a homeostatic regulator of BK channel gene expression and is the first cis-acting DNA element shown to specifically affect the duration of a drug action.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    06-866
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 Antibody
  • A Drosophila model of mitochondrial disease caused by a complex I mutation that uncouples proton pumping from electron transfer. 25085991

    Mutations affecting mitochondrial complex I, a multi-subunit assembly that couples electron transfer to proton pumping, are the most frequent cause of heritable mitochondrial diseases. However, the mechanisms by which complex I dysfunction results in disease remain unclear. Here, we describe a Drosophila model of complex I deficiency caused by a homoplasmic mutation in the mitochondrial-DNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. We show that ND2 mutants exhibit phenotypes that resemble symptoms of mitochondrial disease, including shortened lifespan, progressive neurodegeneration, diminished neural mitochondrial membrane potential and lower levels of neural ATP. Our biochemical studies of ND2 mutants reveal that complex I is unable to efficiently couple electron transfer to proton pumping. Thus, our study provides evidence that the ND2 subunit participates directly in the proton pumping mechanism of complex I. Together, our findings support the model that diminished respiratory chain activity, and consequent energy deficiency, are responsible for the pathogenesis of complex-I-associated neurodegeneration.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1501
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Actin Antibody, clone C4
  • A dual role for the dREAM/MMB complex in the regulation of differentiation-specific E2F/RB target genes. 22451490

    E2F and RB proteins regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, differentiation, and development. Recent studies indicate that they function as part of an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex termed dREAM/DREAM/LINC. Here we characterize the role of the Drosophila complex, dREAM, in the regulation of differentiation-specific E2F target genes in actively proliferating cells. These genes are regulated differently from cell cycle-related E2F targets, they do not depend on E2F activation, and E2F/RB repression is maintained throughout the cell cycle. In proliferating cells, their repression is dependent on dREAM. We find that dREAM plays a dual role in their regulation. First, it is required for the stability of the repressive dE2F2/RBF complexes at their promoters during S phase. Second, we find that dREAM is indispensable for both transcriptional repression mechanisms employed at these genes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A functionally conserved boundary element from the mouse HoxD locus requires GAGA factor in Drosophila. 21098566

    Hox genes are necessary for proper morphogenesis and organization of various body structures along the anterior-posterior body axis. These genes exist in clusters and their expression pattern follows spatial and temporal co-linearity with respect to their genomic organization. This colinearity is conserved during evolution and is thought to be constrained by the regulatory mechanisms that involve higher order chromatin structure. Earlier studies, primarily in Drosophila, have illustrated the role of chromatin-mediated regulatory processes, which include chromatin domain boundaries that separate the domains of distinct regulatory features. In the mouse HoxD complex, Evx2 and Hoxd13 are located ∼ 9 kb apart but have clearly distinguishable temporal and spatial expression patterns. Here, we report the characterization of a chromatin domain boundary element from the Evx2-Hoxd13 region that functions in Drosophila as well as in mammalian cells. We show that the Evx2-Hoxd13 region has sequences conserved across vertebrate species including a GA repeat motif and that the Evx2-Hoxd13 boundary activity in Drosophila is dependent on GAGA factor that binds to the GA repeat motif. These results show that Hox genes are regulated by chromatin mediated mechanisms and highlight the early origin and functional conservation of such chromatin elements.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-295
    Product Catalog Name:
    Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Assay Kit