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  • Wingless signaling induces widespread chromatin remodeling of target loci. 18160704

    How signaling cascades influence gene regulation at the level of chromatin modification is not well understood. We studied this process using the Wingless/Wnt pathway in Drosophila. When cells sense Wingless ligand, Armadillo (the fly beta-catenin) becomes stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to the sequence-specific DNA binding protein TCF to activate transcription of target genes. Here, we show that Wingless signaling induces TCF and Armadillo recruitment to a select subset of TCF binding site clusters that act as Wingless response elements. Despite this localized TCF/Armadillo recruitment, histones are acetylated over a wide region (up to 30 kb) surrounding the Wingless response elements in response to pathway activation. This widespread histone acetylation occurs independently of transcription. In contrast to Wingless targets, other active genes not regulated by the pathway display sharp acetylation peaks centered on their core promoters. Widespread acetylation of Wingless targets is dependent upon CBP, a histone acetyltransferase known to bind to Armadillo and is correlated with activation of target gene expression. These data suggest that pathway activation induces localized recruitment of TCF/Armadillo/CBP to Wingless response elements, leading to widespread histone acetylation of target loci prior to transcriptional activation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells. 22309736

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses. NMJ formation requires agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling regulates NMJ formation in Drosophila, C. elegans and zebrafish.In the study we systematically studied the effect of all 19 different Wnts in mammals on acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation. We identified five Wnts (Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, and Wnt16) that are able to stimulate AChR clustering, of which Wnt9a and Wnt11 are expressed abundantly in developing muscles. Using Wnt9a and Wnt11 as example, we demonstrated that Wnt induction of AChR clusters was dose-dependent and non-additive to that of agrin, suggesting that Wnts may act via similar pathways to induce AChR clusters. We provide evidence that Wnt9a and Wnt11 bind directly to the extracellular domain of MuSK, to induce MuSK dimerization and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase. In addition, Wnt-induced AChR clustering requires LRP4.These results identify Wnts as new players in AChR cluster formation, which act in a manner that requires both MuSK and LRP4, revealing a novel function of LRP4.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    05-1050
    Product Catalog Name:
    4G10® Platinum, Anti-Phosphotyrosine Antibody (mouse monoclonal cocktail IgG2b)
  • Wnt/β-catenin dependent cell proliferation underlies segmented lateral line morphogenesis. 20974120

    Morphogenesis is a fascinating but complex and incompletely understood developmental process. The sensory lateral line system consists of only a few hundred cells and is experimentally accessible making it an excellent model system to interrogate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying segmental morphogenesis. The posterior lateral line primordium periodically deposits prosensory organs as it migrates to the tail tip. We demonstrate that periodic proneuromast deposition is governed by a fundamentally different developmental mechanism than the classical models of developmental periodicity represented by vertebrate somitogenesis and early Drosophila development. Our analysis demonstrates that proneuromast deposition is driven by periodic lengthening of the primordium and a stable Wnt/β-catenin activation domain in the leading region of the primordium. The periodic lengthening of the primordium is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin/Fgf-dependent proliferation. Once proneuromasts are displaced into the trailing Wnt/β-catenin-free zone they are deposited. We have previously shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces Fgf signaling and that interactions between these two pathways regulate primordium migration and prosensory organ formation. Therefore, by coordinating migration, prosensory organ formation and proliferation, localized activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the leading zone of the primordium plays a crucial role in orchestrating lateral line morphogenesis.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Wntless, a conserved membrane protein dedicated to the secretion of Wnt proteins from signaling cells. 16678095

    Cell-cell communication via Wnt signals represents a fundamental means by which animal development and homeostasis are controlled. The identification of components of the Wnt pathway is reaching saturation for the transduction process in receiving cells but is incomplete concerning the events occurring in Wnt-secreting cells. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel Wnt pathway component, Wntless (Wls/Evi), and show that it is required for Wingless-dependent patterning processes in Drosophila, for MOM-2-governed polarization of blastomeres in C. elegans, and for Wnt3a-mediated communication between cultured human cells. In each of these cases, Wls is acting in the Wnt-sending cells to promote the secretion of Wnt proteins. Since loss of Wls function has no effect on other signaling pathways yet appears to impede all the Wnt signals we analyzed, we propose that Wls represents an ancient partner for Wnts dedicated to promoting their secretion into the extracellular milieu.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MABS87
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-GPR177 Antibody, clone YJ5
  • Writing memories with light-addressable reinforcement circuitry. 19837039

    Dopaminergic neurons are thought to drive learning by signaling changes in the expectations of salient events, such as rewards or punishments. Olfactory conditioning in Drosophila requires direct dopamine action on intrinsic mushroom body neurons, the likely storage sites of olfactory memories. Neither the cellular sources of the conditioning dopamine nor its precise postsynaptic targets are known. By optically controlling genetically circumscribed subsets of dopaminergic neurons in the behaving fly, we have mapped the origin of aversive reinforcement signals to the PPL1 cluster of 12 dopaminergic cells. PPL1 projections target restricted domains in the vertical lobes and heel of the mushroom body. Artificially evoked activity in a small number of identifiable cells thus suffices for programming behaviorally meaningful memories. The delineation of core reinforcement circuitry is an essential first step in dissecting the neural mechanisms that compute and represent valuations, store associations, and guide actions.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB152
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
  • X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids. 24516397

    Hybrid sterility (HS) belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X) harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm) allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Y-27632 improves rotarod performance and reduces huntingtin levels in R6/2 mice. 19591939

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating, untreatable, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by an expanded CAG codon repeat that leads to an elongated polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Few mechanism-based therapeutic leads have been developed. Y-27632, an inhibitor of the Rho-associated kinase ROCK, reduces Htt aggregation in cultured cells and Htt-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, but its effect in mice is unknown. We determined that Y-27632 is bioavailable in brain, with a half-life of 60-90 min. We then initiated a trial in R6/2 mice, which express Htt exon 1, administering 100 mg/kg/day of Y-27632 in drinking water. We did not observe a significant effect on brain weight, inclusion number or size, striatal medium spiny neuron number, clasping behavior, or lifespan. However, Y-27632 treatment improved rotarod performance significantly, and also reduced soluble brain Htt levels. The ROCK signaling pathway thus remains a promising therapeutic target for HD, and more potent inhibitors may prove useful.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB2166
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Huntingtin Protein Antibody, a.a. 181-810, clone 1HU-4C8
  • Yin Yang 1 extends the Myc-related transcription factors network in embryonic stem cells. 22210892

    The Yin Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor is a master regulator of development, essential for early embryogenesis and adult tissues formation. YY1 is the mammalian orthologue of Pleiohomeotic, one of the transcription factors that binds Polycomb DNA response elements in Drosophila melanogaster and mediates Polycomb group proteins (PcG) recruitment to DNA. Despite several publications pointing at YY1 having a similar role in mammalians, others showed features of YY1 that are not compatible with PcG functions. Here, we show that, in mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, YY1 has genome-wide PcG-independent activities while it is still stably associated with the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, as well as with novel RNA helicase activities. YY1 binds chromatin in close proximity of the transcription start site of highly expressed genes. Loss of YY1 functions preferentially led to a down-regulation of target genes expression, as well as to an up-regulation of several small non-coding RNAs, suggesting a role for YY1 in regulating small RNA biogenesis. Finally, we found that YY1 is a novel player of Myc-related transcription factors and that its coordinated binding at promoters potentiates gene expression, proposing YY1 as an active component of the Myc transcription network that links ES to cancer cells.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    09-860
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-DDX3X Antibody
  • YY1 DNA binding and interaction with YAF2 is essential for Polycomb recruitment. 24285299

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are crucial for epigenetic inheritance of cell identity and are functionally conserved from Drosophila to humans. PcG proteins regulate expression of homeotic genes and are essential for axial body patterning during development. Earlier we showed that transcription factor YY1 functions as a PcG protein. YY1 also physically interacts with YAF2, a homolog of RYBP. Here we characterize the mechanism and physiologic relevance of this interaction. We found phenotypic and biochemical correction of dRYBP mutant flies by mouse YAF2 demonstrating functional conservation across species. Further biochemical analysis revealed that YAF2 bridges interaction between YY1 and the PRC1 complex. ChIP assays in HeLa cells showed that YAF2 is responsible for PcG recruitment to DNA, which is mediated by YY1 DNA binding. Knock-down of YY1 abrogated PcG recruitment, which was not compensated by exogenous YAF2 demonstrating that YY1 DNA binding is a priori necessary for Polycomb assembly on chromatin. Finally, we found that although YAF2 and RYBP regulate a similar number of Polycomb target genes, there are very few genes that are regulated by both implying functional distinction between the two proteins. We present a model of YAF2-dependent and independent PcG DNA recruitment by YY1.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Zyxin, a regulator of actin filament assembly, targets the mitotic apparatus by interacting with h-warts/LATS1 tumor suppressor. 10831611

    The mitotic apparatus plays a pivotal role in dividing cells to ensure each daughter cell receives a full set of chromosomes and complement of cytoplasm during mitosis. A human homologue of the Drosophila warts tumor suppressor, h-warts/LATS1, is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase and a dynamic component of the mitotic apparatus. We have identified an interaction of h-warts/LATS1 with zyxin, a regulator of actin filament assembly. Zyxin is a component of focal adhesion, however, during mitosis a fraction of cytoplasmic-dispersed zyxin becomes associated with h-warts/LATS1 on the mitotic apparatus. We found that zyxin is phosphorylated specifically during mitosis, most likely by Cdc2 kinase, and that the phosphorylation regulates association with h-warts/LATS1. Furthermore, microinjection of truncated h-warts/LATS1 protein, including the zyxin-binding portion, interfered with localization of zyxin to mitotic apparatus, and the duration of mitosis of these injected cells was significantly longer than that of control cells. These findings suggest that h-warts/LATS1 and zyxin play a crucial role in controlling mitosis progression by forming a regulatory complex on mitotic apparatus.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    14-122