Millipore Sigma Vibrant Logo
 

Search

 
Showing

Narrow Your Results Use the filters below to refine your search

Document Type

  • (627)
  • (3)
Can't Find What You're Looking For?
Contact Customer Service

 
  • Ultrafast tissue staining with chemical tags. 25157152

    Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and immunostaining are widely used to detect cellular and subcellular structures in fixed biological samples. However, for thick or whole-mount tissue, each approach suffers from limitations, including limited spectral flexibility and lower signal or slow speed, poor penetration, and high background labeling, respectively. We have overcome these limitations by using transgenically expressed chemical tags for rapid, even, high-signal and low-background labeling of thick biological tissues. We first construct a platform of widely applicable transgenic Drosophila reporter lines, demonstrating that chemical labeling can accelerate staining of whole-mount fly brains by a factor of 100. Using viral vectors to deliver chemical tags into the mouse brain, we then demonstrate that this labeling strategy works well in mice. Thus this tag-based approach drastically improves the speed and specificity of labeling genetically marked cells in intact and/or thick biological samples.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB377
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60
  • Unfolded protein response in a Drosophila model for retinal degeneration. 17170705

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) and its cellular response, the unfolded protein response (UPR), are implicated in a wide variety of diseases, but its significance in many disorders remains to be validated in vivo. Here, we analyzed a branch of the UPR mediated by xbp1 in Drosophila to establish its role in neurodegenerative diseases. The Drosophila xbp1 mRNA undergoes ire-1-mediated unconventional splicing in response to ER stress, and this property was used to develop a specific UPR marker, xbp1-EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed in frame only after ER stress. xbp1-EGFP responds specifically to ER stress, but not to proteins that form cytoplasmic aggregates. The ire-1/xbp1 pathway regulates heat shock cognate protein 3 (hsc3), an ER chaperone. xbp1 splicing and hsc3 induction occur in the retina of ninaE(G69D)-/+, a Drosophila model for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), and reduction of xbp1 gene dosage accelerates retinal degeneration of these animals. These results demonstrate the role of the UPR in the Drosophila ADRP model and open new opportunities for examining the UPR in other Drosophila disease models.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB2166
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Huntingtin Protein Antibody, a.a. 181-810, clone 1HU-4C8
  • Unique and shared functions of nuclear lamina LEM domain proteins in Drosophila. 24700158

    The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that contributes to nuclear structure and function. LEM domain (LAP2, emerin, MAN1 domain, LEM-D) proteins are components of the nuclear lamina, identified by a shared ∼45-amino-acid motif that binds Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a chromatin-interacting protein. Drosophila melanogaster has three nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins, named Otefin (Ote), Bocksbeutel (Bocks), and dMAN1. Although these LEM-D proteins are globally expressed, loss of either Ote or dMAN1 causes tissue-specific defects in adult flies that differ from each other. The reason for such distinct tissue-restricted defects is unknown. Here, we generated null alleles of bocks, finding that loss of Bocks causes no overt adult phenotypes. Next, we defined phenotypes associated with lem-d double mutants. Although the absence of individual LEM-D proteins does not affect viability, loss of any two proteins causes lethality. Mutant phenotypes displayed by lem-d double mutants differ from baf mutants, suggesting that BAF function is retained in animals with a single nuclear lamina LEM-D protein. Interestingly, lem-d double mutants displayed distinct developmental and cellular mutant phenotypes, suggesting that Drosophila LEM-D proteins have developmental functions that are differentially shared with other LEM-D family members. This conclusion is supported by studies showing that ectopically produced LEM-D proteins have distinct capacities to rescue the tissue-specific phenotypes found in single lem-d mutants. Our findings predict that cell-specific mutant phenotypes caused by loss of LEM-D proteins reflect both the constellation of LEM-D proteins within the nuclear lamina and the capacity of functional compensation of the remaining LEM-D proteins.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    06-570
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-phospho-Histone H3 (Ser10) Antibody, Mitosis Marker
  • VCP is essential for mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin and this function is impaired by VCP mutations. 23498974

    Mutations in VCP cause multisystem degeneration impacting the nervous system, muscle, and/or bone. Patients may present with ALS, Parkinsonism, frontotemporal dementia, myopathy, Paget's disease, or a combination of these. The disease mechanism is unknown. We developed a Drosophila model of VCP mutation-dependent degeneration. The phenotype is reminiscent of PINK1 and parkin mutants, including a pronounced mitochondrial defect. Indeed, VCP interacts genetically with the PINK1/parkin pathway in vivo. Paradoxically, VCP complements PINK1 deficiency but not parkin deficiency. The basis of this paradox is resolved by mechanistic studies in vitro showing that VCP recruitment to damaged mitochondria requires Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of mitochondrial targets. VCP recruitment coincides temporally with mitochondrial fission, and VCP is required for proteasome-dependent degradation of Mitofusins in vitro and in vivo. Further, VCP and its adaptor Npl4/Ufd1 are required for clearance of damaged mitochondria via the PINK1/Parkin pathway, and this is impaired by pathogenic mutations in VCP.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1501
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Actin Antibody, clone C4
  • Vertebrate GAGA factor associated insulator elements demarcate homeotic genes in the HOX clusters. 23607454

    Hox genes impart segment identity to body structures along the anterior-posterior axis and are crucial for the proper development of all organisms. Multiple regulatory elements, best defined in Drosophila melanogaster, ensure that Hox expression patterns follow the spatial and temporal colinearity reflected in their tight genomic organization. However, the precise mechanisms that regulate colinear patterns of Hox gene expression remain unclear, especially in higher vertebrates where it is not fully determined how the distinct activation domains of the tightly clustered Hox genes are defined independently of each other. Here, we report the identification of a large number of novel cis-elements at mammalian Hox clusters that can help in regulating their precise expression pattern.We have identified DNA elements at all four murine Hox clusters that show poor association with histone H3 in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip tiling arrays. The majority of these elements lie in the intergenic regions segregating adjacent Hox genes; we demonstrate that they possess efficient enhancer-blocking activity in mammalian cells. Further, we find that these histone-free intergenic regions bear GA repeat motifs and associate with the vertebrate homolog of the GAGA binding boundary factor. This suggests that they can act as GAGA factor-dependent chromatin boundaries that create independent domains, insulating each Hox gene from the influence of neighboring regulatory elements.Our results reveal a large number of potential regulatory elements throughout the murine Hox clusters. We further demarcate the precise location of several novel cis-elements bearing chromatin boundary activity that appear to segregate successive Hox genes. This reflects a pattern reminiscent of the organization of homeotic genes in Drosophila, where such regulatory elements have been characterized. Our findings thus provide new insights into the regulatory processes and evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms that control homeotic gene expression.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Voltage-gated potassium channels and the diversity of electrical signalling. 22431339

    Since Hodgkin and Huxley discovered the potassium current that underlies the falling phase of action potentials in the squid giant axon, the diversity of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels has been manifested in multiple ways. The large and extended potassium channel family is evolutionarily conserved molecularly and functionally. Alternative splicing and RNA editing of Kv channel genes diversify the channel property and expression level. The mix-and-match of subunits in a Kv channel that contains four similar or identical pore-forming subunits and additional auxiliary subunits further diversify Kv channels. Moreover, targeting of different Kv channels to specific subcellular compartments and local translation of Kv channel mRNA in neuronal processes diversify axonal and dendritic action potentials and influence how synaptic plasticity may be modulated. As one indication of the evolutionary conservation of Kv1 channel functions, mutations of the Shaker potassium channel gene in Drosophila and the KCNA1 gene for its mammalian orthologue, Kv1.1, cause hyperexcitability near axon branch points and nerve terminals, thereby leading to uncontrolled movements and recapitulating the episodic ataxia-1 (EA1) symptoms in human patients.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MABN616
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Potassium Channel Kv1.1 Antibody, clone K36/15
  • VPS35 pathogenic mutations confer no dominant toxicity but partial loss of function in Drosophila and genetically interact with parkin. 26251041

    Mutations in VPS35 (PARK17) cause autosomal dominant, late onset Parkinson's disease (PD). VPS35 forms a core component of the retromer complex that mediates the retrieval of membrane proteins from endosomes back to either the Golgi or plasma membrane. While aberrant endosomal protein sorting has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms by which VPS35 mutations and retromer function contribute to PD pathogenesis are not clear. To address this, we generated transgenic Drosophila that express variant forms of human VPS35 found in PD cases and the corresponding variants of the Drosophila ortholog. We did not find evidence of dominant toxicity from any variant form including the pathogenic D620N mutation, even with aging. However, assessing the ability of Vps35 variants to rescue multiple vps35-mutant phenotypes, we found that the D620N mutation confers a partial loss of function. Recently, VPS35 has been linked to the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles, which mediate the degradation of mitochondrial proteins and contribute to mitochondrial quality control. This process is also promoted by two other PD-lined genes parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6). We demonstrate here that vps35 genetically interacts with parkin but interestingly not with pink1. Strikingly, Vps35 overexpression is able to rescue several parkin-mutant phenotypes. Together these findings provide in vivo evidence that the D620N mutation likely confers pathogenicity through a partial loss of function mechanism and that this may be linked to other known pathogenic mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Wdr1-mediated cell shape dynamics and cortical tension are essential for epidermal planar cell polarity. 25915128

    During mouse development, core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins become polarized in the epidermal plane to guide angling/morphogenesis of hair follicles. How PCP is established is poorly understood. Here, we identify a key role for Wdr1 (also known as Aip1), an F-actin-binding protein that enhances cofilin/destrin-mediated F-actin disassembly. We show that cofilin and destrin function redundantly in developing epidermis, but their combined depletion perturbs cell adhesion, cytokinesis, apicobasal polarity and PCP. Although Wdr1 depletion accentuates single-loss-of-cofilin/destrin phenotypes, alone it resembles core PCP mutations. Seeking a mechanism, we find that Wdr1 and cofilin/destrin-mediated actomyosin remodelling are essential for generating or maintaining cortical tension within the developing epidermal sheet and driving the cell shape and planar orientation changes that accompany establishment of PCP in mammalian epidermis. Our findings suggest intriguing evolutionary parallels but mechanistic modifications to the distal wing hinge-mediated mechanical forces that drive cell shape change and orient PCP in the Drosophila wing disc.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-330
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Partitioning-defective 3 Antibody
  • Windei, the Drosophila homolog of mAM/MCAF1, is an essential cofactor of the H3K9 methyl transferase dSETDB1/Eggless in germ line development. 19750210

    The epigenetic regulation of gene expression by the covalent modification of histones is a fundamental mechanism required for the proper differentiation of germ line cells during development. Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) leads to chromatin silencing and the formation of heterochromatin by recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). dSETDB1/Eggless (Egg), the ortholog of the human methyltransferase SETDB1, is the only essential H3K9 methyltransferase in Drosophila and is required for H3K9 trimethylation in the female germ line. Here we show that Windei (Wde), the Drosophila homolog of mouse mAM and human MCAF1, is an essential cofactor of Egg required for its nuclear localization and function in female germ line cells. By deletion analysis combined with coimmunoprecipitation, we have identified the protein regions in Wde and Egg that are necessary and sufficient for the interaction between the two proteins. We furthermore identified a region of Egg that gets covalently modified by SUMOylation, which may facilitate the formation of higher order chromatin-modifying complexes. Together with Egg, Wde localizes to euchromatin, is enriched on chromosome 4, and binds to the Painting of fourth (POF) protein. Our data provide the first genetic and phenotypic analysis of a mAM/MCAF1 homolog in a model organism and demonstrate its essential function in the survival of germ line cells.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple