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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • A distinct familial presenile dementia with a novel missense mutation in the tau gene. 10208578

    We report a Japanese family with early onset hereditary frontotemporal dementia and a novel missense mutation (Ser305Asn) in the tau gene. The patients presented with personality changes followed by impaired cognition and memory as well as disorientation, but minimal Parkinsonism. Imaging studies showed fronto-temporal atrophy with ventricular dilatation more on the left, and postmortem examination of the brain revealed numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) with an unusual morphology and distribution. Silver-stained sections showed ring-shaped NFTs partially surrounding the nucleus that were most prominent in frontal, temporal, insular and postcentral cortices, as well as in dentate gyrus. Cortical NFTs were restricted primarily to layer II, and were composed of straight tubules. Numerous glial cells containing coiled bodies and abundant neuropil threads were detected in cerebral white matter, hippocampus, basal ganglia, diencephalon and brain stem, but no senile plaques or other diagnostic lesions were seen. Both the glial and neuronal tangles were stained by antibodies to phosphorylation-independent and phosphorylation-dependent epitopes in tau. Thus, this novel mutation causes a distinct familial tauopathy.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB458
  • A dynamic view of the proteomic landscape during differentiation of ReNcell VM cells, an immortalized human neural progenitor line. 30778261

    The immortalized human ReNcell VM cell line represents a reproducible and easy-to-propagate cell culture system for studying the differentiation of neural progenitors. To better characterize the starting line and its subsequent differentiation, we assessed protein and phospho-protein levels and cell morphology over a 15-day period during which ReNcell progenitors differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Five of the resulting datasets measured protein levels or states of phosphorylation based on tandem-mass-tag (TMT) mass spectrometry and four datasets characterized cellular phenotypes using high-content microscopy. Proteomic analysis revealed reproducible changes in pathways responsible for cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell phase transitions, neuronal migration, glial differentiation, neurotrophic signalling and extracellular matrix regulation. Proteomic and imaging data revealed accelerated differentiation in cells treated with the poly-selective CDK and GSK3 inhibitor kenpaullone or the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor mevastatin, both of which have previously been reported to promote neural differentiation. These data provide in-depth information on the ReNcell progenitor state and on neural differentiation in the presence and absence of drugs, setting the stage for functional studies.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A facile method to establish human induced pluripotent stem cells from adult blood cells under feeder-free and xeno-free culture conditions: a clinically compliant approa ... 25742692

    Reprogramming human adult blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) cells by transient plasmid expression is becoming increasingly popular as an attractive method for generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells without the genomic alteration caused by genome-inserting vectors. However, its efficiency is relatively low with adult MNCs compared with cord blood MNCs and other fetal cells and is highly variable among different adult individuals. We report highly efficient iPS cell derivation under clinically compliant conditions via three major improvements. First, we revised a combination of three EBNA1/OriP episomal vectors expressing five transgenes, which increased reprogramming efficiency by 10-50-fold from our previous vectors. Second, human recombinant vitronectin proteins were used as cell culture substrates, alleviating the need for feeder cells or animal-sourced proteins. Finally, we eliminated the previously critical step of manually picking individual iPS cell clones by pooling newly emerged iPS cell colonies. Pooled cultures were then purified based on the presence of the TRA-1-60 pluripotency surface antigen, resulting in the ability to rapidly expand iPS cells for subsequent applications. These new improvements permit a consistent and reliable method to generate human iPS cells with minimal clonal variations from blood MNCs, including previously difficult samples such as those from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In addition, this method of efficiently generating iPS cells under feeder-free and xeno-free conditions allows for the establishment of clinically compliant iPS cell lines for future therapeutic applications.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB4360
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-TRA-1-60 Antibody, clone TRA-1-60
  • A feedback regulatory loop involving microRNA-9 and nuclear receptor TLX in neural stem cell fate determination. 19330006

    MicroRNAs have been implicated as having important roles in stem cell biology. MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is expressed specifically in neurogenic areas of the brain and may be involved in neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. We showed previously that the nuclear receptor TLX is an essential regulator of neural stem cell self-renewal. Here we show that miR-9 suppresses TLX expression to negatively regulate neural stem cell proliferation and accelerate neural differentiation. Introducing a TLX expression vector that is not prone to miR-9 regulation rescued miR-9-induced proliferation deficiency and inhibited precocious differentiation. In utero electroporation of miR-9 in embryonic brains led to premature differentiation and outward migration of the transfected neural stem cells. Moreover, TLX represses expression of the miR-9 pri-miRNA. By forming a negative regulatory loop with TLX, miR-9 provides a model for controlling the balance between neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-371
    Product Catalog Name:
    EZ-ChIP™
  • A functional role for the histone demethylase UTX in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. 22306297

    Ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, X chromosome (UTX), an H3K27Me2/3 demethylase, has been implicated in development, self-renewal, and differentiation of various organs and embryonic stem cells through chromatin modifications and transcriptional regulation of important developmentally related genes, such as Hox genes. However, the function of UTX in hematopoiesis is not well understood. To study the role of UTX in the mammalian hematopoietic system, we used lentiviral short hairpin RNA constructs to knockdown UTX in the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line EML, in primary murine bone marrow cells and in leukemic cell lines. We report that Utx is highly expressed in the hematopoietic compartment and that it plays an important role in cell proliferation and homeostasis of hematopoietic cells in vitro. Knockdown of UTX in EML and primary murine bone marrow cells impairs their colony-forming ability. Moreover, knockdown of UTX affects expression of key genes that regulate hematopoietic differentiation such as Mll1, Runx1, and Scl in primary murine bone marrow cells. And we further demonstrate that UTX directly associates with the promoters of the Mll1, Runx1, and Scl genes and modulate their transcription by controlling H3K27me3 marks on respective promoter regions. In addition, UTX depletion severely impaired proliferation of several human leukemia cell lines. Together, these data demonstrate a functional role for UTX in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-449
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-trimethyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) Antibody
  • A functional yeast survival screen of tumor-derived cDNA libraries designed to identify anti-apoptotic mammalian oncogenes. 23717670

    Yeast cells can be killed upon expression of pro-apoptotic mammalian proteins. We have established a functional yeast survival screen that was used to isolate novel human anti-apoptotic genes overexpressed in treatment-resistant tumors. The screening of three different cDNA libraries prepared from metastatic melanoma, glioblastomas and leukemic blasts allowed for the identification of many yeast cell death-repressing cDNAs, including 28% of genes that are already known to inhibit apoptosis, 35% of genes upregulated in at least one tumor entity and 16% of genes described as both anti-apoptotic in function and upregulated in tumors. These results confirm the great potential of this screening tool to identify novel anti-apoptotic and tumor-relevant molecules. Three of the isolated candidate genes were further analyzed regarding their anti-apoptotic function in cell culture and their potential as a therapeutic target for molecular therapy. PAICS, an enzyme required for de novo purine biosynthesis, the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and the MAST2 kinase are overexpressed in certain tumor entities and capable of suppressing apoptosis in human cells. Using a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model, we also demonstrated that glioblastoma tumor growth requires MAST2 expression. An additional advantage of the yeast survival screen is its universal applicability. By using various inducible pro-apoptotic killer proteins and screening the appropriate cDNA library prepared from normal or pathologic tissue of interest, the survival screen can be used to identify apoptosis inhibitors in many different systems.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB16501
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-AIF Antibody, internal domain
  • A gene-specific role for the Ssu72 RNAPII CTD phosphatase in HIV-1 Tat transactivation. 25319827

    HIV-1 Tat stimulates transcription elongation by recruiting the P-TEFb (positive transcription elongation factor-b) (CycT1:CDK9) C-terminal domain (CTD) kinase to the HIV-1 promoter. Here we show that Tat transactivation also requires the Ssu72 CTD Ser5P (S5P)-specific phosphatase, which mediates transcription termination and intragenic looping at eukaryotic genes. Importantly, HIV-1 Tat interacts directly with Ssu72 and strongly stimulates its CTD phosphatase activity. We found that Ssu72 is essential for Tat:P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of the S5P-CTD in vitro. Interestingly, Ssu72 also stimulates nascent HIV-1 transcription in a phosphatase-dependent manner in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments reveal that Ssu72, like P-TEFb and AFF4, is recruited by Tat to the integrated HIV-1 proviral promoter in TNF-α signaling 2D10 T cells and leaves the elongation complex prior to the termination site. ChIP-seq (ChIP combined with deep sequencing) and GRO-seq (genome-wide nuclear run-on [GRO] combined with deep sequencing) analysis further reveals that Ssu72 predominantly colocalizes with S5P-RNAPII (RNA polymerase II) at promoters in human embryonic stem cells, with a minor peak in the terminator region. A few genes, like NANOG, also have high Ssu72 at the terminator. Ssu72 is not required for transcription at most cellular genes but has a modest effect on cotranscriptional termination. We conclude that Tat alters the cellular function of Ssu72 to stimulate viral gene expression and facilitate the early S5P-S2P transition at the integrated HIV-1 promoter.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    05-623
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-RNA polymerase II Antibody, clone CTD4H8
  • A generalizable strategy for imaging pre-mRNA levels in living subjects using spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing. 18552150

    Molecular imaging of gene expression is currently hindered by the lack of a generalizable platform for probe design. For any gene of interest, a probe that targets protein levels must often be generated empirically. Targeting gene expression at the level of mRNA, however, would allow probes to be built on the basis of sequence information alone. Presented here is a class of generalizable probes that can image pre-mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, using signal amplification and a facile method of delivery.Pre-trans-splicing molecules (PTMs) were engineered to capitalize on the phenomenon of spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing. Using a modular binding domain that confers specificity by base-pair complementarity to the target pre-mRNA, PTMs were designed to target a chimeric target mini gene and trans-splice the Renilla luciferase gene onto the end of the target. PTMs and target genes were transfected in cell culture and assessed by luciferase assay, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and rapid analysis of 5' cDNA ends. PTMs and target genes were also assessed in vivo by hydrodynamic delivery in mice.Efficiency and specificity of the trans-splicing reaction were found to vary depending on the binding domain length and structure. Specific trans-splicing was observed in living animals (P = 0.0862, Kruskal-Wallis test).Described here is a model system used to demonstrate the feasibility of spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing for imaging gene expression at the level of pre-mRNA using optical imaging techniques in living animals. The experiments reported here show proof of principle for a generalizable imaging probe against RNA that can amplify signal on detection and be delivered using existing gene delivery methodology.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB4400
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Renilla Luciferase Antibody, clone 5B11.2
  • A genetic approach to the recruitment of PRC2 at the HoxD locus. 24244202

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the repression of key factors during early development. In Drosophila, the polycomb repressive complexes (PRC) associate with defined polycomb response DNA elements (PREs). In mammals, however, the mechanisms underlying polycomb recruitment at targeted loci are poorly understood. We have used an in vivo approach to identify DNA sequences of importance for the proper recruitment of polycomb proteins at the HoxD locus. We report that various genomic re-arrangements of the gene cluster do not strongly affect PRC2 recruitment and that relatively small polycomb interacting sequences appear necessary and sufficient to confer polycomb recognition and targeting to ectopic loci. In addition, a high GC content, while not sufficient to recruit PRC2, may help its local spreading. We discuss the importance of PRC2 recruitment over Hox gene clusters in embryonic stem cells, for their subsequent coordinated transcriptional activation during development.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • A genome-scale RNAi screen for Oct4 modulators defines a role of the Paf1 complex for embryonic stem cell identity. 19345177

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain self-renewal while ensuring a rapid response to differentiation cues. The identification of genes maintaining ESC identity is important to develop these cells for their potential therapeutic use. Here we report a genome-scale RNAi screen for a global survey of genes affecting ESC identity via alteration of Oct4 expression. Factors with the strongest effect on Oct4 expression included components of the Paf1 complex, a protein complex associated with RNA polymerase II. Using a combination of proteomics, expression profiling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that the Paf1C binds to promoters of key pluripotency genes, where it is required to maintain a transcriptionally active chromatin structure. The Paf1C is developmentally regulated and blocks ESC differentiation upon overexpression, and the knockdown in ESCs causes expression changes similar to Oct4 or Nanog depletions. We propose that the Paf1C plays an important role in maintaining ESC identity.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-449
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-trimethyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) Antibody