Titration – Made Easy
Titration is a quantitative chemical analysis methoed to determin the unknown concentration of any substance, such as a raw material, substance or finished good. It is a widely used method that has been included in most of the key international pharmacopoeias and other regulations
Volumetric titration is not an absolute method since the result is influenced by the titration equipment, the temperature and other laboratory conditions. It is recommended to determine the titer of volumetric solutions to receive reliable and transparent results. The following points influence the titration results:
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MilliporeSigma offers a wide range of innovative reagents and solutions for titration:
|Acid-base titration||Redox titration||Precipitation titration||Complexometric titration|
|Proton transfer Acid ⇌ Base||Electron transfer Reducing agent ⇌ oxidizing agent||Sparingly soluble compounds precipitate||Ions combine with molecules or other ions forming soluble but only slightly dissociated complexes|
|Aqueous||Non – Aqueous||Two-Phase Titration|
|Solvent and titrant are aqueous, or one of them contains mainly water||Solvent and titrant contain practically no water like e.g. organic acids, alcohols, ketones, alkanes, amines||A suitable non-miscible solvent like e.g. chloroform toluene or dichloromethane is added to the aqueous sample solution|
As with all analytical procedures it is also essential with titrimetry to determine results with high accuracy. The method used must be adapted to the problem; suitable working procedures and a reproducible and traceable documentation of results must be present. It cannot be described as a whole how a quality management system for titrimetric analyses must be arranged. The respective circumstances and requirements have to be considered: who titrates what, by which means and with which accuracy? This must be documented in a traceable way. Erroneously quality management is sometimes understood as:
These not very expensive activities are, for the following reasons, only a small basis for comprehensive analytical results:
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