Key Specifications Table
|Key Applications||Pore Size||Sterility||Color Code|
|PExt, Protein Purification, Sample Prep||0.22 µm||Sterile||Yellow|
|Maximum Operating Temperature||50 °C|
|Application||0.22 µm pore size, hydrophilic PVDF, 0.5 mL volume, sterile|
|Application Notes||Fixed-angle microfuge rotor w/maximum 12,000 x g|
|Pore Size||0.22 µm|
|Centrifugal Application||Sample Clarification|
|Hold-up Volume||5 µL|
|Filtration Area||0.2 cm²|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||50 (5x10)|
Ultrafree-MC Centrifugal Filter SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|β₂-glycoprotein I: a novel component of innate immunity.|
Agar, Cetin, et al.
Blood, 117: 6939-47 (2011) 2011
Sepsis is a systemic host response to invasive infection by bacteria. Despite treatment with antibiotics, current mortality rates are in the range of 20%-25%, which makes sepsis the most important cause of death in intensive care. Gram-negative bacteria are a prominent cause of sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the major constituents of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a major role in activating the host's immune response by binding to monocytes and other cells. Several proteins are involved in neutralization and clearance of LPS from the bloodstream. Here, we provide evidence that β₂-glycoprotein I (β₂GPI) is a scavenger of LPS. In vitro, β₂GPI inhibited LPS-induced expression of tissue factor and IL-6 from monocytes and endothelial cells. Binding of β₂GPI to LPS caused a conformational change in β₂GPI that led to binding of the β₂GPI-LPS complex to monocytes and ultimately clearance of this complex. Furthermore, plasma levels of β₂GPI were inversely correlated with temperature rise and the response of inflammatory markers after a bolus injection of LPS in healthy individuals. Together, these observations provide evidence that β₂GPI is involved in the neutralization and clearance of LPS and identify β₂GPI as a component of innate immunity.
|Beta2-glycoprotein I can exist in 2 conformations: implications for our understanding of the antiphospholipid syndrome.|
Agar, Cetin, et al.
Blood, 116: 1336-43 (2010) 2010
The antiphospholipid syndrome is defined by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in blood of patients with thrombosis or fetal loss. There is ample evidence that beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is the major antigen for antiphospholipid antibodies. The autoantibodies recognize beta(2)GPI when bound to anionic surfaces and not in solution. We showed that beta(2)GPI can exist in at least 2 different conformations: a circular plasma conformation and an "activated" open conformation. We also showed that the closed, circular conformation is maintained by interaction between the first and fifth domain of beta(2)GPI. By changing pH and salt concentration, we were able to convert the conformation of beta(2)GPI from the closed to the open conformation and back. In the activated open conformation, a cryptic epitope in the first domain becomes exposed that enables patient antibodies to bind and form an antibody-beta(2)GPI complex. We also demonstrate that the open conformation of beta(2)GPI prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time when added to normal plasma, whereas the activated partial thromboplastin time is further prolonged by addition of anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies. The conformational change of beta(2)GPI, and the influence of the autoantibodies may have important consequences for our understanding of the antiphospholipid syndrome.
|Ultrafree®-MC and -CL Centrifugal Filter Devices User Guide|