|Replacement Information||INCP 000 10 (Protein Applications)|
Key Specifications Table
|Detection method||Chemiluminescence Chromogenic Radioactive|
|Application||1 roll, 26.5 cm x 3.75 m, 0.45 µm pore size, Hydrophobic PVDF Transfer Membrane for western blotting.|
|Primary Binding Mechanisms||Electrostatic, hydrophobic|
|BSA Adsorption||215 µg/cm²|
|Goat IgG Adsorption||294 µg/cm²|
|Insulin Adsorption||160 µg/cm²|
|Pore Size||0.45 µm|
|Filter Dimensions||26.5 cm x 3.75 m|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
Immobilon-P PVDF Membrane SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Remodeling of VE-cadherin junctions by the human herpes virus 8 G-protein coupled receptor.|
Dwyer, J, et al.
Oncogene, 30: 190-200 (2011) 2011
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) are opportunistic tumors, associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection. KS development is highly favored by immune-depression and remains the second most frequent tumor in acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. Although it has been shown that experimental expression of the HHV8 G-protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) in the endothelial compartment is alone sufficient to recapitulate the formation and progression of KS-like lesions, its functional effects on endothelial homeostasis are not fully understood. Here we show that vGPCR expression in endothelial cells induces an increase in paracellular permeability both in vivo and in vitro. By using pharmacological inhibitors and small interference RNA-based knockdown, we demonstrate an essential role for the PI(3)Kinase-γ/Rac nexus in vGPCR-mediated permeability. This was further accompanied by dramatic remodeling of VE-cadherin-dependent cell-cell junctions. Importantly, this in vitro vGPCR-initiated signaling signature was observed in a large panel of human KS. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that endothelial vGPCR signaling is co-opted in KS, and unveil new key cellular targets for therapeutic intervention.
|A CD36-dependent pathway enhances macrophage and adipose tissue inflammation and impairs insulin signalling.|
Kennedy, David J, et al.
Cardiovasc. Res., 89: 604-13 (2011) 2011
Obesity and hyperlipidaemia are associated with insulin resistance (IR); however, the mechanisms responsible remain incompletely understood. Pro-atherogenic hyperlipidaemic states are characterized by inflammation, oxidant stress, and pathophysiologic oxidized lipids, including ligands for the scavenger receptor CD36. Here we tested the hypothesis that the absence of CD36 protects mice from IR associated with diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidaemia.
|Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell senescence is a pathogenic mechanism for pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung disease.|
Noureddine, Hibo, et al.
Circ. Res., 109: 543-53 (2011) 2011
Rationale: Senescence of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs) caused by telomere shortening or oxidative stress may contribute to pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases. Objective: To investigate whether cell senescence contributes to pulmonary vessel remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and Results: In 124 patients with COPD investigated by right heart catheterization, we found a negative correlation between leukocyte telomere length and pulmonary hypertension severity. In-depth investigations of lung vessels and derived cultured PA-SMCs showed greater severity of remodeling and increases in senescent p16-positive and p21-positive PA-SMCs and proliferating Ki67-stained cells in 14 patients with COPD compared to 13 age-matched and sex-matched control subjects who smoke. Cultured PA-SMCs from COPD patients displayed accelerated senescence, with fewer cell population doublings, an increased percentage of β-galactosidase-positive cells, shorter telomeres, and higher p16 protein levels at an early cell passage compared to PA-SMCs from controls. Both in situ and in vitro PA-SMC senescence criteria correlated closely with the degree of pulmonary vessel wall hypertrophy. Because senescent PA-SMCs stained for p16 and p21 were virtually confined to the media near the Ki67-positive cells, which predominated in the neointima and hypertrophied media, we evaluated whether senescent cells affected normal PA-SMC functions. We found that senescent PA-SMCs stimulated the growth and migration of normal target PA-SMCs through the production and release of paracrine soluble and insoluble factors. Conclusion: PA-SMC senescence is an important contributor to the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling that underlies pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung disease.
|Effects of HIV protease inhibitors on progression of monocrotaline- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.|
Gary-Bobo, Guillaume, et al.
Circulation, 122: 1937-47 (2010) 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is among the complications of HIV infection. Combination antiretroviral therapy may influence the progression of HIV-related PH. Because Akt signaling is a potential molecular target of HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs), we hypothesized that these drugs altered monocrotaline- and hypoxia-induced PH in rats by downregulating the Akt pathway, thereby inhibiting pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.
|Novel irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors by chemical modulation of the cysteine-trap portion.|
Carmi, Caterina, et al.
J. Med. Chem., 53: 2038-50 (2010) 2010
Irreversible EGFR inhibitors can circumvent acquired resistance to first-generation reversible, ATP-competitive inhibitors in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. They contain both a driver group, which assures target recognition, and a warhead, generally an acrylamide or propargylamide fragment that binds covalently to Cys797 within the kinase domain of EGFR. We performed a systematic exploration of the role for the warhead group, introducing different cysteine-trapping fragments at position 6 of a traditional 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold. We found that different reactive groups, including epoxyamides (compounds 3-6) and phenoxyacetamides (compounds 7-9), were able to irreversibly inhibit EGFR. In particular, at significant lower concentrations than gefitinib (1), (2R,3R)-N-(4-(3-bromoanilino)quinazolin-6-yl)-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)oxirane-2-carboxamide (6) inhibited EGFR autophosphorylation and downstream signaling pathways, suppressed proliferation, and induced apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC H1975 cells, harboring the T790M mutation in EGFR.
|Biochemical and functional properties of distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the superior cervical ganglion of mice with targeted deletions of nAChR subunit genes.|
David, Reinhard, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 31: 978-93 (2010) 2010
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system. Here, we determined the subunit composition of hetero-pentameric nAChRs in the mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the function of distinct receptors (obtained by deletions of nAChR subunit genes) and mechanisms at the level of nAChRs that might compensate for the loss of subunits. As shown by immunoprecipitation and Western blots, wild-type (WT) mice expressed: alpha 3 beta 4 (55%), alpha 3 beta 4 alpha 5 (24%) and alpha 3 beta 4 beta 2 (21%) nAChRs. nAChRs in beta 4 knockout (KO) mice were reduced to < 15% of controls and no longer contained the alpha 5 subunit. Compound action potentials, recorded from the postganglionic (internal carotid) nerve and induced by preganglionic nerve stimulation, did not differ between alpha 5 beta 4 KO and WT mice, suggesting that the reduced number of receptors in the KO mice did not impair transganglionic transmission. Deletions of alpha 5 or beta2 did not affect the overall number of receptors and we found no evidence that the two subunits substitute for each other. In addition, dual KOs allowed us to study the functional properties of distinct alpha 3 beta4 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors that have previously only been investigated in heterologous expression systems. The two receptors strikingly differed in the decay of macroscopic currents, the efficacy of cytisine, and their responses to the alpha-conotoxins AuIB and MII. Our data, based on biochemical and functional experiments and several mouse KO models, clarify and significantly extend previous observations on the function of nAChRs in heterologous systems and the SCG.
|Parp1 facilitates alternative NHEJ, whereas Parp2 suppresses IgH/c-myc translocations during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.|
Robert, Isabelle, et al.
J. Exp. Med., 206: 1047-56 (2009) 2009
Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by DNA breaks triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). These breaks activate DNA damage response proteins to promote appropriate repair and long-range recombination. Aberrant processing of these breaks, however, results in decreased CSR and/or increased frequency of illegitimate recombination between the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus and oncogenes like c-myc. Here, we have examined the contribution of the DNA damage sensors Parp1 and Parp2 in the resolution of AID-induced DNA breaks during CSR. We find that although Parp enzymatic activity is induced in an AID-dependent manner during CSR, neither Parp1 nor Parp2 are required for CSR. We find however, that Parp1 favors repair of switch regions through a microhomology-mediated pathway and that Parp2 actively suppresses IgH/c-myc translocations. Thus, we define Parp1 as facilitating alternative end-joining and Parp2 as a novel translocation suppressor during CSR.
|Interactions between Brucella suis VirB8 and its homolog TraJ from the plasmid pSB102 underline the dynamic nature of type IV secretion systems.|
Bourg, Gisèle, et al.
J. Bacteriol., 191: 2985-92 (2009) 2009
The proteinVirB8 plays a critical role in the assembly and function of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB type IV secretion system (T4SS). The structure of the periplasmic domain of both A. tumefaciens and Brucella suis VirB8 has been determined, and site-directed mutagenesis has revealed amino acids involved in the dimerization of VirB8 and interactions with VirB4 and VirB10. We have shown previously that TraJ, the VirB8 homologue from pSB102, and the chimeric protein TraJB8, encompassing the cytoplasmic and transmembrane (TM) domains of TraJ and the periplasmic domain of VirB8, were unable to complement a B. suis mutant containing an in-frame deletion of the virB8 gene. This suggested that the presence of the TraJ cytoplasmic and TM domains could block VirB8 dimerization or assembly in the inner membrane. By bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we found that VirB8, TraJ, and the chimeras can all interact to form both homo- and heterodimers. However, the presence of the TM domain of TraJ resulted in much stronger interactions in both the homo- and heterodimers. We expressed the wild-type and chimeric proteins in wild-type B. suis. The presence of proteins carrying the TM domain of TraJ had a dominant negative effect, leading to complete loss of virulence. This suggests that the T4SS is a dynamic structure and that strong interactions block the spatial flexibility required for correct assembly and function.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|
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|Antibody recovery and reuse in the SNAP i.d.® 2.0 immunodetection system|
|Protein Blotting Handbook: 6th Edition (MilliporeSigma)|
|Protein Dot Blotting using Immobilon-P|
|Immobilon Transfer Membranes: For superior protein and nucleic acid blots|
|Immobilon -P Blotting Sandwiches|
|Immobilon®-P Transfer Membrane User Guide|
|Re-Blot Plus Western Blot Recycling Kit|