|Presentation||Purified goat IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase in buffer containing 0.01M PBS, PH7.1, with 15mg/mL BSA. Lyophilized.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||2 mL|
Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody, Peroxidase Conjugated, H+L SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Impacts of autophagy-inducing ingredient of areca nut on tumor cells.|
Yen, CY; Chiang, WF; Liu, SY; Lin, CC; Liao, KA; Lin, CY; Hsieh, WF; Cheng, YC; Hsu, KC; Lin, PY; Chen, TC; Lee, IL; Lin, MH; Liu, YC
PloS one 10 e0128011 2015
Areca nut (AN) is a popular carcinogen used by about 0.6-1.2 billion people worldwide. Although AN contains apoptosis-inducing ingredients, we previously demonstrated that both AN extract (ANE) and its 30-100 kDa fraction (ANE 30-100K) predominantly induce autophagic cell death in both normal and malignant cells. In this study, we further explored the action mechanism of ANE 30-100K-induced autophagy (AIA) in Jurkat T lymphocytes and carcinoma cell lines including OECM-1 (mouth), CE81T/VGH (esophagus), SCC25 (tongue), and SCC-15 (tongue). The results showed that chemical- and small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) resulted in the attenuation of AIA in Jurkat T but not in OECM-1 cells. Knockdown of Atg5 and Beclin 1 expressions ameliorated AIA in OECM-1/CE81T/VGH/Jurkat T and OECM-1/SCC25/SCC-15, respectively. Furthermore, ANE 30-100K could activate caspase-3 after inhibition of Beclin 1 expression in OECM-1/SCC25/SCC15 cells. Meanwhile, AMPK was demonstrated to be the upstream activator of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in Jurkat T cells, and inhibition of MEK attenuated AIA in Jurkat T/OECM-1/CE81T/VGH cells. Finally, we also found that multiple myeloma RPMI8226, lymphoma U937, and SCC15 cells survived from long-term non-cytotoxic ANE 30-100K treatment exhibited stronger resistance against serum deprivation through upregulated autophagy. Collectively, our studies indicate that Beclin-1 and Atg5 but not AMPK are commonly required for AIA, and MEK/ERK pathway is involved in AIA. Meanwhile, it is also suggested that long-term AN usage might increase the resistance of survived tumor cells against serum-limited conditions.
|Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.|
Chuang, WL; Su, CC; Lin, PY; Lin, CC; Chen, YL
Molecular medicine reports 12 1677-84 2015
Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.
|Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4) is highly expressed in human melanoma tissues and may function to restrict normal differentiation of melanoma cells.|
Peretz, Y; Wu, H; Patel, S; Bellacosa, A; Katz, RA
PloS one 10 e0116839 2015
Melanoma tissues and cell lines are heterogeneous, and include cells with invasive, proliferative, stem cell-like, and differentiated properties. Such heterogeneity likely contributes to the aggressiveness of the disease and resistance to therapy. One model suggests that heterogeneity arises from rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) that produce distinct cancer cell lineages. Another model suggests that heterogeneity arises through reversible cellular plasticity, or phenotype-switching. Recent work indicates that phenotype-switching may include the ability of cancer cells to dedifferentiate to a stem cell-like state. We set out to investigate the phenotype-switching capabilities of melanoma cells, and used unbiased methods to identify genes that may control such switching. We developed a system to reversibly synchronize melanoma cells between 2D-monolayer and 3D-stem cell-like growth states. Melanoma cells maintained in the stem cell-like state showed a striking upregulation of a gene set related to development and neural stem cell biology, which included SRY-box 2 (SOX2) and Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4). A gene set related to cancer cell motility and invasiveness was concomitantly downregulated. Intense and pervasive ID4 protein expression was detected in human melanoma tissue samples, suggesting disease relevance for this protein. SiRNA knockdown of ID4 inhibited switching from monolayer to 3D-stem cell-like growth, and instead promoted switching to a highly differentiated, neuronal-like morphology. We suggest that ID4 is upregulated in melanoma as part of a stem cell-like program that facilitates further adaptive plasticity. ID4 may contribute to disease by preventing stem cell-like melanoma cells from progressing to a normal differentiated state. This interpretation is guided by the known role of ID4 as a differentiation inhibitor during normal development. The melanoma stem cell-like state may be protected by factors such as ID4, thereby potentially identifying a new therapeutic vulnerability to drive differentiation to the normal cell phenotype.
|Hey bHLH Proteins Interact with a FBXO45 Containing SCF Ubiquitin Ligase Complex and Induce Its Translocation into the Nucleus.|
Salat, D; Winkler, A; Urlaub, H; Gessler, M
PloS one 10 e0130288 2015
The Hey protein family, comprising Hey1, Hey2 and HeyL in mammals, conveys Notch signals in many cell types. The helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain as well as the Orange domain, mediate homo- and heterodimerization of these transcription factors. Although distinct interaction partners have been identified so far, their physiological relevance for Hey functions is still largely unclear. Using a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry analysis we identified members of an ubiquitin E3-ligase complex consisting of FBXO45, PAM and SKP1 as novel Hey1 associated proteins. There is a direct interaction between Hey1 and FBXO45, whereas FBXO45 is needed to mediate indirect Hey1 binding to SKP1. Expression of Hey1 induces translocation of FBXO45 and PAM into the nucleus. Hey1 is a short-lived protein that is degraded by the proteasome, but there is no evidence for FBXO45-dependent ubiquitination of Hey1. On the contrary, Hey1 mediated nuclear translocation of FBXO45 and its associated ubiquitin ligase complex may extend its spectrum to additional nuclear targets triggering their ubiquitination. This suggests a novel mechanism of action for Hey bHLH factors.
|The role of CXC-chemokine receptor CXCR2 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in renal cell carcinoma.|
Stofas, A; Levidou, G; Piperi, C; Adamopoulos, C; Dalagiorgou, G; Bamias, A; Karadimou, A; Lainakis, GA; Papadoukakis, S; Stravodimos, K; Dimopoulos, MA; Patsouris, E; Gakiopoulou, H; Korkolopoulou, P
BMC cancer 14 149 2014
Chemokine receptor signaling pathways are implicated in the pathobiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the clinical relevance of CXCR2 receptor, mediating the effects of all angiogenic chemokines, remains unclear. SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling)-3 is a negative regulator of cytokine-driven responses, contributing to interferon-α resistance commonly used to treat advanced RCC with limited information regarding its expression in RCC.In this study, CXCR2 and SOCS-3 were immunohistochemically investigated in 118 RCC cases in relation to interleukin (IL)-6 and (IL)-8, their downstream transducer phosphorylated (p-)STAT-3, and VEGF expression, being further correlated with microvascular characteristics, clinicopathological features and survival. In 30 cases relationships with hypoxia-inducible factors, i.e. HIF-1a, p53 and NF-κΒ (p65/RelA) were also examined. Validation of immunohistochemistry and further investigation of downstream transducers, p-JAK2 and p-c-Jun were evaluated by Western immunoblotting in 5 cases.Both CXCR2 and IL-8 were expressed by the neoplastic cells their levels being interrelated. CXCR2 strongly correlated with the levels of HIF-1a, p53 and p65/RelA in the neoplastic cells. Although SOCS-3 was simultaneously expressed with p-STAT-3, its levels tended to show an inverse relationship with p-JAK-2 and p-c-Jun in Western blots and were positively correlated with HIF-1a, p53 and p65/p65/RelA expression. Neither CXCR2 nor SOCS-3 correlated with the extent of microvascular network. IL-8 and CXCR2 expression was associated with high grade, advanced stage and the presence/number of metastases but only CXCR2 adversely affected survival in univariate analysis. Elevated SOCS-3 expression was associated with progression, the presence/number of metastasis and shortened survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis.Our findings implicate SOCS-3 overexpression in RCC metastasis and biologic aggressiveness advocating its therapeutic targeting. IL-8/CXCR2 signaling also contributes to the metastatic phenotype of RCC cells but appears of lesser prognostic utility. Both CXCR2 and SOCS-3 appear to be related to transcription factors induced under hypoxia.
|Spatio-temporal expression and functional involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in diabetic mechanical allodynia in rats.|
Cui, YY; Xu, H; Wu, HH; Qi, J; Shi, J; Li, YQ
PloS one 9 e102052 2014
Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP.
|Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumour growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer through binding to SFPQ and releasing oncogene PTBP2 from SFPQ/PTBP2 complex.|
Ji, Q; Zhang, L; Liu, X; Zhou, L; Wang, W; Han, Z; Sui, H; Tang, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, N; Ren, J; Hou, F; Li, Q
British journal of cancer 111 736-48 2014
Metastasis associated with lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) is a functional long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which is highly expressed in several tumours, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Its biological function and mechanism in the prognosis of human CRC is still largely under investigation.This study aimed to investigate the new effect mechanism of MALAT1 on the proliferation and migration of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo, and detect the expression of MALAT1, SFPQ (also known as PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor)), and PTBP2 (also known as PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein)) in CRC tumour tissues, followed by correlated analysis with clinicopathological parameters.We found that overexpression of MALAT1 could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and promote tumour growth and metastasis in nude mice. The underlying mechanism was associated with tumour suppressor gene SFPQ and proto-oncogene PTBP2. In CRC, MALAT1 could bind to SFPQ, thus releasing PTBP2 from the SFPQ/PTBP2 complex. In turn, the increased SFPQ-detached PTBP2 promoted cell proliferation and migration. SFPQ critically mediated the regulatory effects of MALAT1. Moreover, in CRC tissues, MALAT1 and PTBP2 were overexpressed, both of which were associated closely with the invasion and metastasis of CRC. However, the SFPQ showed unchanged expression either in CRC tissues or adjacent normal tissues.Our findings implied that MALAT1 might be a potential predictor for tumour metastasis and prognosis. Furthermore, the interaction between MALAT1 and SFPQ could be a novel therapeutic target for CRC.
|Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development.|
Sato, S; Yamamoto, H; Mukaisho, K; Saito, S; Hattori, T; Yamamoto, G; Sugihara, H
PloS one 9 e88831 2014
Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA) exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression.A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR) was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration.Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells.
|Extensive post-translational modification of active and inactivated forms of endogenous p53.|
DeHart, CJ; Chahal, JS; Flint, SJ; Perlman, DH
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 13 1-17 2014
The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates to very high concentrations in normal human fibroblasts infected by adenovirus type 5 mutants that cannot direct assembly of the viral E1B 55-kDa protein-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. Despite high concentrations of nuclear p53, the p53 transcriptional program is not induced in these infected cells. We exploited this system to examine select post-translational modifications (PTMs) present on a transcriptionally inert population of endogenous human p53, as well as on p53 activated in response to etoposide treatment of normal human fibroblasts. These forms of p53 were purified from whole cell lysates by means of immunoaffinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, and peptides derived from them were subjected to nano-ultra-high-performance LC-MS and MS/MS analyses on a high-resolution accurate-mass MS platform (data available via ProteomeXchange, PXD000464). We identified an unexpectedly large number of PTMs, comprising phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues, methylation of Arg residues, and acetylation, ubiquitinylation, and methylation of Lys residues-for example, some 150 previously undescribed modifications of p53 isolated from infected cells. These modifications were distributed across all functional domains of both forms of the endogenous human p53 protein, as well as those of an orthologous population of p53 isolated from COS-1 cells. Despite the differences in activity, including greater in vitro sequence-specific DNA binding activity exhibited by p53 isolated from etoposide-treated cells, few differences were observed in the location, nature, or relative frequencies of PTMs on the two populations of human p53. Indeed, the wealth of PTMs that we have identified is consistent with a far greater degree of complex, combinatorial regulation of p53 by PTM than previously anticipated.
|Dengue virus infection induces autophagy: an in vivo study.|
Lee, YR; Hu, HY; Kuo, SH; Lei, HY; Lin, YS; Yeh, TM; Liu, CC; Liu, HS
Journal of biomedical science 20 65 2013
We and others have reported that autophagy is induced by dengue viruses (DVs) in various cell lines, and that it plays a supportive role in DV replication. This study intended to clarify whether DV infection could induce autophagy in vivo. Furthermore, the effect of DV induced autophagy on viral replication and DV-related pathogenesis was investigated.The physiopathological parameters were evaluated after DV2 was intracranially injected into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. Autophagy-related markers were monitored by immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. Double-membrane autophagic vesicles were investigated by transmission-electron-microscopy. DV non-structural-protein-1 (NS1) expression (indicating DV infection) was detected in the cerebrum, medulla and midbrain of the infected mice. In these infected tissues, increased LC3 puncta formation, LC3-II expression, double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles (autophagosome), amphisome, and decreased p62 accumulation were observed, indicating that DV2 induces the autophagic progression in vivo. Amphisome formation was demonstrated by colocalization of DV2-NS1 protein or LC3 puncta and mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR, endosome marker) in DV2-infected brain tissues. We further manipulated DV-induced autophagy by the inducer rapamycin and the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA), which accordingly promoted or suppressed the disease symptoms and virus load in the brain of the infected mice.We demonstrated that DV2 infection of the suckling mice induces autophagy, which plays a promoting role in DV replication and pathogenesis.
|User Guide Immobilon® GO for Simple Immunodetection|