Key Specifications Table
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Glucagon||H, M, R||RIA||Radioactive 125I|
|Detection method||Radioactive 125I|
|Standard Curve Range||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||250 tubes|
|Glucagon Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Kit|
Glucagon RIA SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives.|
Mirella Vivoli,Thomas R Caulfield,Karina Martínez-Mayorga,Alan T Johnson,Guan-Sheng Jiao,Iris Lindberg
Molecular pharmacology 81 2012
The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes.
|Beneficial effects of exendin-4 on experimental polyneuropathy in diabetic mice.|
Himeno, T; Kamiya, H; Naruse, K; Harada, N; Ozaki, N; Seino, Y; Shibata, T; Kondo, M; Kato, J; Okawa, T; Fukami, A; Hamada, Y; Inagaki, N; Seino, Y; Drucker, DJ; Oiso, Y; Nakamura, J
Diabetes 60 2397-406 2011
The therapeutic potential of exendin-4, an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was investigated.The presence of the GLP-1R in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analyses. DRG neurons were dissected from C57BL6/J mice and cultured with or without Schwann cell-conditioned media in the presence or absence of GLP-1 (7-37) or exendin-4. Then neurite outgrowth was determined. In animal-model experiments, mice were made diabetic by STZ administration, and after 12 weeks of diabetes, exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg) was intraperitoneally administered once daily for 4 weeks. Peripheral nerve function was determined by the current perception threshold and motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (MNCV and SNCV, respectively). Sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF) and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities (IENFDs) also were evaluated.The expression of the GLP-1R in DRG neurons was confirmed. GLP-1 (7-37) and exendin-4 significantly promoted neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons. Both GLP-1R agonists accelerated the impaired neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons cultured with Schwann cell-conditioned media that mimicked the diabetic condition. At the doses used, exendin-4 had no effect on blood glucose or HbA(1c) levels. Hypoalgesia and delayed MNCV and SNCV in diabetic mice were improved by exendin-4 without affecting the reduced SNBF. The decreased IENFDs in sole skins of diabetic mice were ameliorated by exendin-4.Our findings indicate that exendin-4 ameliorates the severity of DPN, which may be achieved by its direct actions on DRG neurons and their axons.
|Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 attenuates the glycaemic response to postpyloric nutrient infusion in critically ill patients with type-2 diabetes.|
Adam M Deane,Matthew J Summers,Antony V Zaknic,Marianne J Chapman,Robert J L Fraser,Anna E Di Bartolomeo,Judith M Wishart,Michael Horowitz
Critical care (London, England) 15 2011
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) attenuates the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient infusion in stress-induced hyperglycaemia and reduces fasting glucose concentrations in critically ill patients with type-2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute administration of GLP-1 on the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient infusion in critically ill patients with pre-existing type-2 diabetes.Full Text Article
|Melatonin stimulates glucagon secretion in vitro and in vivo.|
Ina Bähr,Eckhard Mühlbauer,Helena Schucht,Elmar Peschke
Journal of pineal research 50 2011
Recent investigations have demonstrated that melatonin influences carbohydrate metabolism mediated by insulin-inhibiting effects on pancreatic ?-cells. This study evaluated whether melatonin has also an effect on pancreatic ?-cells and glucagon expression as well as the glucagon secretion in vitro and in vivo. Glucagon-producing pancreatic ?-cell line ?TC1 clone 9 (?TC1.9) was used, which was characterized as an appropriate model with glucose responsiveness and expression of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The results demonstrate that melatonin incubation significantly enhanced the expression as well as the secretion of glucagon. These effects appeared to be more pronounced under hyperglycemic conditions compared to basal glucose concentrations. Notably, in vivo studies demonstrated that long-term oral melatonin administration led to significantly elevated plasma glucagon concentrations in Wistar rats. In contrast, plasma glucagon levels were found to be slightly decreased in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Moreover, investigations measuring the relative glucagon receptor mRNA expression showed marked differences in the liver of melatonin-substituted rats as well as in melatonin receptor knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings revealed evidence that melatonin influences pancreatic glucagon expression and secretion as well as the peripheral glucagon action.
|Dynamic modulation of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2)-mediated precursor processing by 7B2 protein: preferential effect on glucagon synthesis.|
Michael Helwig,Sang-Nam Lee,Jae Ryoung Hwang,Akihiko Ozawa,Juan F Medrano,Iris Lindberg
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 2011
The small neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for the production of active prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of peptide hormones, such as glucagon and proopiomelanocortin-derived ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. However, whether 7B2 can dynamically modulate peptide production through regulation of PC2 activity remains unclear. Infection of the pancreatic alpha cell line ?-TC6 with 7B2-encoding adenovirus efficiently increased production of glucagon, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of 7B2 significantly decreased stored glucagon. Furthermore, rescue of 7B2 expression in primary pituitary cultures prepared from 7B2 null mice restored melanocyte-stimulating hormone production, substantiating the role of 7B2 as a regulatory factor in peptide biosynthesis. In anterior pituitary and pancreatic beta cell lines, however, overexpression of 7B2 affected neither production nor secretion of peptides despite increased release of active PC2. In direct contrast, 7B2 overexpression decreased the secretion and increased the activity of PC2 within ?-TC6 cells; the increased intracellular concentration of active PC2 within these cells may therefore account for the enhanced production of glucagon. In line with these findings, we found elevated circulating glucagon levels in 7B2-overexpressing cast/cast mice in vivo. Surprisingly, when proopiomelanocortin and proglucagon were co-expressed in either pituitary or pancreatic alpha cell lines, proglucagon processing was preferentially decreased when 7B2 was knocked down. Taken together, these results suggest that proglucagon cleavage has a greater dependence on PC2 activity than other precursors and moreover that 7B2-dependent routing of PC2 to secretory granules is cell line-specific. The manipulation of 7B2 could therefore represent an effective way to selectively regulate synthesis of certain PC2-dependent peptides.
|Palmitate affects insulin receptor phosphorylation and intracellular insulin signal in a pancreatic alpha-cell line.|
Piro, Salvatore, et al.
Endocrinology, 151: 4197-206 (2010) 2010
This study investigated in a pancreatic alpha-cell line the effects of chronic exposure to palmitate on the insulin and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and intracellular insulin pathways. alpha-TC1-6 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of palmitate (0.5 mmol/liter) up to 48 h. Glucagon secretion, insulin and IGF-IR autophosphorylation, and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2, phosphatidylinositol kinase (PI3K) (p85 alpha), and serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylated (active) forms were measured. Erk 44/42 and p38 phosphorylation (P) (MAPK pathway markers) were also measured. Because MAPK can regulate Pax6, a transcription factor that controls glucagon expression, paired box gene 6 (Pax6) and glucagon gene and protein expression were also measured. Basal glucagon secretion was increased and the inhibitory effect of acute insulin exposure reduced in alpha-TC1 cells cultured with palmitate. Insulin-stimulated insulin receptor phosphorylation was greatly reduced by exposure to palmitate. Similar results were observed with IRS-1-P, PI3K (p85 alpha), and Akt-P. In contrast, with IGF-IR and IRS-2-P, the basal levels (i.e. in the absence of insulin stimulation) were higher in cells cultured with palmitate. Similar data were obtained with Erk 44/42-P and p-38-P. Pax6 and glucagon gene and protein expression were higher in cells cultured with palmitate. In these cells cultured, specifics MAPKs inhibitors were able to reduce both Pax6 and glucagon gene and protein expression. These results indicate that alpha-cells exposed to palmitate show insulin resistance of the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway that likely controls glucagon secretion. In contrast, the IRS-2/MAPKs pathway is stimulated, through an activation of the IGF-IR, leading to increased Pax6 and glucagon expression. Our data support the hypothesis that the chronic elevation of fatty acids contribute to alpha-cell dysregulation frequently observed in type 2 diabetes.
|Chronic social defeat stress disrupts regulation of lipid synthesis.|
JC Chuang, H Cui, BL Mason, M Mahgoub, AL Bookout, HG Yu, M Perello, JK Elmquist, JJ Repa, JM Zigman, M Lutter
Journal of lipid research 2010
Background: Several psychiatric disorders increase the risk of cardiovascular disease including post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression. While the precise mechanism for this association has not yet been established, it has been shown that certain disorders promote an unfavorable lipid profile.Methods: In order to study the interaction of stress and lipid dysregulation, we utilized chronic social defeat stress, a mouse model of chronic stress with features of post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression. Following exposure to CSDS, mice were given access to either regular chow or a western style diet high in fat and cholesterol (HFD). Results: The combination of social stress and HFD resulted in significant perturbations in lipid regulation including two key features of the metabolic syndrome: increased plasma levels of non-HDL cholesterol and intra-hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. These effects were accompanied by a number of changes in the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid regulation. Transcriptional activity of LXR, SREBP1c, SREBP2, and ChREBP were significantly affected by exposure to HFD and CSDS. Conclusions: We present CSDS as a model of social stress induced lipid dysregulation and propose that social stress alters lipid metabolism by increasing transcriptional activity of genes involved in lipid synthesis.,
|Performance and metabolic and endocrine changes with emphasis on glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows with high and low fat content in liver after calving.|
H M Hammon, G Stürmer, F Schneider, A Tuchscherer, H Blum, T Engelhard, A Genzel, R Staufenbiel, W Kanitz
Journal of dairy science 92 1554-66 2009
Elevated liver fat content occurs in high-yielding dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation after fat mobilization and may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, but the degree of liver fat storage is highly variable. Therefore, we studied metabolic and endocrine changes and hepatic glucose metabolism in cows that markedly differ in liver fat content. Multiparous cows from the same herd with high (HFL; n = 10) and low (LFL; n = 10) liver fat contents (mean of d 1, 10, and 21 after calving for each cow, respectively) were studied from 60 d before expected calving to 56 d in milk. Cows were fed ad libitum and all cows received the same diets. Liver samples were taken on d 1, 10, and 21 after calving; mean fat content (+/-SEM) in liver of HFL cows was 174 +/- 9.6 mg/g, whereas mean liver fat content in LFL cows was 77 +/- 3.3 mg/g. Blood samples were taken 20 and 7 d before expected calving and 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d after calving to measure plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor-I, and leptin. In liver, glycogen content as well as mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose transporter were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Back fat thickness decreased and dry matter intake increased with onset of lactation, and back fat thickness was higher but dry matter intake was lower in HFL than in LFL. Energy-corrected milk yield did not differ between groups, but milk fat content was higher and lactose content was lower in HFL than LFL at the beginning of lactation. Energy balance was more negative in HFL than in LFL. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased and plasma glucose concentration tended to decrease more in HFL than LFL with onset of lactation. Glucagon to insulin ratios increased more in HFL than LFL with onset of lactation. Hepatic glycogen content was higher in LFL than HFL, whereas mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase were higher in HFL than in LFL, and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA level increased similarly after parturition in both groups. In conclusion, an elevated liver fat content was related to greater fat mobilization and reduced feed intake and was associated with effects on hepatic glucose metabolism. As environment and feeding management were the same, individual cow factors were responsible for differences in energy metabolism during the transition period.
|Insulinostatic activity of cerebellin--evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies in rats.|
Strowski MZ, Kaczmarek P, Mergler S, Wiedenmann B, Domin D, Szwajkowski P, Wojciechowicz T, Skrzypski M, Szczepankiewicz D, Szkudelski T, Rucinski M, Malendowicz LK, Nowak KW
Regulatory peptides 157 19-24 2009
Cerebellin (CER) is a neuromodulatory hexadecapeptide that originates from the precursor protein precerebellin (Cbln1). Four highly homologous isoforms of Cbln are known (Cbln1-Cbln4), which are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral tissues. CER modulates synaptic structure formation in the CNS, whereas in the peripheral tissues CER regulates catecholamine secretion. Cbln is also expressed in the pancreas; however, its function in the pancreas is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the role of CER in regulating insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro. We identified Cbln1 and Cbln3 transcripts in rat pancreatic islets and detected Cbln-immunoreactivity, predominantly located in the periphery of the rat endocrine pancreas. In vivo, CER reduced plasma insulin levels in rats after 1 and 2 h. CER decreased insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreatic islets at high (11 mM), but not at low (3.33 mM) glucose concentration. CER inhibited stimulated insulin secretion from clonal rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells, reduced forskolin-induced production of cAMP and intracellular calcium concentration. Our study demonstrates for the first time that Cbln1 and Cbln3 are expressed in the rat endocrine pancreas. Furthermore, we identify CER as an insulinostatic factor, which decreases intracellular cAMP production and calcium in INS-1 cells.
|Impact of Sur1 gene inactivation on the morphology of mouse pancreatic endocrine tissue.|
Ihsane Marhfour, Pierre Moulin, Joëlle Marchandise, Jacques Rahier, Christine Sempoux, Yves Guiot
Cell and tissue research 335 505-15 2009
In congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy (CHI), the loss of K-ATP channels (composed of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits) in beta cells induces permanent insulin secretion and severe hypoglycaemia. By contrast, Sur1 ( -/- ) mice do not present such defects. We have investigated the impact of Sur1 gene inactivation on mouse islet cell morphology, structure and basic physiology. Pancreata were collected from young, adult and old wild-type (WT) and Sur1 ( -/- ) mice. After immunostaining for hormone, the total endocrine tissue, cell proportion, cell size and intra-insular distribution, hormone content and Glut-2 expression were quantified by morphometry. Basic physiological parameters were also measured. In young Sur1 ( -/- ) mice, the total endocrine tissue and proportion of beta cells were higher (P0.05) than in WT mice, whereas the proportion of delta cells was lower (P0.01). In old Sur1 ( -/- ) mice, alpha cells were frequently located in the central regions of islets (unlike WT islets) and their proportion was increased (P0.05). Glut-2 protein and mRNA levels were lower in old Sur1 ( -/- ) islets (P0.02). Insulinaemia, fasting insulin and glucagon contents were equivalent in both groups of pancreata. Thus, the islets of Sur1 ( -/- ) mice present morphological modifications that have not been described in CHI and that might reflect an adaptive mechanism controlling insulin secretion in these mice.
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|Paper: Roux en Y gastric bypass hypoglycemia resolves with gastric feeding or reversal: Confirming a non-pancreatic etiology|