Key Specifications Table
|Application||These Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are derived from murine 129/SVEV & selected for high targeting efficiency & proven germ line transmission.|
|Stem Cell Type||
|Cell Line Type||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Place vials in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen storage immediately upon receipt until it is convenient to proceed to subculture.|
|Material Size||2 vials|
|Material Package||2.5x106 ea|
|General Experimental Outline for Targeting ES Cells|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells by substrate immobilization of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 with elastin-like polypeptides.|
Minato, Ayaka, et al.
Biomaterials, 33: 515-23 (2012) 2012
The establishment of cardiomyocyte differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a useful strategy for cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Here, we report a strategy for cardiomyocyte differentiation of ESCs using substrate immobilization of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) with elastin-like polypeptides. Recently, IGFBP4 was reported to promote cardiomyocyte differentiation of ESCs through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, high amounts of IGFBP4 (approximately 1 μg/mL) were required to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induce differentiation to cardiomyocytes. We report herein induction of cardiomyocyte differentiation using IGFBP4-immobilized substrates. IGFBP4-immobilized substrates were created by fusion with elastin-like polypeptides. IGFBP4 was stably immobilized to polystyrene dishes through fusion of elastin-like polypeptides. Cardiomyocyte differentiation of ESCs was effectively promoted by strong and continuous inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling with IGFBP4-immobilized substrates. These results demonstrated that IGFBP4 could be immobilized using fusion of elastin-like polypeptides. Our results also demonstrate that substrate immobilization of IGFBP4 is a powerful tool for differentiation of ESCs into cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that substrate immobilization of soluble factors is a useful technique for differentiation of ESCs in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.
|Expansion of neurofilament medium C terminus increases axonal diameter independent of increases in conduction velocity or myelin thickness.|
Barry, Devin M, et al.
J. Neurosci., 32: 6209-19 (2012) 2012
Maturation of the peripheral nervous system requires specification of axonal diameter, which, in turn, has a significant influence on nerve conduction velocity. Radial axonal growth initiates with myelination, and is dependent upon the C terminus of neurofilament medium (NF-M). Molecular phylogenetic analysis in mammals suggested that expanded NF-M C termini correlated with larger-diameter axons. We used gene targeting and computational modeling to test this new hypothesis. Increasing the length of NF-M C terminus in mice increased diameter of motor axons without altering neurofilament subunit stoichiometry. Computational modeling predicted that an expanded NF-M C terminus extended farther from the neurofilament core independent of lysine-serine-proline (KSP) phosphorylation. However, expansion of NF-M C terminus did not affect the distance between adjacent neurofilaments. Increased axonal diameter did not increase conduction velocity, possibly due to a failure to increase myelin thickness by the same proportion. Failure of myelin to compensate for larger axonal diameters suggested a lack of plasticity during the processes of myelination and radial axonal growth.
|An early onset progressive motor neuron disorder in Scyl1-deficient mice is associated with mislocalization of TDP-43.|
Pelletier, Stephane, et al.
J. Neurosci., 32: 16560-73 (2012) 2012
The molecular and cellular bases of motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are still poorly understood. The diseases are mostly sporadic, with ~10% of cases being familial. In most cases of familial motor neuronopathy, the disease is caused by either gain-of-adverse-effect mutations or partial loss-of-function mutations in ubiquitously expressed genes that serve essential cellular functions. Here we show that deletion of Scyl1, an evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed gene encoding the COPI-associated protein pseudokinase SCYL1, causes an early onset progressive MND with characteristic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Skeletal muscles of Scyl1(-/-) mice displayed neurogenic atrophy, fiber type switching, and disuse atrophy. Peripheral nerves showed axonal degeneration. Loss of lower motor neurons (LMNs) and large-caliber axons was conspicuous in Scyl1(-/-) animals. Signs of neuroinflammation were seen throughout the CNS, most notably in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Neural-specific, but not skeletal muscle-specific, deletion of Scyl1 was sufficient to cause motor dysfunction, indicating that SCYL1 acts in a neural cell-autonomous manner to prevent LMN degeneration and motor functions. Remarkably, deletion of Scyl1 resulted in the mislocalization and accumulation of TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa) and ubiquilin 2 into cytoplasmic inclusions within LMNs, features characteristic of most familial and sporadic forms of ALS. Together, our results identify SCYL1 as a key regulator of motor neuron survival, and Scyl1(-/-) mice share pathological features with many human neurodegenerative conditions.
|Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation.|
Zhu, L; Gibson, P; Currle, DS; Tong, Y; Richardson, RJ; Bayazitov, IT; Poppleton, H; Zakharenko, S; Ellison, DW; Gilbertson, RJ
Nature 457 603-7 2009
Cancer stem cells are remarkably similar to normal stem cells: both self-renew, are multipotent and express common surface markers, for example, prominin 1 (PROM1, also called CD133). What remains unclear is whether cancer stem cells are the direct progeny of mutated stem cells or more mature cells that reacquire stem cell properties during tumour formation. Answering this question will require knowledge of whether normal stem cells are susceptible to cancer-causing mutations; however, this has proved difficult to test because the identity of most adult tissue stem cells is not known. Here, using an inducible Cre, nuclear LacZ reporter allele knocked into the Prom1 locus (Prom1(C-L)), we show that Prom1 is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues. Lineage-tracing studies of adult Prom1(+/C-L) mice containing the Rosa26-YFP reporter allele showed that Prom1(+) cells are located at the base of crypts in the small intestine, co-express Lgr5 (ref. 2), generate the entire intestinal epithelium, and are therefore the small intestinal stem cell. Prom1 was reported recently to mark cancer stem cells of human intestinal tumours that arise frequently as a consequence of aberrant wingless (Wnt) signalling. Activation of endogenous Wnt signalling in Prom1(+/C-L) mice containing a Cre-dependent mutant allele of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1(lox(ex3))) resulted in a gross disruption of crypt architecture and a disproportionate expansion of Prom1(+) cells at the crypt base. Lineage tracing demonstrated that the progeny of these cells replaced the mucosa of the entire small intestine with neoplastic tissue that was characterized by focal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and crypt adenoma formation. Although all neoplastic cells arose from Prom1(+) cells in these mice, only 7% of tumour cells retained Prom1 expression. Our data indicate that Prom1 marks stem cells in the adult small intestine that are susceptible to transformation into tumours retaining a fraction of mutant Prom1(+) tumour cells.
|Development of all CD4 T lineages requires nuclear factor TOX.|
Aliahmad, Parinaz and Kaye, Jonathan
J. Exp. Med., 205: 245-56 (2008) 2008
CD8(+) cytotoxic and CD4(+) helper/inducer T cells develop from common thymocyte precursors that express both CD4 and CD8 molecules. Upon T cell receptor signaling, these cells initiate a differentiation program that includes complex changes in CD4 and CD8 expression, allowing identification of transitional intermediates in this developmental pathway. Little is known about regulation of these early transitions or their specific importance to CD4 and CD8 T cell development. Here, we show a severe block at the CD4(lo)CD8(lo) transitional stage of positive selection caused by loss of the nuclear HMG box protein TOX. As a result, CD4 lineage T cells, including regulatory T and CD1d-dependent natural killer T cells, fail to develop. In contrast, functional CD8(+) T cells develop in TOX-deficient mice. Our data suggest that TOX-dependent transition to the CD4(+)CD8(lo) stage is required for continued development of class II major histocompatibility complex-specific T cells, regardless of ultimate lineage fate.
|Replacement of nonmuscle myosin II-B with II-A rescues brain but not cardiac defects in mice.|
Bao, Jianjun, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 282: 22102-11 (2007) 2007
The purpose of these studies was to learn whether one isoform of nonmuscle myosin II, specifically nonmuscle myosin II-A, could functionally replace a second one, nonmuscle myosin II-B, in mice. To accomplish this, we used homologous recombination to ablate nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NMHC) II-B by inserting cDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NMHC II-A into the first coding exon of the Myh10 gene, thereby placing GFP-NMHC II-A under control of the endogenous II-B promoter. Similar to B(-)/B(-) mice, most B(a*)/B(a*) mice died late in embryonic development with structural cardiac defects and impaired cytokinesis of the cardiac myocytes. However, unlike B(-)/B(-) mice, 15 B(a*)/B(a*) mice of 172 F2 generation mice survived embryonic lethality but developed a dilated cardiomyopathy as adults. Surprisingly none of the B(a*)/B(a*) mice showed evidence for hydrocephalus that is always found in B(-)/B(-) mice. Rescue of this defect was due to proper localization and function of GFP-NMHC II-A in place of NMHC II-B in a cell-cell adhesion complex in the cells lining the spinal canal. Restoration of the integrity and adhesion of these cells prevents protrusion of the underlying cells into the spinal canal where they block circulation of the cerebral spinal fluid. However, abnormal migration of facial and pontine neurons found in NMHC II-B mutant and ablated mice persisted in B(a*)/B(a*) mice. Thus, although NMHC II-A can substitute for NMHC II-B to maintain integrity of the spinal canal, NMHC II-B plays an isoform-specific role during cytokinesis in cardiac myocytes and in migration of the facial and pontine neurons.
|Wild-type huntingtin participates in protein trafficking between the Golgi and the extracellular space.|
Strehlow, AN; Li, JZ; Myers, RM
Human molecular genetics 16 391-409 2007
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the HD gene, which results in a toxic polyglutamine stretch within huntingtin, the protein it encodes. Understanding the normal function of this essential protein is vital to understanding the root of the disease, yet despite more than a decade of investigation, its role in the cell remains elusive. Identifying the subcellular localization of huntingtin and understanding its effects on global gene expression are critical to this endeavor. While most reports agree that huntingtin is predominantly a cytoplasmic protein, conflicting distribution patterns have been demonstrated at the subcellular level. Here, we examine wild-type huntingtin's localization in cultured cells by expressing the full-length human protein tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) within its unspliced genomic context. In fibrosarcoma and neuroblastoma cells, huntingtin shows discrete punctate, perinuclear localization overlapping largely with the trans-Golgi and cytoplasmic clathrin-coated vesicles, implicating huntingtin in vesicle trafficking. To determine whether huntingtin is involved in trafficking a specific subset of proteins, we measured changes in global transcription levels in embryonic stem cells and neurons lacking huntingtin. Huntingtin null neurons exhibit a significant reduction in transcripts encoding proteins destined for the extracellular space, many of which are components of the extracellular matrix or involved in cellular adhesion, receptor binding and hormone activity. Together, these findings support a role for huntingtin in the intracellular trafficking of proteins required for the construction of the extracellular matrix.
|Essential role of cleavage of Polycystin-1 at G protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site for kidney tubular structure.|
Yu, Shengqiang, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104: 18688-93 (2007) 2007
Polycystin-1 (PC1) has an essential function in renal tubular morphogenesis and disruption of its function causes cystogenesis in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We have previously shown that recombinant human PC1 is cis-autoproteolytically cleaved at the G protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site domain. To investigate the role of cleavage in vivo, we generated by gene targeting a Pkd1 knockin mouse (Pkd1(V/V)) that expresses noncleavable PC1. The Pkd1(V/V) mice show a hypomorphic phenotype, characterized by a delayed onset and distal nephron segment involvement of cystogenesis at postnatal maturation stage. We show that PC1 is ubiquitously and incompletely cleaved in wild-type mice, so that uncleaved and cleaved PC1 molecules coexist. Our study establishes a critical but restricted role of cleavage for PC1 function and suggests a differential function of the two types of PC1 molecules in vivo.
|Chemical genetics define the roles of p38alpha and p38beta in acute and chronic inflammation.|
O'Keefe, Stephen J, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 282: 34663-71 (2007) 2007
The p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway is an important regulator of proinflammatory cytokine production and inflammation. Defining the roles of the various p38 family members, specifically p38alpha and p38beta, in these processes has been difficult. Here we use a chemical genetics approach using knock-in mice in which either p38alpha or p38beta kinase has been rendered resistant to the effects of specific inhibitors along with p38beta knock-out mice to dissect the biological function of these specific kinase isoforms. Mice harboring a T106M mutation in p38alpha are resistant to pharmacological inhibition of LPS-induced TNF production and collagen antibody-induced arthritis, indicating that p38beta activity is not required for acute or chronic inflammatory responses. LPS-induced TNF production, however, is still completely sensitive to p38 inhibitors in mice with a T106M point mutation in p38beta. Similarly, p38beta knock-out mice respond normally to inflammatory stimuli. These results demonstrate conclusively that specific inhibition of the p38alpha isoform is necessary and sufficient for anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo.
|An inhibitory Ig superfamily protein expressed by lymphocytes and APCs is also an early marker of thymocyte positive selection.|
Han, Peggy, et al.
J. Immunol., 172: 5931-9 (2004) 2004
Positive selection of developing thymocytes is associated with changes in cell function, at least in part caused by alterations in expression of cell surface proteins. Surprisingly, however, few such proteins have been identified. We have analyzed the pattern of gene expression during the early stages of murine thymocyte differentiation. These studies led to identification of a cell surface protein that is a useful marker of positive selection and is a likely regulator of mature lymphocyte and APC function. The protein is a member of the Ig superfamily and contains conserved tyrosine-based signaling motifs. The gene encoding this protein was independently isolated recently and termed B and T lymphocyte attenuator (Btla). We describe in this study anti-BTLA mAbs that demonstrate that the protein is expressed in the bone marrow and thymus on developing B and T cells, respectively. BTLA is also expressed by all mature lymphocytes, splenic macrophages, and mature, but not immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Although mice deficient in BTLA do not show lymphocyte developmental defects, T cells from these animals are hyperresponsive to anti-CD3 Ab stimulation. Conversely, anti-BTLA Ab can inhibit T cell activation. These results implicate BTLA as a negative regulator of the activation and/or function of various hemopoietic cell types.
|Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Culture|
|The Genetically Modified Mouse: An Indispensable Tool for Disease Modeling (EMD)|