|Presentation||Lyophilized. Buffer = 0.01 M Sodium Phosphate, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 15 mg/mL BSA, and 0.05% sodium azide.
Reconstitute with 500 μL of sterile distilled water.
Approximately 0.52 (A550/A280)
Absorption peak = 550nm, Emission peak = 570 nm.
|Antibody Type||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||500 µg|
Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody, Rhodamine conjugate, Species Adsorbed SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The effects of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function after glutamate excitotoxicity.|
Wang, X; Li, H; Ding, S
International journal of molecular sciences 15 20449-68 2014
NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for cellular energy metabolism and is also involved as a substrate for many cellular enzymatic reactions. It has been shown that NAD+ has a beneficial effect on neuronal survival and brain injury in in vitro and in vivo ischemic models. However, the effect of NAD+ on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ischemia has not been well investigated. In the present study, we used an in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity model of primary cultured cortical neurons to study the effect of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our results show that supplementation of NAD+ could effectively reduce apoptotic neuronal death, and apoptotic inducing factor translocation after neurons were challenged with excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Using different approaches including confocal imaging, mitochondrial DNA measurement and Western blot analysis of PGC-1 and NRF-1, we also found that NAD+ could significantly attenuate glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, NAD+ treatment effectively inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and NADH redistribution after excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NAD+ is capable of inhibiting apoptotic neuronal death after glutamate excitotoxicity via preserving mitochondrial biogenesis and integrity. Our findings provide insights into potential neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke.
|A mutation in the nuclear pore complex gene Tmem48 causes gametogenesis defects in skeletal fusions with sterility (sks) mice.|
Akiyama, K; Noguchi, J; Hirose, M; Kajita, S; Katayama, K; Khalaj, M; Tsuji, T; Fairfield, H; Byers, C; Reinholdt, L; Ogura, A; Kunieda, T
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 31830-41 2013
Skeletal fusions with sterility (sks) is an autosomal recessive mutation of mouse that results in male and female sterility because of defects in gametogenesis. The mutants also have skeletal malformations with fused vertebrae and ribs. We examined testicular phenotypes of sks/sks mice to investigate the defects in spermatogenesis. Histological and immunocytochemical analyses and expression analyses of the marker genes demonstrated that spermatogenesis is arrested at mid to late pachytene stage of meiotic prophase with defective synapsis of the homologous chromosomes. Next, we determined the precise chromosomal localization of the sks locus on a 0.3-Mb region of mouse chromosome 4 by linkage analysis. By sequencing the positional candidate genes in this region and whole exome sequencing, we found a GG to TT nucleotide substitution in exon 6 of the Tmem48 gene that encodes a putative transmembrane protein with six transmembrane domains. The nucleotide substitution causes aberrant splicing, which deletes exon 6 of the Tmem48 transcript. Specific expression of TMEM48 was observed in germ cells of males and females. Furthermore, the phenotypes of the sks mutant were completely rescued by the transgenesis of a genomic fragment containing the wild-type Tmem48 gene. These findings indicate that the Tmem48 mutation is responsible for the gametogenesis defects and skeletal malformations in the sks mice. The TMEM48 protein is a nuclear membrane protein comprising the nuclear pore complex; its exact function in the nuclear pore complex is still unknown. Our finding suggested that the nuclear pore complex plays an important role in mammalian gametogenesis and skeletal development.
|Prognostic value of LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessel in tongue squamous cell carcinomas.|
Naoyuki Matsumoto,Shotaro Mukae,Hirotaka Tsuda,Akihito Sawada,Yasuhiro Okazaki,Koichi Nagai,Yuri Akishima-Fukasawa,Hidero Ohki,Yukio Ishikawa,Toshiharu Ishii,Kazuo Komiyama
Anticancer research 30 2010
The density of lymphatic vessels in 52 cases of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and normal portions was analyzed. TSCC specimens were immunostained with antibodies against lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) and podoplanin monoclonal antibody (D2-40). The significance of the LYVE-1-positive vessel density (LVD) was calculated in 6 topographic areas and investigated on the basis of specific clinical and histo-pathological parameters. LYVE-1 positivity was more evident in the muscular area than the submucosal area, while small D2-40-positive lymphatic vessels were not demonstrable in muscular endomysium. The LVD in peri-tumoral submucosal and peri-tumoral muscular areas was lower than in normal counterparts (p<0.01). LVD was higher in the tumor invasion front as compared to tumor-associated stroma (p<0.01). Low LVD in invasion front and peri-tumoral submucosal area was significantly related to regional lymph node metastasis (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The decrease of LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels in the invasion front and peri-tumoral submucosal area would seem to predict cervical lymph node metastasis in TSCC.
|Integrins mediate adherence and migration of T lymphocytes on human peritoneal mesothelial cells.|
Wang, HH; Lee, TY; Lin, CY
Kidney international 74 808-16 2008
We previously showed that a local immune response largely composed of type 1 T cells correlated with a favorable outcome of the peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. To clarify how these subsets are recruited to the peritoneal cavity during inflammation, we measured integrin-mediated interactions between the T cells and human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Direct microscopy showed that lipopolysaccharide or peritoneal dialysis effluent stimulated the adherence of T cells to mesothelial cells, a process mediated by the integrins alpha6beta1 and alpha4beta1. Further, the migration of Th1 cell across human mesothelial cell monolayers grown on transwell surfaces was reduced by anti-alpha6beta1 integrin antibody while that of Th2 cell was inhibited by an anti-alpha4 integrin antibody. Pretreatment with either lipopolysaccharide or rapid response peritoneal dialysis effluent stimulated T cell migration and this was significantly decreased by the alpha6beta1 compared to the alpha4 antibody. These results suggest that integrins may play an important role in mediating selective T cell subset adhesion and migration across human peritoneal mesothelial cell monolayers and differential integrin expression and selective T cell subset recruitment during peritonitis may affect outcome.
|Activated epidermal growth factor receptor induces integrin alpha2 internalization via caveolae/raft-dependent endocytic pathway.|
Ning, Y; Buranda, T; Hudson, LG
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 6380-7 2007
Elevated expression or activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is common in ovarian cancer and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Our previous studies demonstrated that expression of the constitutively active mutant form of the EGF receptor (EGFRvIII) in ovarian cancer cells led to reduction in integrin alpha2 surface expression, defects in cell spreading, and disruption of focal adhesions. Inhibition of EGFRvIII catalytic activity reversed the response, suggesting that EGF receptor activation regulates integrin alpha2. In this study we found that EGF treatment resulted in a transient loss of integrin alpha2 from the cell surface. Before EGF stimulation, integrin alpha2 and EGF receptors were associated based on biochemical and immuno-colocalization approaches. After EGF treatment, EGF receptor and integrin alpha2 were internalized and segregated into different compartments. Integrin alpha2, but not EGF receptor, was associated with caveolin-1 and GM1 (Gal_1,3GalNAc_1,4(Neu5Ac-_ 2,3)Gal_1,4Glc_1,1-ceramide) gangliosides, suggesting caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, integrin alpha2 was subsequently targeted to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Together, these findings demonstrate that activated EGF receptor transiently modulates integrin alpha2 cell surface expression and stimulates integrin alpha2 trafficking via caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis, representing a novel mechanism by which the EGF receptor may regulate integrin-mediated cell behavior.
|Differential distribution of orexin-A-like and orexin receptor 1 (OX1R)-like immunoreactivities in the Xenopus pituitary.|
H Suzuki, Y Takemoto, T Yamamoto
Tissue cell 39 423-30 2007
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate orexin-A-like and orexin receptor 1 (OX1R)-like immunoreactivities in the Xenopus pituitary gland. Orexin-A-immunoreactive cells were mainly scattered in the posterior half of the pars distalis. They corresponded to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells and so far have not corresponded to other types of pituitary adenocytes. On the other hand, OX1R-immunoreactive cells were mainly distributed in the anterior half of the pars distalis and corresponded to prolactin (PRL)-containing cells; however, we found that OX1R-immunoreactive cells did not correspond to other types of adenocytes in the Xenopus pituitary. These results suggest that an orexin-A-like substance secretes with and/or without TSH from TSH-containing cells and that the peptide modulates the functions of PRL-containing cells via OX1R in a paracrine fashion.
|Increase of Cardiotrophin-1 immunoreactivity in regenerating and overloaded but not denervated muscles of rats.|
Junji Nishikawa, Kunihiro Sakuma, Yoshihide Sorimachi, Kanji Yoshimoto, Masahiro Yasuhara
Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology 25 54-65 2005
The original report by Pennica et al. on Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) states that it markedly stimulates hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes both in vitro and in vivo and is predominantly expressed in the early mouse embryonic heart tube. CT-1 is a member of the interleukin-6 superfamily and past studies have shown that it exerts trophic effects on neurons, glial cells and their precursors, and is expressed during myogenesis. Thus CT-1 is associated with physical and pathological changes in skeletal muscle. In this study, we examined whether CT-1 is expressed in mechanically overloaded, regenerating, and denervated muscles of rats using immunohistochemistry. In the overloaded plantaris muscles at 1 and 3 days postsurgery, CT-1 immunoreactivity was detected in the mononuclear cells that had infiltrated the extracellular space. CT-1 immunoreactivity was also observed in the mononuclear cells invading the extracellular space at 2, 4, and 6 days after a bupivacaine injection and in degenerative and necrotic muscle fibers at 2 days postinjection. In the denervated muscles, the CT-1 immunoreactivity did not change in intensity during the entire period of the denervation (2, 7, and 14 days postsurgery). The cells invading extracellular space and in necrotic muscle fibers possessing CT-1 immunoreactivity might be muscle precursor cells (satellite cells) or migrating macrophages undergoing phagocytosis. Using double-immunostainings for anti-CT-1/antic-met, anti-CT-1/ anti-M-cadherin, and anti-CT-1/anti-ED1, we found that satellite cells and macrophages exhibited CT-1 immunoreactivity in the damaged muscles after bupivacaine injection. We therefore believe that CT-1 plays a key role in regeneration and hypertrophy in the skeletal muscle of rats.
|Excitotoxic degeneration of hypothalamic orexin neurons in slice culture.|
Hiroshi Katsuki, Akinori Akaike
Neurobiology of disease 15 61-9 2004
Several lines of evidence indicate that narcolepsy, a sleep disorder, results from the loss of hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin)-containing neurons, but the mechanisms responsible for selective elimination of this neuronal population are unknown. Using organotypic rat hypothalamic slice cultures, we investigated vulnerability of orexin neurons to excitotoxic insults. Twenty-four hours of incubation with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) followed by a recovery period of 72 h resulted in a marked decrease in the number of orexin-immunoreactive neurons, whereas melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-immunoreactive neurons in the same cultures were relatively spared. In contrast, orexin neurons were more resistant to kainic acid cytotoxicity than MCH neurons. Examinations of the effects of several endogenous glutamate receptor agonists as well as a glutamate transporter blocker highlighted quinolinic acid as an endogenous excitotoxin that could cause selective loss of orexin neurons as compared to MCH neurons by activating NMDA receptors. In addition, quinolinic acid-induced decrease of orexin neurons was prevented by an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. These results provide the first evidence concerning cytotoxic consequences onto orexin neurons, and indicate that NMDA receptor-mediated injury may contribute to the selective loss of these neurons in the hypothalamus, a prominent neuropathological feature found in narcolepsy patients.
|Spontaneous regeneration of the corticospinal tract after transection in young rats: a key role of reactive astrocytes in making favorable and unfavorable conditions for regeneration.|
T Iseda, T Nishio, S Kawaguchi, M Yamanoto, T Kawasaki, S Wakisaka
Neuroscience 126 365-74 2004
We demonstrated the occurrence of marked regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a single transection and failure of regeneration after a repeated transection in young rats. To provide convincing evidence for the complete transection and regeneration we used retrograde neuronal double labeling. Double-labeled neurons that took up the first tracer from the transection site and the second tracer from the injection site caudal to the transection site were observed in the sensorimotor cortex. The anterograde tracing method revealed various patterns of regeneration. In the most successful cases the vast majority of regenerated fibers descended in the normal tract and terminated normally whereas a trace amount of fibers coursed aberrantly. In the less successful cases fibers descended partly normally and partly aberrantly or totally aberrantly. To clarify the role of astrocytes in determining the success or failure of regeneration we compared expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament (NF) immunoreactivity (IR) in the lesion between single and repeated transections. In either transection, astrocytes disappeared from the CST near the lesion site as early as 3 h after lesioning. However, by 24 h after a single transection, immature astrocytes coexpressing GFAP- and vimentin-IR appeared in the former astrocyte-free area and NF-positive axons crossed the lesion. By contrast, after a repeated transection the astrocyte-free area spread and NF-positive axons never crossed the lesion. It appears likely that the major sign, and possibly cause of failure of regeneration is the prolonged disappearance of astrocytes in the lesioned tract area.
|Association of dystroglycan and laminin-2 coexpression with myelinogenesis in peripheral nerves.|
Toshihiro Masaki, Kiichiro Matsumura, Fumiaki Saito, Hiroki Yamada, Susumu Higuchi, Keiko Kamakura, Hiroshi Yorifuji, Teruo Shimizu
Medical electron microscopy : official journal of the Clinical Electron Microscopy Society of Japan 36 221-39 2003
To provide clues to the biological functions of dystroglycan-laminin-2 complex in peripheral nerves, we investigated the expressions of beta-dystroglycan and laminin-alpha(2) chain in rat sciatic nerve during axonal degeneration and regeneration and during development, as well as in rat dorsal root ganglia. In normal conditions, immunoreactivity of the cytoplasmic domain of beta-dystroglycan was associated with the Schwann cell abaxonal membrane. The immunoreactivities of both beta-dystroglycan and the laminin-alpha(2) chain decreased in Schwann cells losing axons during axonal degeneration and progressively increased in remyelinating Schwann cells during axonal regeneration. Interestingly, during axonal degeneration, the abaxonal membrane losing contact with the basal lamina lost the association with beta-dystroglycan immunoreactivity. During development, expression of both beta-dystroglycan and laminin-alpha(2) chain strikingly increased during postnatal 7 days, which is a critical period when basal lamina assembly and myelin formation rapidly progress. These results suggest that coexpression of dystroglycan and laminin-2 is associated with myelinogenesis in peripheral nerves. These two proteins may function as an anchorage between the abaxonal membrane and the basal lamina, enabling myelin forma-tion to progress. Beta-dystroglycan and laminin-2 were also coexpressed in satellite cells in dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that interaction of these two proteins plays some role in physiological functions of these cells.
|RHODAMINE CONJUGATED AFFINITY PURIFIED SECONDARY ANTIBODY|