|Replaces||Replaces S7820 (CpGenome Universal DNA Modification Kit).|
|Description||CpGenome Direct Prep Bisulfite Modification Kit (50 Reactions)|
|Overview||Unlike other bisulfite modifications approaches that start with isolated genomic DNA, the CpGenome Direct Prep Bisulfite Modification Kit allows simple and reliable bisulfite conversion of DNA directly from a variety of starting materials, including cultured cells, blood, fresh tissue and fixed tissue samples.
|Background Information||Methylation of cytosines located 5' to guanosine is known to have a profound effect on the expression of many eukaryotic genes. In normal cells methylation occurs predominantly in CG-poor regions, while CG-rich areas, called CpG-islands remain unmethylated. The exceptions are the extensive methylation of CpG islands associated with transcriptional inactivation of regulatory regions of imprinted genes and genes on the inactive X-chromosome of females. Aberrant methylation of normally unmethylated CpG islands has been documented as a relatively frequent event in immortalized and transformed cells and has been associated with transcriptional inactivation of defined tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Hundreds of CpG islands are now known to exhibit the characteristic of hypermethylation in tumors resulting in identification of candidate genes that can be interrogated to determine extent of tumor specific transformation.|
|Materials Required but Not Delivered||• MILLIPLEX MAP Cell Signaling Buffer and Detection Kit (Catalog #48-602)|
|Application||The CpGenome Direct Prep Bisulfite Modification Kit allows bisulfite conversion directly from a variety of starting materials, including cultured cells, blood, fresh tissue & fixed tissue samples.|
|Application Notes||For MSP primer design, please use the MethPrime software package. Click here|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||50 reactions|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|A mouse model of Angelman syndrome imprinting defects.|
Lewis, MW; Vargas-Franco, D; Morse, DA; Resnick, JL
Hum Mol Genet 0 1-10 2018
Angelman syndrome, Prader-Will syndrome and Dup15q syndrome map to a cluster of imprinted genes located at 15q11-q13. Imprinting at this domain is regulated by an imprinting control region consisting of two distinct elements, the Angelman syndrome imprinting center (AS-IC) and the Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center (PWS-IC). Individuals inheriting deletions of the AS-IC exhibit reduced expression of the maternally expressed UBE3A gene and biallelic expression of paternal-only genes. We have previously demonstrated that AS-IC activity partly consists of providing transcription across the PWS-IC in oocytes, and that these transcripts are necessary for maternal imprinting of Snrpn. Here we report a novel mouse mutation that truncates transcripts prior to transiting the PWS-IC and results in a domain-wide imprinting defect. These results confirm a transcription-based model for imprint setting at this domain. The imprinting defect can be preempted by removal of the transcriptional block in oocytes, but not by its removal in early embryos. Imprinting defect mice exhibit several traits often found in individuals with Angelman syndrome imprinting defects.
|Genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal and sensitive COPD-diseased human bronchial epithelial cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5.|
Leclercq, B; Platel, A; Antherieu, S; Alleman, LY; Hardy, EM; Perdrix, E; Grova, N; Riffault, V; Appenzeller, BM; Happillon, M; Nesslany, F; Coddeville, P; Lo-Guidice, JM; Garçon, G
Environ Pollut 230 163-177 2017
Even though clinical, epidemiological and toxicological studies have progressively provided a better knowledge of the underlying mechanisms by which air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) exerts its harmful health effects, further in vitro studies on relevant cell systems are still needed. Hence, aiming of getting closer to the human in vivo conditions, primary human bronchial epithelial cells derived from normal subjects (NHBE) or sensitive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-diseased patients (DHBE) were differentiated at the air-liquid interface. Thereafter, they were repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5 to study the occurrence of some relevant genetic and/or epigenetic endpoints. Concentration-, exposure- and season-dependent increases of OH-B[a]P metabolites in NHBE, and to a lesser extent, COPD-DHBE cells were reported; however, there were more tetra-OH-B[a]P and 8-OHdG DNA adducts in COPD-DHBE cells. No increase in primary DNA strand break nor chromosomal aberration was observed in repeatedly exposed cells. Telomere length and telomerase activity were modified in a concentration- and exposure-dependent manner in NHBE and particularly COPD-DHBE cells. There were a global DNA hypomethylation, a P16 gene promoter hypermethylation, and a decreasing DNA methyltransferase activity in NHBE and notably COPD-DHBE cells repeatedly exposed. Changes in site-specific methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation of histone H3 (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K27ac, and H3S10ph) and related enzyme activities occurred in a concentration- and exposure-dependent manner in all the repeatedly exposed cells. Collectively, these results highlighted the key role played by genetic and even epigenetic events in NHBE and particularly sensitive COPD-DHBE cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5 and their different responsiveness. While these specific epigenetic changes have been already described in COPD and even lung cancer phenotypes, our findings supported that, together with genetic events, these epigenetic events could dramatically contribute to the shift from healthy to diseased phenotypes following repeated exposure to relatively low doses of air pollution-derived PM2.5.
|FHIT promoter DNA methylation and expression analysis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.|
Bahari, G; Hashemi, M; Naderi, M; Sadeghi-Bojd, S; Taheri, M
Oncol Lett 14 5034-5038 2017
Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) is a tumor suppressor gene, which is involved in several malignancies. Epigenetic alterations in FHIT have been hypothesized to contribute to tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to examine DNA promoter methylation and gene expression levels of FHIT in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), in a sample of Iranian patients. The promoter methylation status of FHIT was analyzed in 100 patients diagnosed with ALL and 120 healthy control patients. mRNA expression levels were assessed in 30 new cases of ALL compared with 32 healthy controls. Hypermethylation of the FHIT promoter was significantly more frequent in patients with ALL than in healthy controls (OR=3.83, 95% CI=1.51-9.75, P=0.007). Furthermore, FHIT mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in childhood ALL patients compared with healthy controls (P=0.032). The results of the present study revealed that dysregulation of the FHIT gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of childhood ALL. Future studies investigating a larger sample population with greater ethnic diversity would be beneficial, to confirm the results from the present study.
|In vitro Homeostatic Proliferation of Human CD8 T Cells.|
Abdelsamed, HA; Zebley, CC; Youngblood, B
Bio Protoc 7 1-13 2017
Long-lived T-cell-mediated immunity requires persistence of memory T cells in an antigen-free environment while also maintaining a heightened capacity to recall effector functions. Such antigen-independent homeostatic proliferation is mediated in part by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. To further explore the mechanisms governing maintenance of effector functions in long-lived memory T cells during antigen-independent proliferation, human naïve and memory CD8 T cells can be sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), labeled with the proliferation-tracking dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and then purified based on their levels of cell division. This allows investigators to assess differences in the desired molecular target in cells that have undergone cytokine-driven proliferation. We provide here a protocol for assessing epigenetic programs in divided and undivided human naïve and memory CD8 T cells following 7 days in culture with IL-7 and IL-15 to illustrate how this approach can shed light on the mechanism(s) that governs the preservation of effector functions during homeostasis of long-lived memory CD8 T cells.
|Clinicopathologic Characterization of Aggressive Natural Killer Cell Leukemia Involving Different Tissue Sites.|
Gao, LM; Zhao, S; Liu, WP; Zhang, WY; Li, GD; Küçük, C; Hu, XZ; Chan, WC; Tang, Y; Ding, WS; Yan, JQ; Yao, WQ; Wang, JC
Am J Surg Pathol 40 836-46 2016
Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a rare disease with an extremely aggressive clinical course. The etiology of ANKL is unclear with few genetic/epigenetic aberrations described to date. Moreover, misdiagnosis of ANKL is a frequent problem. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 35 retrospective cases of ANKL were investigated with the aim of improving diagnosis and to find the genetic/epigenetic aberrations associated with ANKL etiology. Because of the relatively low number of leukemic cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, diagnosis of ANKL can be missed; therefore, it is important to perform biopsy on solid tissues, if necessary. We describe the pathology of ANKL in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and skin, with focus on diagnosis and differentiated diagnosis. We observed young male predominance in our cohort, and the clinical course was more aggressive than reported previously. Low lactate dehydrogenase (<712 IU/L), chemotherapy or L-asparaginase administration were found to be associated with more favorable outcomes. SH2 domains of STAT5B and STAT3 also were screened for the presence of activating mutations. Moreover, CpG island methylation status of HACE1, a candidate tumor-suppressor gene, was determined in ANKL samples. We observed activating STAT5B mutations (1/5) and hypermethylation of HACE1 (3/4) in ANKL cases, suggesting that these aberrations may contribute to ANKL pathogenesis.
|Differential responses of healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseased human bronchial epithelial cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM4.|
Leclercq, B; Happillon, M; Antherieu, S; Hardy, EM; Alleman, LY; Grova, N; Perdrix, E; Appenzeller, BM; Lo Guidice, JM; Coddeville, P; Garçon, G
Environ Pollut 218 1074-1088 2016
While the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms by which air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) exerts its harmful health effects is still incomplete, detailed in vitro studies are highly needed. With the aim of getting closer to the human in vivo conditions and better integrating a number of factors related to pre-existing chronic pulmonary inflammatory, we sought to develop primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-diseased human bronchial epithelial (DHBE) cells, grown at the air-liquid interface. Pan-cytokeratin and MUC5AC immunostaining confirmed the specific cell-types of both these healthy and diseased cell models and showed they are closed to human bronchial epithelia. Thereafter, healthy and diseased cells were repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM4 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 5 μg/cm2. The differences between the oxidative and inflammatory states in non-exposed NHBE and COPD-DHBE cells indicated that diseased cells conserved their specific physiopathological characteristics. Increases in both oxidative damage and cytokine secretion were reported in repeatedly exposed NHBE cells and particularly in COPD-DHBE cells. Diseased cells repeatedly exposed had lower capacities to metabolize the organic chemicals-coated onto the air-pollution-derived PM4, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), but showed higher sensibility to the formation of OH-B[a]P DNA adducts, because their diseased state possibly affected their defenses. Differential profiles of epigenetic hallmarks (i.e., global DNA hypomethylation, P16 promoter hypermethylation, telomere length shortening, telomerase activation, and histone H3 modifications) occurred in repeatedly exposed NHBE and particularly in COPD-DHBE cells. Taken together, these results closely supported the highest responsiveness of COPD-DHBE cells to a repeated exposure to air pollution-derived PM4. The use of these innovative in vitro exposure systems such as NHBE and COPD-DHBE cells could therefore be consider as a very useful and powerful promising tool in the field of the respiratory toxicology, taking into account sensitive individuals.
|Pygopus-2 promotes invasion and metastasis of hepatic carcinoma cell by decreasing E-cadherin expression.|
Zhang, S; Li, J; Liu, P; Xu, J; Zhao, W; Xie, C; Yin, Z; Wang, X
Oncotarget 6 11074-86 2015
Pygopus-2 over-expression has been reported in several malignancies, such as ovarian, breast, lung and liver cancers. Here we demonstrated that down-regulation of Pygopus-2 by shRNA inhibited hepatic carcinoma cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in xenograft tumor models, which were promoted when Pygopus-2 was over-expressed. Pygopus-2 increased hepatic carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis, by decreasing E-cadherin. Pygopus-2 could bind to the E-cadherin promoter, increasing its methylation, and also indirectly decreased zeb2 expression. In turn these effects caused down-regulation of E-cadherin, potentiating invasion and metastasis. We suggest that targeting Pygopus-2 may potentially inhibit metastasis of hepatic carcinoma.
|Effects of 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine on RECK gene expression and tumor invasion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.|
Zhou, XQ; Huang, SY; Zhang, DS; Zhang, SZ; Li, WG; Chen, ZW; Wu, HW
Braz J Med Biol Res 48 254-60 2015
Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), a novel tumor suppressor gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is expressed in various normal human tissues but downregulated in several types of human tumors. The molecular mechanism for this downregulation and its biological significance in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumor invasion in SACC cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the methylation status of the RECK gene and expression of RECK mRNA and protein in SACC cell lines. The invasive ability of SACC cells was examined by the Transwell migration assay. Promoter methylation was only found in the ACC-M cell line. Treatment of ACC-M cells with 5-aza-dC partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene and significantly enhanced the expression of mRNA and protein, and 5-aza-dC significantly suppressed ACC-M cell invasive ability. Our findings showed that 5-aza-dC inhibited cancer cell invasion through the reversal of RECK gene hypermethylation, which might be a promising chemotherapy approach in SACC treatment.
|Promoter hypermethylation of the cysteine protease RECK may cause metastasis of osteosarcoma.|
Wang, L; Ge, J; Ma, T; Zheng, Y; Lv, S; Li, Y; Liu, S
Tumour Biol 36 9511-6 2015
The present study examined the role of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) promoter hypermethylation as a causative factor in metastasis of osteosarcoma. Using human pathological samples, it is demonstrated that RECK, a cysteine protease that reversibly regulates expression of matrix metalloproteases like matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), is transcriptionally inhibited in osteosarcoma, especially metastatic variants. This result comes from its promoter hypermethylation, as evaluated in the present study by methylation-specific PCR reaction. The expression of RECK was also significantly diminished in the metastatic variants of osteosarcoma. This downregulation of RECK in advanced grades of osteosarcoma and metastatic grades was also associated with the increased expression of invadosome-specific markers like MMP9, phospho-FAK, and integrins, suggesting the complex contributions of RECK in the prevention of metastasis and its downregulation as a causative factor in osteosarcoma metastasis.
|Epigallocatechin‑3‑gallate inhibits the invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells by reversing the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene.|
Zhou, XQ; Xu, XN; Li, L; Ma, JJ; Zhen, EM; Han, CB
Mol Med Rep 12 6031-6 2015
Epigallocatechin‑3‑gallate (EGCG) is an active and major constituent of green tea. As a non‑nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methylation, EGCG is able to inhibit the hypermethylation of newly synthesised DNA, resulting in the reversal of hypermethylation and recovery in expression of the silenced genes. Reversion‑inducing cysteine‑rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a novel tumour suppressor gene, which negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases, and inhibits tumour invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The present study aimed to examine the effects of EGCG on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumour invasion in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line in vitro. Marked levels of methylated and weak levels of unmethylated RECK promoter were detected in the SACC83 cells, which was determined using methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, the treatment of SACC83 cells with EGCG partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑PCR demonstrated that EGCG significantly enhanced the protein and mRNA expression levels of RECK, and significantly reduced the invasive ability of the SACC83 cells, as determined using a Transwell assay. These results suggested that EGCG possesses novel anti‑metastatic therapeutic potential for the treatment of SACC.
|CpGenome Direct Prep Bisulfite Modification Kit|
|Shaping Epigenetics Discovery - DNA Methylation Brochure (MilliporeSigma)|
|White Paper - The Message in the Marks: Deciphering Cancer Epigenetics (EMD)|
|CpGenome¿Direct Prep Bisulfite Modification Kit|