Key Specifications Table
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Application||This ChemiKine Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Sandwich ELISA is used to measure & quantify BDNF levels in Neuroscience research.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Material Size||1 kit|
ChemiKine Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Sandwich ELISA SDS
|Reference overview||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Expression and localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein in human submandibular gland.|
Juri Saruta,Kazuhiro Fujino,Masahiro To,Keiichi Tsukinoki
Acta histochemica et cytochemica 45 2012
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes cell survival and differentiation in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that BDNF is produced by salivary glands under acute immobilization stress in rats. However, expression of BDNF is poorly understood in humans, although salivary gland localization of BDNF in rodents has been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the expression and localization of BDNF in the human submandibular gland (HSG) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA. BDNF was consistently localized in HSG serous and ductal cells, as detected by ISH and IHC, with reactivity being stronger in serous cells. In addition, immunoreactivity for BDNF was observed in the saliva matrix of ductal cavities. Western blotting detected one significant immunoreactive 14 kDa band in the HSG and saliva. Immunoreactivities for salivary BDNF measured by ELISA in humans were 40.76
|BDNF as an effect modifier for gender effects on pain thresholds in healthy subjects.|
Luciana Cadore Stefani,Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres,Izabel Cristina Custodio de Souza,Joanna Ripoll Rozisky,Felipe Fregni,Wolnei Caumo
Neuroscience letters 514 2012
BDNF is an important marker of neuronal plasticity. It has also been associated with pain processing. Increased BDNF levels are observed in chronic pain syndromes. In order to understand the role of BDNF associated with other factors such as gender on experimental pain we aimed to determine whether experimental heat or pressure pain threshold is correlated with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level, gender and age. Heat pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were measured in 49 healthy volunteers (27 females). The multivariate linear regression models (on heat and pressure pain thresholds) revealed a significant effect of gender (p=0.001 for both models), serum BDNF (p<0.004 for both models) and interaction between BDNF and gender (<0.001 for both models). In fact, when adjusting for BDNF levels and age, heat and pressure pain thresholds were significantly reduced in women as compared to men (p<0.001 for both models). These effects were not observed when gender was analyzed alone. These finding suggests that experimental heat and pressure pain threshold is gender-related and BDNF dependent. In fact BDNF has a facilitatory effect on pain threshold in females but has an opposite effect in males; supporting the notion that BDNF is an effect modifier of the gender effects on pain threshold in healthy subjects.
|Propofol interacts with stimulus intensities of electroconvulsive shock to regulate behavior and hippocampal BDNF in a rat model of depression.|
Jie Luo,Su Min,Ke Wei,Junfang Zhang,Yuanyuan Liu
Psychiatry research 198 2012
As a psychiatric treatment, modern electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) requires anesthesia to enhance safety, but anesthetics may weaken its efficacy. Previous studies have provided inconsistent results and lack satisfactory details of the influence of anesthetics on ECT efficacy, which partially complicates the clinical selection of ECT protocols. To test our hypothesis that anesthetics interact with the intrinsic parameters of ECT to differentially regulate its therapeutic efficacy, we investigated the effects of the anesthetic propofol and the stimulus intensities of ECT on behavior and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a rodent model of depression. After treatment with chronic unpredictable mild stresses to produce the model, the depressed rats received anesthesia with propofol or normal saline, i.p., and electroconvulsive shock (ECS, an analog of ECT to animals) with different stimulus intensities. The sucrose preference and open field tests were performed to assess behavior, and BDNF level in hippocampus was measured with ELISA. We found that propofol regulated the efficacy of ECS differently at different stimulus intensities in both the behavioral and molecular levels. At medium intensities (120 and 180 mC), propofol enhanced the anti-depressant efficacy of ECS without largely compromising the recovering efficacy of ECS on spontaneous exploratory activities. The results indicated that propofol and ECS stimulus intensities interacted and resulted in different regulating efficacies at different intensities. Medium stimulus intensities were optimal for ECS efficacy under propofol anesthesia.
|Prolonged therapeutic hypothermia does not adversely impact neuroplasticity after global ischemia in rats.|
Gergely Silasi,Ana C Klahr,Mark J Hackett,Angela M Auriat,Helen Nichol,Frederick Colbourne
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 32 2012
Hypothermia improves clinical outcome after cardiac arrest in adults. Animal data show that a day or more of cooling optimally reduces edema and tissue injury after cerebral ischemia, especially after longer intervention delays. Lengthy treatments, however, may inhibit repair processes (e.g., synaptogenesis). Thus, we evaluated whether unilateral brain hypothermia (∼33°C) affects neuroplasticity in the rat 2-vessel occlusion model. In the first experiment, we cooled starting 1 hour after ischemia for 2, 4, or 7 days. Another group was cooled for 2 days starting 48 hours after ischemia. One group remained normothermic throughout. All hypothermia treatments started 1 hour after ischemia equally reduced hippocampal CA1 injury in the cooled hemisphere compared with the normothermic side and the normothermic group. Cooling only on days 3 and 4 was not beneficial. Importantly, no treatment influenced neurogenesis (Ki67/Doublecortin (DCX) staining), synapse formation (synaptophysin), or brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) immunohistochemistry. A second experiment confirmed that BDNF levels (ELISA) were equivalent in normothermic and 7-day cooled rats. Last, we measured zinc (Zn), which is important in plasticity, with X-ray fluorescence imaging in normothermic and 7-day cooled rats. Hypothermia did not alter the postischemic distribution of Zn within the hippocampus. In summary, cooling significantly mitigates injury without compromising neuroplasticity.
|Various levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with tinnitus.|
Fumiyuki Goto,Juri Saruta,Sho Kanzaki,Masahiro To,Tomoko Tsutsumi,Keiichi Tsukinoki,Kaoru Ogawa
Neuroscience letters 510 2012
Thus far, no objective measure has been developed to evaluate tinnitus severity. There is a close relationship between tinnitus and depression, in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a pathophysiological role. To determine whether BDNF levels could be used to evaluate tinnitus severity, we evaluated plasma BDNF levels in patients with tinnitus.
|Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder.|
B J Hasselbalch,U Knorr,B Bennike,S G Hasselbalch,M H Greisen Søndergaard,L Vedel Kessing
Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica 126 2012
Hasselbalch BJ, Knorr U, Bennike B, Hasselbalch SG, Greisen Søndergaard MH, Vedel Kessing L. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder. Objective: Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness. Method: Whole-blood BDNF levels were measured in blood samples from patients with unipolar disorder in a sustained state of clinical remission and in a healthy control group. Participants were recruited via Danish registers, a method that benefits from the opportunity to obtain well-matched community-based samples as well as providing a high diagnostic validity of the patient sample. Results: A total of 85 patients and 50 controls were included in the study. In multiple linear regression analyses, including the covariates age, gender, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, body-mass index, education, smoking and physical exercise, patients with unipolar depressive disorder had decreased levels of BDNF compared to healthy control individuals [B = -7.4, 95% CI (-11.2, -3.7), = 0.21 P < 0.001]. No association between course of clinical illness and BDNF levels was present. Conclusion: Whole-blood BDNF levels seem to be decreased in patients remitted from unipolar depressive disorder, suggesting that neurotrophic changes may exist beyond the depressive state.
|Increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in first episode psychotic patients after treatment with atypical antipsychotics.|
González-Pintoa A, Mosquera F, Palomino A, Alberich S, Gutiérrez A, Haidar K, Vega P, Barbeito S, Ortiz A, Matute C
Int Clin Psychopharmacol 25 241-5. 2010
Some preclinical and postmortem studies suggest that the effects of atypical antipsychotics could be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic with shown efficacy in psychosis treatment. The aim of this study was to compare plasma BDNF levels at baseline and after 1 year of olanzapine treatment in 18 drug-naive patients who experienced a first psychotic episode with those of 18 healthy control participants matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic level. Plasma BDNF levels were measured in patients at the index episode and at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Symptoms and functioning of patients and controls were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and Global Assessment of Function Scale. BDNF levels of patients at onset were significantly lower than controls but increased toward control values during olanzapine treatment. There was a significant positive correlation between BDNF levels and functioning (Global Assessment of Function Scale). BDNF levels were also negatively correlated with positive symptoms, but not with negative symptoms or general psychopathology. Results suggest that olanzapine can offset the low BDNF levels at the onset of first psychotic episodes, and improving psychotic symptoms. The increase in BDNF levels may be its mechanism of action in improving positive symptoms.
|Serum MIP-1 alpha level: a biomarker for the follow-up of lentiviral therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB mice.|
Paola Di Natale,Carmela Di Domenico,Daniele Di Napoli
Journal of inherited metabolic disease 33 2010
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). The disease is characterized by mild somatic features and severe neurological involvement, with high mortality rates. Although some therapeutic approaches have been applied to the murine model of the disease, no effective therapy is available. Moreover, assessing therapeutic efficacy is challenged by the lack of markers to for progression and severity. In this study, we examined the effect of brain-directed lentiviral (LV) gene therapy on serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) proteins in the murine model of MPS IIIB to identify novel serum biomarkers. The cytokine MIP-1alpha was elevated in MPS IIIB mouse serum, and following gene therapy, it was reduced to normal levels. For neurotrophin BDNF, the difference in serum levels between MPS IIIB and normal mice was not statistically significant; after LV gene therapy, an increase in protein was found in treated mice, although the values were not statistically significant. Our studies suggest MIP-1alpha as the first serum biomarker that could be used to monitor disease progression and treatment for MPS IIIB disease.
|IFATS collection: The conditioned media of adipose stromal cells protect against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage in neonatal rats.|
Xing Wei, Zhimei Du, Liming Zhao, Dongni Feng, Gang Wei, Yongzheng He, Jiangning Tan, Wei-Hui Lee, Harald Hampel, Richard Dodel, Brian H Johnstone, Keith L March, Martin R Farlow, Yansheng Du
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 27 478-88 2009
Adipose tissue stroma contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells, which support repair when administered to damaged tissues, in large part through secreted trophic factors. We directly tested the ability of media collected from cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to protect neurons in a rat model of brain hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Concentrated conditioned medium from cultured rat ASCs (ASC-CM) or control medium was infused through the jugular vein of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to HI injury. The ASC-CM was administered either 1 hour before or 24 hours after induction of injury. Analysis at 1 week indicated that administration at both time points significantly protected against hippocampal and cortical volume loss. Analysis of parallel groups for behavioral and learning changes at 2 months postischemia demonstrated that both treated groups performed significantly better than the controls in Morris water maze functional tests. Subsequent post-mortem evaluation of brain damage at the 2-month time point confirmed neuronal loss to be similar to that observed at 1 week for all groups. We have identified several neurotrophic factors in ASC-CM, particularly insulin-like growth factor-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which are important factors that could contribute to the protective effects of ASCs observed in studies with both in vitro and in vivo neuronal injury models. These data suggest that delivery of the milieu of factors secreted by ASCs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of HI, as well as other brain injuries.
|The differential regulation of BDNF and TrkB levels in juvenile rats after four days of escitalopram and desipramine treatment.|
Megan E Kozisek, David Middlemas, David B Bylund
Neuropharmacology 54 251-7 2008
Major depressive disorder is a major health problem in adults and is now recognized as a substantial problem in children as well. Tricyclic antidepressants, including desipramine (DMI), are no better than placebo in treating childhood and adolescent depression, but are effective in treating adult depression. Several studies have suggested that normal BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) signaling is necessary for antidepressant drug action. Antidepressant drugs induce several plastic changes in the rodent brain which may be associated with changes in BDNF levels and/or with BDNF function. In the present study we report parallel measurements of BDNF mRNA and protein in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after four days of twice daily treatments with escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and desipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Post-natal day 13, 21, 28 and adult rats were used in this study. TrkB (the primary receptor for BDNF) mRNA levels were also examined under the same treatment conditions. BDNF mRNA and protein levels, as well as TrkB mRNA levels, were increased significantly in post-natal day 13 pups after escitalopram treatment as compared to control, but desipramine failed to increase either BDNF or TrkB. The failure of desipramine to increase BDNF and TrkB levels in juvenile rats is consistent with the lack of efficacy of desipramine in children and adolescents. The serotonergic nervous system matures earlier than the noradrenergic system, which may explain why escitalopram, but not desipramine, increases BDNF and TrkB levels.
|A closer look at immunoassay platforms. Beyond fit for purpse. Bring your biomarkers to life with EMD Millipore Immunoassay Platform Solutions (SigmaMillipore)|
|Protein Detection Platform and Services Brochure|
|Full Service Custom-built Assays (MilliporeSigma)|
Instructions for Use
|ChemiKine¿ Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Sandwich ELISA Kit|