Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, H||ICC, IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal serum in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.150 mM NaCl and 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2-8°C for up to 6 months.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-phospho-Histone H3 (Ser10) Antibody, Mitosis Marker SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Cell cycle heterogeneity directs the timing of neural stem cell activation from quiescence.|
Otsuki L, Brand AH
Science, 360(6384):99-102 2018
Quiescent stem cells in adult tissues can be activated for homeostasis or repair. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in Drosophila are reactivated from quiescence in response to nutrition by the insulin signaling pathway. It is widely accepted that quiescent stem cells are arrested in G0 In this study, however, we demonstrate that quiescent NSCs (qNSCs) are arrested in either G2 or G0 G2-G0 heterogeneity directs NSC behavior: G2 qNSCs reactivate before G0 qNSCs. In addition, we show that the evolutionarily conserved pseudokinase Tribbles (Trbl) induces G2 NSCs to enter quiescence by promoting degradation of Cdc25String and that it subsequently maintains quiescence by inhibiting Akt activation. Insulin signaling overrides repression of Akt and silences trbl transcription, allowing NSCs to exit quiescence. Our results have implications for identifying and manipulating quiescent stem cells for regenerative purposes.
|Wee-1 kinase inhibition overcomes cisplatin resistance associated with high-risk TP53 mutations in head and neck cancer through mitotic arrest followed by senescence.|
Osman, AA; Monroe, MM; Ortega Alves, MV; Patel, AA; Katsonis, P; Fitzgerald, AL; Neskey, DM; Frederick, MJ; Woo, SH; Caulin, C; Hsu, TK; McDonald, TO; Kimmel, M; Meyn, RE; Lichtarge, O; Myers, JN
Molecular cancer therapeutics 14 608-19 2015
Although cisplatin has played a role in "standard-of-care" multimodality therapy for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), the rate of treatment failure remains particularly high for patients receiving cisplatin whose tumors have mutations in the TP53 gene. We found that cisplatin treatment of HNSCC cells with mutant TP53 leads to arrest of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, leading us to hypothesize that the wee-1 kinase inhibitor MK-1775 would abrogate the cisplatin-induced G2 block and thereby sensitize isogenic HNSCC cells with mutant TP53 or lacking p53 expression to cisplatin. We tested this hypothesis using clonogenic survival assays, flow cytometry, and in vivo tumor growth delay experiments with an orthotopic nude mouse model of oral tongue cancer. We also used a novel TP53 mutation classification scheme to identify which TP53 mutations are associated with limited tumor responses to cisplatin treatment. Clonogenic survival analyses indicate that nanomolar concentration of MK-1775 sensitizes HNSCC cells with high-risk mutant p53 to cisplatin. Consistent with its ability to chemosensitize, MK-1775 abrogated the cisplatin-induced G2 block in p53-defective cells leading to mitotic arrest associated with a senescence-like phenotype. Furthermore, MK-1775 enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin in vivo in tumors harboring TP53 mutations. These results indicate that HNSCC cells expressing high-risk p53 mutations are significantly sensitized to cisplatin therapy by the selective wee-1 kinase inhibitor, supporting the clinical evaluation of MK-1775 in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of patients with TP53 mutant HNSCC.
|Midostaurin preferentially attenuates proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cell lines through inhibition of Aurora kinase family.|
Kawai, M; Nakashima, A; Kamada, S; Kikkawa, U
Journal of biomedical science 22 48 2015
Breast cancer is classified into three subtypes by the expression of biomarker receptors such as hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) expresses none of these receptors and has an aggressive phenotype with a poor prognosis, which is insensitive to the drugs that target the hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. It is, thus, required to develop an effective therapeutic reagent to treat TNBC.The study using a panel of 19 breast cancer cell lines revealed that midostaurin, a multi-target protein kinase inhibitor, suppresses preferentially the growth of TNBC cells comparing with non-TNBC cells. Clustering analysis of the drug activity data for the panel of cancer cell lines predicted that midostaurin shares the target with Aurora kinase inhibitors. Following studies indicated that midostaurin attenuates the phosphorylation reaction mediated by Aurora kinase in the cells and directly inhibits this protein kinase in vitro, and that this reagent induces apoptosis accompanying accumulation of 4N and 8N DNA cells in TNBC cells.Midostaurin suppresses the proliferation of TNBC cells among the breast cancer cell lines presumably through the inhibition of the Aurora kinase family. The precise study of midostaurin on cell growth will contribute to the development of the drug for the treatment of TNBC.
|Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain.|
Rivera, P; Blanco, E; Bindila, L; Alen, F; Vargas, A; Rubio, L; Pavón, FJ; Serrano, A; Lutz, B; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Suárez, J
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 379 2015
Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence.
|MASTL promotes cyclin B1 destruction by enforcing Cdc20-independent binding of cyclin B1 to the APC/C.|
Voets, E; Wolthuis, R
Biology open 4 484-95 2015
When cells enter mitosis, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is activated by phosphorylation and binding of Cdc20. The RXXL destruction box (D-box) of cyclin B1 only binds Cdc20 after release of the spindle checkpoint in metaphase, initiating cyclin B1 ubiquitination upon chromosome bi-orientation. However, we found that cyclin B1, through Cdk1 and Cks, is targeted to the phosphorylated APC/C(Cdc20) at the start of prometaphase, when the spindle checkpoint is still active. Here, we show that MASTL is essential for cyclin B1 recruitment to the mitotic APC/C and that this occurs entirely independently of Cdc20. Importantly, MASTL-directed binding of cyclin B1 to spindle checkpoint-inhibited APC/C(Cdc20) critically supports efficient cyclin B1 destruction after checkpoint release. A high incidence of anaphase bridges observed in response to MASTL RNAi may result from cyclin B1 remaining after securin destruction, which is insufficient to keep MASTL-depleted cells in mitosis but delays the activation of separase.
|The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.|
Griffin, JN; Sondalle, SB; Del Viso, F; Baserga, SJ; Khokha, MK
PLoS genetics 11 e1005018 2015
The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC) of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival.
|Genetic manipulation of reptilian embryos: toward an understanding of cortical development and evolution.|
Nomura, T; Yamashita, W; Gotoh, H; Ono, K
Frontiers in neuroscience 9 45 2015
The mammalian neocortex is a remarkable structure that is characterized by tangential surface expansion and six-layered lamination. However, how the mammalian neocortex emerged during evolution remains elusive. Because all modern reptiles have a homolog of the neocortex at the dorsal pallium, developmental analyses of the reptilian cortex are valuable to explore the origin of the neocortex. However, reptilian cortical development and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear, mainly due to technical difficulties with sample collection and embryonic manipulation. Here, we introduce a method of embryonic manipulations for the Madagascar ground gecko and Chinese softshell turtle. We established in ovo electroporation and an ex ovo culture system to address neural stem cell dynamics, neuronal differentiation and migration. Applications of these techniques illuminate the developmental mechanisms underlying reptilian corticogenesis, which provides significant insight into the evolutionary steps of different types of cortex and the origin of the mammalian neocortex.
|TD-60 links RalA GTPase function to the CPC in mitosis.|
Papini, D; Langemeyer, L; Abad, MA; Kerr, A; Samejima, I; Eyers, PA; Jeyaprakash, AA; Higgins, JM; Barr, FA; Earnshaw, WC
Nature communications 6 7678 2015
TD-60 (also known as RCC2) is a highly conserved protein that structurally resembles the Ran guanine exchange factor (GEF) RCC1, but has not previously been shown to have GEF activity. TD-60 has a typical chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) distribution in mitotic cells, but associates with integrin complexes and is involved in cell motility during interphase. Here we show that TD-60 exhibits GEF activity, in vitro and in cells, for the small GTPase RalA. TD-60 or RalA depletion causes spindle abnormalities in prometaphase associated with abnormal centromeric accumulation of CPC components. TD-60 and RalA apparently work together to contribute to the regulation of kinetochore-microtubule interactions in early mitosis. Importantly, several mitotic phenotypes caused by TD-60 depletion are reverted by the expression of a GTP-locked mutant, RalA (Q72L). The demonstration that a small GTPase participates in the regulation of the CPC reveals a level of mitotic regulation not suspected in previous studies.
|OTX2 Transcription Factor Controls Regional Patterning within the Medial Ganglionic Eminence and Regional Identity of the Septum.|
Hoch, RV; Lindtner, S; Price, JD; Rubenstein, JL
Cell reports 12 482-94 2015
The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for gastrulation and early neural development. We generated Otx2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice to investigate its roles in telencephalon development after neurulation (approximately embryonic day 9.0). We conducted transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization to identify genes de-regulated in Otx2 cKO ventral forebrain. In parallel, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify enhancer elements, the OTX2 binding motif, and de-regulated genes that are likely direct targets of OTX2 transcriptional regulation. We found that Otx2 was essential in septum specification, regulation of Fgf signaling in the rostral telencephalon, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) patterning, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis. Within the MGE, Otx2 was required for ventral, but not dorsal, identity, thus controlling the production of specific MGE derivatives.
|Lineage-negative progenitors mobilize to regenerate lung epithelium after major injury.|
Vaughan, AE; Brumwell, AN; Xi, Y; Gotts, JE; Brownfield, DG; Treutlein, B; Tan, K; Tan, V; Liu, FC; Looney, MR; Matthay, MA; Rock, JR; Chapman, HA
Nature 517 621-5 2015
Broadly, tissue regeneration is achieved in two ways: by proliferation of common differentiated cells and/or by deployment of specialized stem/progenitor cells. Which of these pathways applies is both organ- and injury-specific. Current models in the lung posit that epithelial repair can be attributed to cells expressing mature lineage markers. By contrast, here we define the regenerative role of previously uncharacterized, rare lineage-negative epithelial stem/progenitor (LNEP) cells present within normal distal lung. Quiescent LNEPs activate a ΔNp63 (a p63 splice variant) and cytokeratin 5 remodelling program after influenza or bleomycin injury in mice. Activated cells proliferate and migrate widely to occupy heavily injured areas depleted of mature lineages, at which point they differentiate towards mature epithelium. Lineage tracing revealed scant contribution of pre-existing mature epithelial cells in such repair, whereas orthotopic transplantation of LNEPs, isolated by a definitive surface profile identified through single-cell sequencing, directly demonstrated the proliferative capacity and multipotency of this population. LNEPs require Notch signalling to activate the ΔNp63 and cytokeratin 5 program, and subsequent Notch blockade promotes an alveolar cell fate. Persistent Notch signalling after injury led to parenchymal 'micro-honeycombing' (alveolar cysts), indicative of failed regeneration. Lungs from patients with fibrosis show analogous honeycomb cysts with evidence of hyperactive Notch signalling. Our findings indicate that distinct stem/progenitor cell pools repopulate injured tissue depending on the extent of the injury, and the outcomes of regeneration or fibrosis may depend in part on the dynamics of LNEP Notch signalling.