Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, T, Eu||WB, ICC, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Whole antiserum containing 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 Antibody SDS
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 (rabbit antiserum) - DAM1427455||DAM1427455|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 -||ANTI-ACETYL-HISTONE|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2384725||2384725|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2459612||2459612|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 17428||17428|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 18784||18784|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 19336||19336|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2019734||2019734|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 20667||20667|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 - 2073114||2073114|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Transcriptional regulation of the human TNFSF11 gene in T cells via a cell type-selective set of distal enhancers.|
Bishop, KA; Wang, X; Coy, HM; Meyer, MB; Gumperz, JE; Pike, JW
Journal of cellular biochemistry 116 320-30 2015
In addition to osteoblast lineage cells, the TNF-like factor receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is expressed in both B and T cells and may play a role in bone resorption. Rankl gene (Tnfsf11) expression in mouse T cells is mediated through multiple distal elements marked by increased transcription factor occupancy, histone tail acetylation, and RNA polymerase II recruitment. Little is known, however, of the regulation of human TNFSF11 in T cells. Accordingly, we examined the consequence of T cell activation on the expression of this factor both in Jurkat cells and in primary human T cells. We then explored the mechanism of this regulation by scanning over 400 kb of DNA surrounding the TNFSF11 locus for regulatory enhancers using ChIP-chip analysis. Histone H3/H4 acetylation enrichment identified putative regulatory regions located between -170 and -220 kb upstream of the human TNFSF11 TSS that we designated the human T cell control region (hTCCR). This region showed high sequence conservation with the mouse TCCR. Inhibition of MEK1/2 by U0126 resulted in decreased RANKL expression suggesting that stimulation through MEK1/2 was a prerequisite. ChIP-chip analysis also revealed that c-FOS was recruited to the hTCCR as well. Importantly, both the human TNFSF11 D5a/b (RLD5a/b) enhancer and segments of the hTCCR mediated robust inducible reporter activity following TCR activation. Finally, SNPs implicated in diseases characterized by dysregulated BMD co-localized to the hTCCR region. We conclude that the hTCCR region contains a cell-selective set of enhancers that plays an integral role in the transcriptional regulation of the TNFSF11 gene in human T cells.
|Mechanistic analysis of the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) in BRD4-NUT oncoprotein-induced transcriptional activation.|
Wang, R; You, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 290 2744-58 2015
NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer typically caused by the translocation t(15;19), which results in the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. Previous studies have demonstrated that fusion of the NUT protein with the double bromodomains of BRD4 may significantly alter the cellular gene expression profile to contribute to NMC tumorigenesis. However, the mechanistic details of this BRD4-NUT function remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the NUT function in transcriptional regulation by targeting it to a LacO transgene array integrated in U2OS 2-6-3 cells, which allow us to visualize how NUT alters the in situ gene transcription dynamic. Using this system, we demonstrated that the NUT protein tethered to the LacO locus recruits p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP), induces histone hyperacetylation, and enriches BRD4 to the transgene array chromatin foci. We also discovered that, in BRD4-NUT expressed in NMC cells, the NUT moiety of the fusion protein anchored to chromatin by the double bromodomains also stimulates histone hyperacetylation, which causes BRD4 to bind tighter to chromatin. Consequently, multiple BRD4-interacting factors are recruited to the NUT-associated chromatin locus to activate in situ transgene expression. This gene transcription function was repressed by either expression of a dominant negative inhibitor of the p300-NUT interaction or treatment with (+)-JQ1, which dissociates BRD4 from the LacO chromatin locus. Our data support a model in which BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation recruits additional BRD4 and interacting partners to support transcriptional activation, which underlies the BRD4-NUT oncogenic mechanism in NMC.
|Loss of the Notch effector RBPJ promotes tumorigenesis.|
Kulic, I; Robertson, G; Chang, L; Baker, JH; Lockwood, WW; Mok, W; Fuller, M; Fournier, M; Wong, N; Chou, V; Robinson, MD; Chun, HJ; Gilks, B; Kempkes, B; Thomson, TA; Hirst, M; Minchinton, AI; Lam, WL; Jones, S; Marra, M; Karsan, A
The Journal of experimental medicine 212 37-52 2015
Aberrant Notch activity is oncogenic in several malignancies, but it is unclear how expression or function of downstream elements in the Notch pathway affects tumor growth. Transcriptional regulation by Notch is dependent on interaction with the DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, RBPJ, and consequent derepression or activation of associated gene promoters. We show here that RBPJ is frequently depleted in human tumors. Depletion of RBPJ in human cancer cell lines xenografted into immunodeficient mice resulted in activation of canonical Notch target genes, and accelerated tumor growth secondary to reduced cell death. Global analysis of activated regions of the genome, as defined by differential acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), revealed that the cell death pathway was significantly dysregulated in RBPJ-depleted tumors. Analysis of transcription factor binding data identified several transcriptional activators that bind promoters with differential H4ac in RBPJ-depleted cells. Functional studies demonstrated that NF-κB and MYC were essential for survival of RBPJ-depleted cells. Thus, loss of RBPJ derepresses target gene promoters, allowing Notch-independent activation by alternate transcription factors that promote tumorigenesis.
|Evaluation of the synuclein-γ (SNCG) gene as a PPARγ target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue.|
Dunn, TN; Akiyama, T; Lee, HW; Kim, JB; Knotts, TA; Smith, SR; Sears, DD; Carstens, E; Adams, SH
PloS one 10 e0115830 2015
Recent evidence in adipocytes points to a role for synuclein-γ in metabolism and lipid droplet dynamics, but interestingly this factor is also robustly expressed in peripheral neurons. Specific regulation of the synuclein-γ gene (Sncg) by PPARγ requires further evaluation, especially in peripheral neurons, prompting us to test if Sncg is a bona fide PPARγ target in murine adipocytes and peripheral somatosensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Sncg mRNA was decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~68%) by rosiglitazone, and this effect was diminished by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PPARγ protein binding at two promoter sequences of Sncg during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Rosiglitazone did not affect Sncg mRNA expression in murine cultured DRG neurons. In subcutaneous human WAT samples from two cohorts treated with pioglitazone (greater than 11 wks), SNCG mRNA expression was reduced, albeit highly variable and most evident in type 2 diabetes. Leptin (Lep) expression, thought to be coordinately-regulated with Sncg based on correlations in human adipose tissue, was also reduced in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by rosiglitazone. However, Lep was unaffected by PPARγ antagonist, and the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly reduced Lep expression (~64%) while not impacting Sncg. The results support the concept that synuclein-γ shares some, but not all, gene regulators with leptin and is a PPARγ target in adipocytes but not DRG neurons. Regulation of synuclein-γ by cues such as PPARγ agonism in adipocytes is logical based on recent evidence for an important role for synuclein-γ in the maintenance and dynamics of adipocyte lipid droplets.
|Deacetylase inhibitors repress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein function.|
Pinz, S; Unser, S; Buob, D; Fischer, P; Jobst, B; Rascle, A
Nucleic acids research 43 3524-45 2015
Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 is essential for the regulation of proliferation and survival genes. Its activity is tightly regulated through cytokine signaling and is often upregulated in cancer. We showed previously that the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits STAT5-mediated transcription by preventing recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at a step following STAT5 binding to DNA. The mechanism and factors involved in this inhibition remain unknown. We now show that deacetylase inhibitors do not target STAT5 acetylation, as we initially hypothesized. Instead, they induce a rapid increase in global histone acetylation apparently resulting in the delocalization of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein Brd2 and of the Brd2-associated factor TBP to hyperacetylated chromatin. Treatment with the BET inhibitor (+)-JQ1 inhibited expression of STAT5 target genes, supporting a role of BET proteins in the regulation of STAT5 activity. Accordingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Brd2 is associated with the transcriptionally active STAT5 target gene Cis and is displaced upon TSA treatment. Our data therefore indicate that Brd2 is required for the proper recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at STAT5 target genes and that deacetylase inhibitors suppress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with Brd2 function.
|HDAC8, A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST).|
Lopez, G; Bill, KL; Bid, HK; Braggio, D; Constantino, D; Prudner, B; Zewdu, A; Batte, K; Lev, D; Pollock, RE
PloS one 10 e0133302 2015
HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Recently, we demonstrated anti-MPNST efficacy of HDAC8i in human and murine-derived MPNST pre-clinical models; we now seek to consider the potential therapeutic inhibition of HDAC8 in MPNST.Four Human MPNST cell lines, a murine-derived MPNST cell line, and two HDAC8 inhibitors (PCI-34051, PCI-48012; Pharmacyclics, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA) were studied. Proliferation was determined using MTS and clonogenic assays. Effects on cell cycle were determined via PI FACS analysis; effects on apoptosis were determined using Annexin V-PI FACS analysis and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In vivo growth effects of HDAC8i were evaluated using MPNST xenograft models. 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential HDAC8 deacetylation substrates.HDAC8i induced cell growth inhibition and marked S-phase cell cycle arrest in human and murine-derived MPNST cells. Relative to control, HDAC8i induced apoptosis in both human and murine-derived MPNST cells. HDAC8i exhibited significant effects on MPNST xenograft growth (p=0.001) and tumor weight (p=0.02). Four potential HDAC8 substrate targets were identified using a proteomic approach: PARK7, HMGB1, PGAM1, PRDX6.MPNST is an aggressive sarcoma that is notoriously therapy-resistant, hence the urgent need for improved anti-MPNST therapies. HDAC8 inhibition may be useful for MPNST by improving efficacy while limiting toxicities as compared to pan-HDACis.
|Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.|
Valledor, L; Pascual, J; Meijón, M; Escandón, M; Cañal, MJ
PloS one 10 e0126405 2015
Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.
|A vlincRNA participates in senescence maintenance by relieving H2AZ-mediated repression at the INK4 locus.|
Lazorthes, S; Vallot, C; Briois, S; Aguirrebengoa, M; Thuret, JY; St Laurent, G; Rougeulle, C; Kapranov, P; Mann, C; Trouche, D; Nicolas, E
Nature communications 6 5971 2015
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play major roles in proper chromatin organization and function. Senescence, a strong anti-proliferative process and a major anticancer barrier, is associated with dramatic chromatin reorganization in heterochromatin foci. Here we analyze strand-specific transcriptome changes during oncogene-induced human senescence. Strikingly, while differentially expressed RNAs are mostly repressed during senescence, ncRNAs belonging to the recently described vlincRNA (very long intergenic ncRNA) class are mainly activated. We show that VAD, a novel antisense vlincRNA strongly induced during senescence, is required for the maintenance of senescence features. VAD modulates chromatin structure in cis and activates gene expression in trans at the INK4 locus, which encodes cell cycle inhibitors important for senescence-associated cell proliferation arrest. Importantly, VAD inhibits the incorporation of the repressive histone variant H2A.Z at INK4 gene promoters in senescent cells. Our data underline the importance of vlincRNAs as sensors of cellular environment changes and as mediators of the correct transcriptional response.
|Canine spontaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas represent their human counterparts at the molecular level.|
Liu, D; Xiong, H; Ellis, AE; Northrup, NC; Dobbin, KK; Shin, DM; Zhao, S
PLoS genetics 11 e1005277 2015
Spontaneous canine head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents an excellent model of human HNSCC but is greatly understudied. To better understand and utilize this valuable resource, we performed a pilot study that represents its first genome-wide characterization by investigating 12 canine HNSCC cases, of which 9 are oral, via high density array comparative genomic hybridization and RNA-seq. The analyses reveal that these canine cancers recapitulate many molecular features of human HNSCC. These include analogous genomic copy number abnormality landscapes and sequence mutation patterns, recurrent alteration of known HNSCC genes and pathways (e.g., cell cycle, PI3K/AKT signaling), and comparably extensive heterogeneity. Amplification or overexpression of protein kinase genes, matrix metalloproteinase genes, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes TWIST1 and SNAI1 are also prominent in these canine tumors. This pilot study, along with a rapidly growing body of literature on canine cancer, reemphasizes the potential value of spontaneous canine cancers in HNSCC basic and translational research.
|Class I histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibit the retention of BRCA1 and 53BP1 at the site of DNA damage.|
Fukuda, T; Wu, W; Okada, M; Maeda, I; Kojima, Y; Hayami, R; Miyoshi, Y; Tsugawa, K; Ohta, T
Cancer science 106 1050-6 2015
BRCA1 and 53BP1 antagonistically regulate homology-directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A directly inhibits the retention of 53BP1 at DSB sites by acetylating histone H4 (H4ac), which interferes with 53BP1 binding to dimethylated histone H4 Lys20 (H4K20me2). Conversely, we recently found that the retention of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex is also affected by another methylated histone residue, H3K9me2, which can be suppressed by the histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) inhibitor UNC0638. Here, we investigate the effects of the class I HDAC inhibitors MS-275 and FK228 compared to UNC0638 on histone modifications and the DNA damage response. In addition to H4ac, the HDAC inhibitors induce H3K9ac and inhibit H3K9me2 at doses that do not affect the expression levels of DNA repair genes. By contrast, UNC0638 selectively inhibits H3K9me2 without affecting the levels of H3K9ac, H3K56ac or H4ac. Reflecting their effects on histone modifications, the HDAC inhibitors inhibit ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) formation of BRCA1 and BARD1 as well as 53BP1 and RIF1, whereas UNC0638 suppresses IRIF formation of BRCA1 and BARD1 but not 53BP1 and RIF1. Although HDAC inhibitors suppressed HDR, they did not cooperate with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib to block cancer cell growth, possibly due to simultaneous suppression of NHEJ pathway components. Collectively, these results suggest the mechanism by that HDAC inhibitors inhibit both the HDR and NHEJ pathways, whereas HKMT inhibitor inhibits only the HDR pathway; this finding may affect the chemosensitizing effects of the inhibitors.
|How was this antibody made? What modifications will it recognize?||The Anti-acetyl-Histone H4 was raised against the tetra acetylated H4. This antibody will recognize intermediately acetylated H4, but we are unsure what the reactivity for the antibody is against tetra-acetylated H4. We know it will not recognize acetylation on lysine 16, however it does recognize acetylation on the other three sites. A protein does not require acetylation on all four sites for this antibody to recognize it.|