Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB, ICC, ChIP-seq, ChIP||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 2153150||2153150|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 2370129||2370129|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 2430399||2430399|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 2455632||2455632|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 15792||15792|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 17300||17300|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 19165||19165|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 1969119||1969119|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 2068182||2068182|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 - 21514||21514|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|PU.1 Suppresses Th2 Cytokine Expression via Silencing of GATA3 Transcription in Dendritic Cells.|
Yashiro, T; Kubo, M; Ogawa, H; Okumura, K; Nishiyama, C
PloS one 10 e0137699 2015
The transcription factor PU.1 is predominantly expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and is essential for DC differentiation. Although there are several reports that PU.1 positively regulates the expression of DC-specific genes, whether PU.1 also has a suppressive effect on DCs is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that PU.1 suppresses the expression of Th2 cytokines including IL-13 and IL-5 in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), through repression of the expression of GATA3, which is a master regulator of Th2 differentiations. When PU.1 siRNA was introduced into BMDCs, LPS-induced expression of IL-13 and IL-5 was increased along with upregulation of the constitutive expression of GATA2 and GATA3. The additional introduction of GATA3 siRNA but not of GATA2 siRNA abrogated PU.1 siRNA-mediated upregulation of IL-13 and IL-5. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that PU.1 bound to Gata3 proximal promoter region, which is more dominant than the distal promoter in driving GATA3 transcription in DCs. The degree of histone acetylation at the Gata3 promoter was decreased in PU.1 siRNA-introduced DCs, suggesting the involvement of PU.1 in chromatin modification of the Gata3 promoter. Treatment with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A, increased the degree of histone H3 acetylation at the Gata3 promoter and induced the subsequent expression of GATA3. Experiments using HDAC inhibitors and siRNAs showed that HDAC3 suppressed GATA3 expression. The recruitment of HDAC3 to the Gata3 promoter was decreased by PU.1 knockdown. LPS-induced IL-13 expression was dramatically reduced in BMDCs generated from mice lacking the conserved GATA3 response element, termed CGRE, which is an essential site for the binding of GATA3 on the Il-13 promoter. The degree of H3K4me3 at CGRE was significantly increased in PU.1 siRNA-transfected stimulated DCs. Our results indicate that PU.1 plays pivotal roles in DC development and function, serving not only as a transcriptional activator but also as a repressor.
|The Depsipeptide Romidepsin Reverses HIV-1 Latency In Vivo.|
Søgaard, OS; Graversen, ME; Leth, S; Olesen, R; Brinkmann, CR; Nissen, SK; Kjaer, AS; Schleimann, MH; Denton, PW; Hey-Cunningham, WJ; Koelsch, KK; Pantaleo, G; Krogsgaard, K; Sommerfelt, M; Fromentin, R; Chomont, N; Rasmussen, TA; Østergaard, L; Tolstrup, M
PLoS pathogens 11 e1005142 2015
Pharmacologically-induced activation of replication competent proviruses from latency in the presence of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been proposed as a step towards curing HIV-1 infection. However, until now, approaches to reverse HIV-1 latency in humans have yielded mixed results. Here, we report a proof-of-concept phase Ib/IIa trial where 6 aviremic HIV-1 infected adults received intravenous 5 mg/m2 romidepsin (Celgene) once weekly for 3 weeks while maintaining ART. Lymphocyte histone H3 acetylation, a cellular measure of the pharmacodynamic response to romidepsin, increased rapidly (maximum fold range: 3.7–7.7 relative to baseline) within the first hours following each romidepsin administration. Concurrently, HIV-1 transcription quantified as copies of cell-associated un-spliced HIV-1 RNA increased significantly from baseline during treatment (range of fold-increase: 2.4–5.0; p = 0.03). Plasma HIV-1 RNA increased from less than 20 copies/mL at baseline to readily quantifiable levels at multiple post-infusion time-points in 5 of 6 patients (range 46–103 copies/mL following the second infusion, p = 0.04). Importantly, romidepsin did not decrease the number of HIV-specific T cells or inhibit T cell cytokine production. Adverse events (all grade 1–2) were consistent with the known side effects of romidepsin. In conclusion, romidepsin safely induced HIV-1 transcription resulting in plasma HIV-1 RNA that was readily detected with standard commercial assays demonstrating that significant reversal of HIV-1 latency in vivo is possible without blunting T cell-mediated immune responses. These finding have major implications for future trials aiming to eradicate the HIV-1 reservoir.clinicaltrials.gov NTC02092116.
|Myeloid-derived suppressor cells impair alveolar macrophages through PD-1 receptor ligation during Pneumocystis pneumonia.|
Lei, GS; Zhang, C; Lee, CH
Infection and immunity 83 572-82 2015
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently found to accumulate in the lungs during Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Adoptive transfer of these cells caused lung damage in recipient mice, suggesting that MDSC accumulation is a mechanism of pathogenesis in PcP. In this study, the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) was found to decrease by 40% when they were incubated with MDSCs from Pneumocystis-infected mice compared to those incubated with Gr-1(+) cells from the bone marrow of uninfected mice. The expression of the PU.1 gene in AMs incubated with MDSCs also was decreased. This PU.1 downregulation was due mainly to decreased histone 3 acetylation and increased DNA methylation caused by MDSCs. MDSCs were found to express high levels of PD-L1, and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were found to express high levels of PD-1 during PcP. Furthermore, PD-1 expression in AMs from uninfected mice was increased by 18-fold when they were incubated with MDSCs compared to those incubated with Gr-1(+) cells from the bone marrow of uninfected mice. The adverse effects of MDSCs on AMs were diminished when the MDSCs were pretreated with anti-PD-L1 antibody, suggesting that MDSCs disable AMs through PD-1/PD-L1 ligation during PcP.
|Nanocurcumin Prevents Hypoxia Induced Stress in Primary Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes by Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis.|
Nehra, S; Bhardwaj, V; Ganju, L; Saraswat, D
PloS one 10 e0139121 2015
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress incurs pathophysiological changes in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes by promoting translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Here, we investigate the cardio-protective efficacy of nanocurcumin in protecting primary human ventricular cardiomyocytes (HVCM) from hypoxia induced damages. Hypoxia induced hypertrophy was confirmed by FITC-phenylalanine uptake assay, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) levels and cell size measurements. Hypoxia induced translocation of p53 was investigated by using mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporin A (blocks entry of p53 to mitochondria) and confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence. Mitochondrial damage in hypertrophied HVCM cells was evaluated by analysing bio-energetic, anti-oxidant and metabolic function and substrate switching form lipids to glucose. Nanocurcumin prevented translocation of p53 to mitochondria by stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential and de-stressed hypertrophied HVCM cells by significant restoration in lactate, acetyl-coenzyme A, pyruvate and glucose content along with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) activity. Significant restoration in glucose and modulation of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 levels confirmed that nanocurcumin mediated prevention of substrate switching. Nanocurcumin prevented of mitochondrial stress as confirmed by c-fos/c-jun/p53 signalling. The data indicates decrease in p-300 histone acetyl transferase (HAT) mediated histone acetylation and GATA-4 activation as pharmacological targets of nanocurcumin in preventing hypoxia induced hypertrophy. The study provides an insight into propitious therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin in cardio-protection and usability in clinical applications.
|A gene expression signature identifying transient DNMT1 depletion as a causal factor of cancer-germline gene activation in melanoma.|
Cannuyer, J; Van Tongelen, A; Loriot, A; De Smet, C
Clin Epigenetics 7 114 2015
Many human tumors show aberrant activation of a group of germline-specific genes, termed cancer-germline (CG) genes, several of which appear to exert oncogenic functions. Although activation of CG genes in tumors has been linked to promoter DNA demethylation, the mechanisms underlying this epigenetic alteration remain unclear. Two main processes have been proposed: awaking of a gametogenic program directing demethylation of target DNA sequences via specific regulators, or general deficiency of DNA methylation activities resulting from mis-targeting or down-regulation of the DNMT1 methyltransferase.By the analysis of transcriptomic data, we searched to identify gene expression changes associated with CG gene activation in melanoma cells. We found no evidence linking CG gene activation with differential expression of gametogenic regulators. Instead, CG gene activation correlated with decreased expression of a set of mitosis/division-related genes (ICCG genes). Interestingly, a similar gene expression signature was previously associated with depletion of DNMT1. Consistently, analysis of a large set of melanoma tissues revealed that DNMT1 expression levels were often lower in samples showing activation of multiple CG genes. Moreover, by using immortalized melanocytes and fibroblasts carrying an inducible anti-DNMT1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrate that transient depletion of DNMT1 can lead to long-term activation of CG genes and repression of ICCG genes at the same time. For one of the ICCG genes (CDCA7L), we found that its down-regulation in melanoma cells was associated with deposition of repressive chromatin marks, including H3K27me3.Together, our observations point towards transient DNMT1 depletion as a causal factor of CG gene activation in vivo in melanoma.
|Progenitor stage-specific activity of a cis-acting double GATA motif for Gata1 gene expression.|
Moriguchi, T; Suzuki, M; Yu, L; Takai, J; Ohneda, K; Yamamoto, M
Molecular and cellular biology 35 805-15 2015
GATA1 is a master regulator of erythropoiesis, expression of which is regulated by multiple discrete cis-acting elements. In this study, we examine the activity of a promoter-proximal double GATA (dbGATA) motif, using a Gata1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter (G1BAC-GFP) mouse system. Deletion of the dbGATA motif led to significant reductions in GFP expression in hematopoietic progenitors, while GFP expression was maintained in erythroblasts. Consistently, in mice with a germ line deletion of the dbGATA motif (Gata1(ΔdbGATA) mice), GATA1 expression in progenitors was significantly decreased. The suppressed GATA1 expression was associated with a compensatory increase in GATA2 levels in progenitors. When we crossed Gata1(ΔdbGATA) mice with Gata2 hypomorphic mutant mice (Gata2(fGN/fGN) mice), the Gata1(ΔdbGATA)::Gata2(fGN/fGN) compound mutant mice succumbed to a significant decrease in the progenitor population, whereas both groups of single mutant mice maintained progenitors and survived to adulthood, indicating the functional redundancy between GATA1 and GATA2 in progenitors. Meanwhile, the effects of the dbGATA site deletion on Gata1 expression were subtle in erythroblasts, which showed increased GATA1 binding and enhanced accumulation of active histone marks around the 1st-intron GATA motif of the ΔdbGATA locus. These results thus reveal a novel role of the dbGATA motif in the maintenance of Gata1 expression in hematopoietic progenitors and a functional compensation between the dbGATA site and the 1st-intron GATA motif in erythroblasts.
|Circovirus transport proceeds via direct interaction of the cytoplasmic dynein IC1 subunit with the viral capsid protein.|
Cao, J; Lin, C; Wang, H; Wang, L; Zhou, N; Jin, Y; Liao, M; Zhou, J
Journal of virology 89 2777-91 2015
Microtubule transport of circovirus from the periphery of the cell to the nucleus is essential for viral replication in early infection. How the microtubule is recruited to the viral cargo remains unclear. In this study, we observed that circovirus trafficking is dependent on microtubule polymerization and that incoming circovirus particles colocalize with cytoplasmic dynein and endosomes. However, circovirus binding to dynein was independent of the presence of microtubular α-tubulin and translocation of cytoplasmic dynein into the nucleus. The circovirus capsid (Cap) subunit enhanced microtubular acetylation and directly interacted with intermediate chain 1 (IC1) of dynein. N-terminal residues 42 to 100 of the Cap viral protein were required for efficient binding to the dynein IC1 subunit and for retrograde transport. Knockdown of IC1 decreased virus transport and replication. These results demonstrate that Cap is a direct ligand of the cytoplasmic dynein IC1 subunit and an inducer of microtubule α-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, Cap recruits the host dynein/microtubule machinery to facilitate transport toward the nucleus by an endosomal mechanism distinct from that used for physiological dynein cargo.Incoming viral particles hijack the intracellular trafficking machinery of the host in order to migrate from the cell surface to the replication sites. Better knowledge of the interaction between viruses and virus proteins and the intracellular trafficking machinery may provide new targets for antiviral therapies. Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of circovirus transport. Here, we report that circovirus particles enter early endosomes and utilize the microtubule-associated molecular motor dynein to travel along microtubules. The circovirus capsid subunit enhances microtubular acetylation, and N-terminal residues 42 to 100 directly interact with the dynein IC1 subunit during retrograde transport. These findings highlight a mechanism whereby circoviruses recruit dynein for transport to the nucleus via the dynein/microtubule machinery.
|Epigenetic heterogeneity in HIV-1 latency establishment.|
Matsuda, Y; Kobayashi-Ishihara, M; Fujikawa, D; Ishida, T; Watanabe, T; Yamagishi, M
Scientific reports 5 7701 2015
Despite prolonged antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists as transcriptionally inactive proviruses. The HIV-1 latency remains a principal obstacle in curing AIDS. It is important to understand mechanisms by which HIV-1 latency is established to make the latent reservoir smaller. We present a molecular characterization of distinct populations at an early phase of infection. We developed an original dual-color reporter virus to monitor LTR kinetics from establishment to maintenance stage. We found that there are two ways of latency establishment i.e., by immediate silencing and slow inactivation from active infection. Histone covalent modifications, particularly polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated H3K27 trimethylation, appeared to dominate viral transcription at the early phase. PRC2 also contributes to time-dependent LTR dormancy in the chronic phase of the infection. Significant differences in sensitivity against several stimuli were observed between these two distinct populations. These results will expand our understanding of heterogeneous establishment of HIV-1 latency populations.
|hnRNP K coordinates transcriptional silencing by SETDB1 in embryonic stem cells.|
Thompson, PJ; Dulberg, V; Moon, KM; Foster, LJ; Chen, C; Karimi, MM; Lorincz, MC
PLoS genetics 11 e1004933 2015
Retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) poses a substantial threat to genome stability. Transcriptional silencing of a subset of these parasitic elements in early mouse embryonic and germ cell development is dependent upon the lysine methyltransferase SETDB1, which deposits H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and the co-repressor KAP1, which binds SETDB1 when SUMOylated. Here we identified the transcription co-factor hnRNP K as a novel binding partner of the SETDB1/KAP1 complex in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and show that hnRNP K is required for ERV silencing. RNAi-mediated knockdown of hnRNP K led to depletion of H3K9me3 at ERVs, concomitant with de-repression of proviral reporter constructs and specific ERV subfamilies, as well as a cohort of germline-specific genes directly targeted by SETDB1. While hnRNP K recruitment to ERVs is dependent upon KAP1, SETDB1 binding at these elements requires hnRNP K. Furthermore, an intact SUMO conjugation pathway is necessary for SETDB1 recruitment to proviral chromatin and depletion of hnRNP K resulted in reduced SUMOylation at ERVs. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel regulatory hierarchy governing SETDB1 recruitment and in turn, transcriptional silencing in mESCs.
|An IL-27/NFIL3 signalling axis drives Tim-3 and IL-10 expression and T-cell dysfunction.|
Zhu, C; Sakuishi, K; Xiao, S; Sun, Z; Zaghouani, S; Gu, G; Wang, C; Tan, DJ; Wu, C; Rangachari, M; Pertel, T; Jin, HT; Ahmed, R; Anderson, AC; Kuchroo, VK
Nature communications 6 6072 2015
The inhibitory receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) has emerged as a critical regulator of the T-cell dysfunction that develops in chronic viral infections and cancers. However, little is known regarding the signalling pathways that drive Tim-3 expression. Here, we demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-27 induces nuclear factor, interleukin 3 regulated (NFIL3), which promotes permissive chromatin remodelling of the Tim-3 locus and induces Tim-3 expression together with the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. We further show that the IL-27/NFIL3 signalling axis is crucial for the induction of Tim-3 in vivo. IL-27-conditioned T helper 1 cells exhibit reduced effector function and are poor mediators of intestinal inflammation. This inhibitory effect is NFIL3 dependent. In contrast, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from IL-27R(-/-) mice exhibit reduced NFIL3, less Tim-3 expression and failure to develop dysfunctional phenotype, resulting in better tumour growth control. Thus, our data identify an IL-27/NFIL3 signalling axis as a key regulator of effector T-cell responses via induction of Tim-3, IL-10 and T-cell dysfunction.
|White Paper - The Message in the Marks: Deciphering Cancer Epigenetics (EMD)|