Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R||ICC, IHC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, phosphoSer31|
|Presentation||Affinity purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 μg/mL BSA and 50% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted for up to 6 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Do not store in a self defrosting freezer.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, phosphoSer31 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR) in the heart after morphine withdrawal.|
Almela, P; García-Carmona, JA; Martínez-Laorden, E; Milanés, MV; Laorden, ML
Frontiers in pharmacology 4 164 2013
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors involved in signal transduction. These receptors are linked to a variety of physiological and biological processes such as regulation of neurotransmission, growth, and cell differentiation among others. Some of the effects of GPCRs are known to be mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MAPK) pathways. Cross-talk among various signal pathways plays an important role in activation of intracellular and intranuclear signal transduction cascades. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal leads to an up-regulation of adenyl cyclase-mediated signaling, resulting in high expression of protein kinase (PK) A. In addition, there is also an increased expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), one member of MAPK. For this reason, the crosstalk between these GPCRs and receptors with tyrosine kinase activity (TKR) can be considered a possible mechanism for adaptive changes that occurs after morphine withdrawal. Morphine withdrawal activates ERK1/2 and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser31 in the right and left ventricle. When N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004), a PKA inhibitor was infused, the ability of morphine withdrawal to activate ERK, which phosphorylates TH at Ser31, was reduced. The present finding demonstrated that the enhancement of ERK1/2 expression and the phosphorylation state of TH at Ser31 during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and suggest cross-talk between PKA and ERK1/2 transduction pathway mediating morphine withdrawal-induced activation of TH. Increasing understanding of the mechanisms that interconnect the two pathway regulated by GPCRs and TKRs may facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies.
|Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 on the catecholaminergic response to morphine withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).|
Almela, P; Navarro-Zaragoza, J; García-Carmona, JA; Mora, L; Hidalgo, J; Milanés, MV; Laorden, ML
PloS one 7 e47089 2012
Stress induces the release of the peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and also increases dopamine (DA) levels in brain regions receiving dense VTA input. Since the role of stress in drug addiction is well established, the present study examined the possible involvement of CRF1 receptor in the interaction between morphine withdrawal and catecholaminergic pathways in the reward system. The effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on signs of withdrawal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and activation of VTA dopaminergic neurons, were investigated in rats pretreated with vehicle or CP-154,526 (selective CRF1R antagonist). CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss and suppressed some of withdrawal signs. Pretreatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover at NAc or plasma corticosterone levels that were seen during morphine withdrawal. However, blockade of CRF1 receptor significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, DA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 in the NAc. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the number of TH containing neurons expressing c-Fos in the VTA after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Altogether, these results support the idea that VTA dopaminergic neurons are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF1 receptors are involved in the activation of dopaminergic pathways which project to NAc.
|Genetic deletion of trace amine 1 receptors reveals their role in auto-inhibiting the actions of ecstasy (MDMA).|
Di Cara, B; Maggio, R; Aloisi, G; Rivet, JM; Lundius, EG; Yoshitake, T; Svenningsson, P; Brocco, M; Gobert, A; De Groote, L; Cistarelli, L; Veiga, S; De Montrion, C; Rodriguez, M; Galizzi, JP; Lockhart, BP; Cogé, F; Boutin, JA; Vayer, P; Verdouw, PM; Groenink, L; Millan, MJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 16928-40 2011
"Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA)] is of considerable interest in light of its prosocial properties and risks associated with widespread recreational use. Recently, it was found to bind trace amine-1 receptors (TA(1)Rs), which modulate dopaminergic transmission. Accordingly, using mice genetically deprived of TA(1)R (TA(1)-KO), we explored their significance to the actions of MDMA, which robustly activated human adenylyl cyclase-coupled TA(1)R transfected into HeLa cells. In wild-type (WT) mice, MDMA elicited a time-, dose-, and ambient temperature-dependent hypothermia and hyperthermia, whereas TA(1)-KO mice displayed hyperthermia only. MDMA-induced increases in dialysate levels of dopamine (DA) in dorsal striatum were amplified in TA(1)-KO mice, despite identical levels of MDMA itself. A similar facilitation of the influence of MDMA upon dopaminergic transmission was acquired in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, and induction of locomotion by MDMA was haloperidol-reversibly potentiated in TA(1)-KO versus WT mice. Conversely, genetic deletion of TA(1)R did not affect increases in DA levels evoked by para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), which was inactive at hTA(1) sites. The TA(1)R agonist o-phenyl-3-iodotyramine (o-PIT) blunted the DA-releasing actions of PCA both in vivo (dialysis) and in vitro (synaptosomes) in WT but not TA(1)-KO animals. MDMA-elicited increases in dialysis levels of serotonin (5-HT) were likewise greater in TA(1)-KO versus WT mice, and 5-HT-releasing actions of PCA were blunted in vivo and in vitro by o-PIT in WT mice only. In conclusion, TA(1)Rs exert an inhibitory influence on both dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission, and MDMA auto-inhibits its neurochemical and functional actions by recruitment of TA(1)R. These observations have important implications for the effects of MDMA in humans.
|Phenotype of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract that express CCK-induced activation of the ERK signaling pathway.|
Babic, T; Townsend, RL; Patterson, LM; Sutton, GM; Zheng, H; Berthoud, HR
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 296 R845-54 2009
The satiating potency of CCK has been well characterized, including its mediation by capsaicin-sensitive vagal primary afferents. We have previously shown that peripherally administered CCK activates the MAPK-signaling cascade in a population of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons and that preventing ERK1/2 phosphorylation partly attenuates CCK's satiating potency. The aim of this study was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of the NTS neurons that exhibit CCK-induced activation of ERK1/2. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that intraperitoneal CCK administration increases the number of neurons that express phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in the medial and commissural subnuclei of the NTS and that CCK-induced expression of ERK1/2 is increased in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons. Using Western blot analysis, we show that the robust increase in tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation obtained with intraperitoneal CCK is significantly attenuated in rats pretreated with the ERK-pathway blocker U0126 injected into the 4th ventricle. In addition, CCK injections increased pERK1/2 expression in POMC neurons in the NTS. In contrast, only the rare GAD67, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and leptin-responsive neuron exhibited CCK-induced pERK immunoreactivity. We conclude that activation of POMC-immunoreactive neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase activity via the ERK-signaling pathway in the NTS likely contributes to CCK's satiating effects.
|Dopaminergic system dysregulation in the mrsk2_KO mouse, an animal model of the Coffin-Lowry syndrome.|
Marques Pereira, P; Gruss, M; Braun, K; Foos, N; Pannetier, S; Hanauer, A
Journal of neurochemistry 1325-34 2008
The Coffin-Lowry syndrome, a rare syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the hRSK2 (RPS6KA3) gene. To further investigate RSK2 (90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase) implication in cognitive processes, a mrsk2_KO mouse has previously been generated as an animal model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The aim of the present study was to identify possible neurochemical dysregulation associated with the behavioral and morphological abnormalities exhibited by mrsk2_KO mice. A cortical dopamine level increase was found in mrsk2_KO mice that was accompanied by an over-expression of dopamine receptor of type 2 and the dopamine transporter. We also detected an increase of total and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase that may be responsible for the increased level of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation also observed. By taking into consideration previously reported data, our results strongly suggest that the dopaminergic dysregulation in mrsk2_KO mice may be caused, at least in part, by tyrosine hydroxylase hyperactivity. This cortical hyperdopaminergia may explain some non-cognitive but also cognitive alterations exhibited by mrsk2_KO mice.
|Activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina.|
Witkovsky, Paul, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 4242-9 (2004) 2004
We studied in vivo activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the rat retina. TH phosphorylation (TH-P) was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies specific for each of three regulated phosphorylation sites. TH synthesis rate was measured by dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation in the presence of NSD-1015, an inhibitor of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. TH-P was increased markedly by light or after intraocular injection of GABA(A) and glycine inhibitors. All three phosphospecific antibodies responded similarly to test drugs or light. A 30 min exposure to light increased DOPA accumulation by threefold over that seen after 30 min in darkness. Immunostaining to an anti-panNa channel antibody was found in all parts of the DA neuron. TTX blocked TH-P induced by light or GABA/glycine inhibitors but only in varicosities of the DA axon plexus, not in perikarya or dendrites. Veratridine increased TH-P in all parts of the DA neuron. The distribution of the monoamine vesicular transporter 2 was shown by immunocytochemistry to reside in varicosities of the DA plexus but not in dendrites, indicating that the varicosities are sites of dopamine release. Collectively, these data indicate that, in the retina, dopamine synthesis in varicosities is affected by the spiking activity of retinal neurons, possibly including that of the DA neurons themselves.
|Stoichiometry of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems in vivo: effects of acute haloperidol and related compounds.|
Salvatore, M F, et al.
J. Neurochem., 75: 225-32 (2000) 2000
Electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle increases (32)P incorporation into striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser (19), Ser(31), and Ser(40). In the present studies, the effects of acute haloperidol and related drugs on sitespecific TH phosphorylation stoichiometry (PS) in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems were determined by quantitative blot immunolabeling using phosphorylation statespecific antibodies. The striatum (Str), substantia nigra (SN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) from Sprague-Dawley rats were harvested 30-40 min after a single injection of either vehicle, haloperidol (2 mg/kg), raclopride (2 mg/kg), clozapine (30 mg/kg), or SCH23390 (0.5 mg/kg). In vehicle-injected control rats, Ser(19) PS was 1.5- to 2. 5-fold lower in Str and NAc than in SN and VTA, Ser(31) PS was two-to fourfold higher in Str and NAc than in SN and VTA, and Ser(40) PS was similar between the terminal field and cell body regions. After haloperidol, Ser(40) PS increased twofold in Str and NAc, whereas a smaller increase in SN and VTA was observed. The effects of haloperidol on Ser(19) PS were similar to those on Ser(40) in each region; however, haloperidol treatment increased Ser(31) PS at least 1.6-fold in all regions. The effects of raclopride on TH PS were comparable to those of haloperidol, whereas clozapine treatment increased TH PS at all sites in all regions. By contrast, the effects of SCH23390 on TH PS were relatively small and restricted to the NAc. The stoichiometries of site-specific TH phosphorylation in vivo are presented for the first time. The nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems have common features of TH PS, distinguished by differences in TH PS between the terminal field and cell body regions and by dissimilar increases in TH PS in the terminal field and cell body regions after acute haloperidol.