Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, Fg, H, M, Mk, R, Lz, Vo, Zebrafish||IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Ascites mouse monoclonal IgG1κ fluid containing 3% BSA. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, clone LNC1 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.|
Schreglmann, SR; Regensburger, M; Rockenstein, E; Masliah, E; Xiang, W; Winkler, J; Winner, B
PloS one 10 e0126261 2015
Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS) under the murine Thy1 (mThy1) promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive) in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF) promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.
|Lack of additive role of ageing in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration triggered by α-synuclein overexpression.|
Bourdenx, M; Dovero, S; Engeln, M; Bido, S; Bastide, MF; Dutheil, N; Vollenweider, I; Baud, L; Piron, C; Grouthier, V; Boraud, T; Porras, G; Li, Q; Baekelandt, V; Scheller, D; Michel, A; Fernagut, PO; Georges, F; Courtine, G; Bezard, E; Dehay, B
Acta neuropathologica communications 3 46 2015
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons as well as the presence of proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy bodies. α-synuclein (α-syn) is a major constituent of Lewy bodies, and the first disease-causing protein characterized in PD. Several α-syn-based animal models of PD have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of PD, but none of them recapitulate the full picture of the disease. Ageing is the most compelling and major risk factor for developing PD but its impact on α-syn toxicity remains however unexplored. In this study, we developed and exploited a recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector of serotype 9 overexpressing mutated α-syn to elucidate the influence of ageing on the dynamics of PD-related neurodegeneration associated with α-syn pathology in different mammalian species.Identical AAV pseudotype 2/9 vectors carrying the DNA for human mutant p.A53T α-syn were injected into the substantia nigra to induce neurodegeneration and synucleinopathy in mice, rats and monkeys. Rats were used first to validate the ability of this serotype to replicate α-syn pathology and second to investigate the relationship between the kinetics of α-syn-induced nigrostriatal degeneration and the progressive onset of motor dysfunctions, strikingly reminiscent of the impairments observed in PD patients. In mice, AAV2/9-hα-syn injection into the substantia nigra was associated with accumulation of α-syn and phosphorylated hα-syn, regardless of mouse strain. However, phenotypic mutants with either accelerated senescence or resistance to senescence did not display differential susceptibility to hα-syn overexpression. Of note, p-α-syn levels correlated with nigrostriatal degeneration in mice. In monkeys, hα-syn-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway was not affected by the age of the animals. Unlike mice, monkeys did not exhibit correlations between levels of phosphorylated α-syn and neurodegeneration.In conclusion, AAV2/9-mediated hα-syn induces robust nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in mice, rats and monkeys, allowing translational comparisons among species. Ageing, however, neither exacerbated nigrostriatal neurodegeneration nor α-syn pathology per se. Our unprecedented multi-species investigation thus favours the multiple-hit hypothesis for PD wherein ageing would merely be an aggravating, additive, factor superimposed upon an independent disease process.
|Prefrontal dopamine regulates fear reinstatement through the downregulation of extinction circuits.|
Hitora-Imamura, N; Miura, Y; Teshirogi, C; Ikegaya, Y; Matsuki, N; Nomura, H
eLife 4 2015
Prevention of relapses is a major challenge in treating anxiety disorders. Fear reinstatement can cause relapse in spite of successful fear reduction through extinction-based exposure therapy. By utilising a contextual fear-conditioning task in mice, we found that reinstatement was accompanied by decreased c-Fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) with reduction of synaptic input and enhanced c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeM). Moreover, we found that IL dopamine plays a key role in reinstatement. A reinstatement-inducing reminder shock induced c-Fos expression in the IL-projecting dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and the blocking of IL D1 signalling prevented reduction of synaptic input, CeM c-Fos expression, and fear reinstatement. These findings demonstrate that a dopamine-dependent inactivation of extinction circuits underlies fear reinstatement and may explain the comorbidity of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders.
|Cardiac Dysregulation and Myocardial Injury in a 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Rat Model of Sympathetic Denervation.|
Jiang, YH; Jiang, P; Yang, JL; Ma, DF; Lin, HQ; Su, WG; Wang, Z; Li, X
PloS one 10 e0133971 2015
Cardiac sympathetic denervation is found in various cardiac pathologies; however, its relationship with myocardial injury has not been thoroughly investigated.Twenty-four rats were assigned to the normal control group (NC), sympathectomy control group (SC), and a sympathectomy plus mecobalamin group (SM). Sympathectomy was induced by injection of 6-OHDA, after which, the destruction and distribution of sympathetic and vagal nerve in the left ventricle (LV) myocardial tissue were determined by immunofluorescence and ELISA. Heart rate variability (HRV), ECG and echocardiography, and assays for myocardial enzymes in serum before and after sympathectomy were examined. Morphologic changes in the LV by HE staining and transmission electron microscope were used to estimate levels of myocardial injury and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were used to reflect the inflammatory reaction.Injection of 6-OHDA decreased NE (933.1 ± 179 ng/L for SC vs. 3418.1± 443.6 ng/L for NC, P less than 0.01) and increased NGF (479.4± 56.5 ng/mL for SC vs. 315.85 ± 28.6 ng/mL for NC, P less than 0.01) concentrations. TH expression was reduced, while ChAT expression showed no change. Sympathectomy caused decreased HRV and abnormal ECG and echocardiography results, and histopathologic examinations showed myocardial injury and increased collagen deposition as well as inflammatory cell infiltration in the cardiac tissue of rats in the SC and SM groups. However, all pathologic changes in the SM group were less severe compared to those in the SC group.Chemical sympathectomy with administration of 6-OHDA caused dysregulation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and myocardial injuries. Mecobalamin alleviated inflammatory and myocardial damage by protecting myocardial sympathetic nerves.
|Comprehensive functional characterization of murine infantile Batten disease including Parkinson-like behavior and dopaminergic markers.|
Dearborn, JT; Harmon, SK; Fowler, SC; O'Malley, KL; Taylor, GT; Sands, MS; Wozniak, DF
Scientific reports 5 12752 2015
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). The PPT1-deficient mouse (Cln1(-/-)) is a useful phenocopy of human INCL. Cln1(-/-) mice display retinal dysfunction, seizures, motor deficits, and die at ~8 months of age. However, little is known about the cognitive and behavioral functions of Cln1(-/-) mice during disease progression. In the present study, younger (~1-2 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice showed minor deficits in motor/sensorimotor functions while older (~5-6 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe impairments, including decreased locomotor activity, inferior cued water maze performance, decreased running wheel ability, and altered auditory cue conditioning. Unexpectedly, certain cognitive functions such as some learning and memory capabilities seemed intact in older Cln1(-/-) mice. Younger and older Cln1(-/-) mice presented with walking initiation defects, gait abnormalities, and slowed movements, which are analogous to some symptoms reported in INCL and parkinsonism. However, there was no evidence of alterations in dopaminergic markers in Cln1(-/-) mice. Results from this study demonstrate quantifiable changes in behavioral functions during progression of murine INCL and suggest that Parkinson-like motor/sensorimotor deficits in Cln1(-/-) mice are not mediated by dopamine deficiency.
|Viable neuronopathic Gaucher disease model in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) displays axonal accumulation of alpha-synuclein.|
Uemura, N; Koike, M; Ansai, S; Kinoshita, M; Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T; Matsui, H; Naruse, K; Sakamoto, N; Uchiyama, Y; Todo, T; Takeda, S; Yamakado, H; Takahashi, R
PLoS genetics 11 e1005065 2015
Homozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene result in Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disease. Recent genetic studies have revealed that GBA mutations confer a strong risk for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate how GBA mutations cause PD, we generated GBA nonsense mutant (GBA-/-) medaka that are completely deficient in glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity. In contrast to the perinatal death in humans and mice lacking GCase activity, GBA-/- medaka survived for months, enabling analysis of the pathological progression. GBA-/- medaka displayed the pathological phenotypes resembling human neuronopathic GD including infiltration of Gaucher cell-like cells into the brains, progressive neuronal loss, and microgliosis. Detailed pathological findings represented lysosomal abnormalities in neurons and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation in axonal swellings containing autophagosomes. Unexpectedly, disruption of α-syn did not improve the life span, formation of axonal swellings, neuronal loss, or neuroinflammation in GBA-/- medaka. Taken together, the present study revealed GBA-/- medaka as a novel neuronopathic GD model, the pahological mechanisms of α-syn accumulation caused by GCase deficiency, and the minimal contribution of α-syn to the pathogenesis of neuronopathic GD.
|Inner retinal change in a novel rd1-FTL mouse model of retinal degeneration.|
Greferath, U; Anderson, EE; Jobling, AI; Vessey, KA; Martinez, G; de Iongh, RU; Kalloniatis, M; Fletcher, EL
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 293 2015
While photoreceptor loss is the most devastating result of inherited retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa, inner retinal neurons also undergo significant alteration. Detailing these changes has become important as many vision restorative therapies target the remaining neurons. In this study, the rd1-Fos-Tau-LacZ (rd1-FTL) mouse model was used to explore inner retinal change at a late stage of retinal degeneration, after the loss of photoreceptor nuclei. The rd1-FTL model carries a mutation in the phosphodiesterase gene, Pde6b, and an axonally targeted transgenic beta galactosidase reporter system under the control of the c-fos promoter. Retinae of transgenic rd1-FTL mice and control FTL animals aged 2-12 months were processed for indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry. At 2 months of age, a time when the majority of photoreceptor nuclei are lost, there was negligible c-fos reporter (FTL) expression, however, from 4 months, reporter expression was observed to increase within subpopulations of amacrine and ganglion cells within the central retina. These areas of inner retinal FTL expression coincided with regions that contained aberrant Müller cells. Specifically, these cells exhibited reduced glutamine synthetase and Kir4.1 immunolabelling, whilst showing evidence of proliferative gliosis (increased cyclinD1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression). These changes were limited to distinct regions where cone photoreceptor terminals were absent. Overall, these results highlight that distinct areas of the rd1-FTL central retina undergo significant glial alterations after cone photoreceptor loss. These areas coincide with up-regulation of the c-fos reporter in the inner retina, which may represent a change in neuronal function/plasticity. The rd1-FTL mouse is a useful model system to probe changes that occur in the inner retina at later stages of retinal degeneration.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum.|
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.|
Forlano, PM; Ghahramani, ZN; Monestime, CM; Kurochkin, P; Chernenko, A; Milkis, D
PloS one 10 e0121914 2015
In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals.
|A distinct subtype of dopaminergic interneuron displays inverted structural plasticity at the axon initial segment.|
Chand, AN; Galliano, E; Chesters, RA; Grubb, MS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 1573-90 2015
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure near the start of the axon that is a site of neuronal plasticity. Changes in activity levels in vitro and in vivo can produce structural AIS changes in excitatory cells that have been linked to alterations in excitability, but these effects have never been described in inhibitory interneurons. In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), dopaminergic interneurons are particularly plastic, undergoing constitutive turnover throughout life and regulating tyrosine hydroxylase expression in an activity-dependent manner. Here we used dissociated cultures of rat and mouse OB to show that a subset of bulbar dopaminergic neurons possess an AIS and that these AIS-positive cells are morphologically and functionally distinct from their AIS-negative counterparts. Under baseline conditions, OB dopaminergic AISs were short and located distally along the axon but, in response to chronic 24 h depolarization, lengthened and relocated proximally toward the soma. These activity-dependent changes were in the opposite direction to both those we saw in non-GABAergic OB neurons and those reported previously for excitatory cell types. Inverted AIS plasticity in OB dopaminergic cells was bidirectional, involved all major components of the structure, was dependent on the activity of L-type CaV1 calcium channels but not on the activity of the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, and was opposed by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Such distinct forms of AIS plasticity in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory projection neurons may allow considerable flexibility when neuronal networks must adapt to perturbations in their ongoing activity.