Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, Mk, M, Fe||WB, IHC, ICC, ELISA||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgMκ antibody in PBS with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 μg|
Anti-Synaptophysin Antibody, clone SP15 (Ascites Free) SDS
|Reference overview||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Lidocaine attenuates cognitive impairment after isoflurane anesthesia in old rats.|
Lin, D; Cao, L; Wang, Z; Li, J; Washington, JM; Zuo, Z
Behavioural brain research 228 319-27 2012
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical phenomenon that has drawn significant attention from the public and scientific community. Age is a risk factor for POCD. However, the contribution of general anesthesia/anesthetics to POCD and the underlying neuropathology are not clear. Here, we showed that 18-month-old male Fisher 344 rats exposed to 1.2% isoflurane, a general anesthetic, for 2h had significant learning and memory impairments assessed at 2-4 weeks after isoflurane exposure. These isoflurane effects were attenuated by intravenous lidocaine (1.5mg/kg as a bolus and then 2mg/kg/h during isoflurane exposure), a local anesthetic that has neuroprotective effect. Exposure to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine did not change the neuronal and synaptic density as well as the expression of NeuN (a neuronal protein), drebrin (a dendritic spine protein), synaptophysin (a synaptic protein), activated caspase 3 and caspase-activated DNase in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure when cognitive impairment was present. Isoflurane and lidocaine did not affect the amount of β-amyloid peptide, total tau and phospho-tau in the cerebral cortex as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure. Thus, isoflurane induces learning and memory impairment in old rats. Lidocaine attenuates these isoflurane effects. Isoflurane may not cause long-lasting neuropathological changes.
|Protein 600 is a microtubule/endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein in CNS neurons.|
Shim, SY; Wang, J; Asada, N; Neumayer, G; Tran, HC; Ishiguro, K; Sanada, K; Nakatani, Y; Nguyen, MD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 3604-14 2008
There is an increasing body of literature pointing to cytoskeletal proteins as spatial organizers and interactors of organelles. In this study, we identified protein 600 (p600) as a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP) developmentally regulated in neurons. p600 exhibits the unique feature to interact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Silencing of p600 by RNA interference (RNAi) destabilizes neuronal processes in young primary neurons undergoing neurite extension and containing scarce staining of the ER marker Bip. Furthermore, in utero electroporation of p600 RNAi alters neuronal migration, a process that depends on synergistic actions of microtubule dynamics and ER functions. p600-depleted migrating neurons display thin, crooked, and "zigzag" leading process with very few ER membranes. Thus, p600 constitutes the only known MAP to associate with the ER in neurons, and this interaction may impact on multiple cellular processes ranging from neuronal development to neuronal maturation and plasticity.
|Novel localization of NMDA receptors within neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone terminals.|
Yin, W; Mendenhall, JM; Bratton, SB; Oung, T; Janssen, WG; Morrison, JH; Gore, AC
Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) 232 662-73 2007
About 1000 hypothalamic neurons synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the master molecule of reproduction in all mammals. At the level of the median eminence at the base of the brain, where GnRH and other hypothalamic releasing hormones are secreted into the capillary system leading to the anterior pituitary gland, there is non-synaptic regulation of neurohormone release by a number of central neurotransmitters. For example, glutamate, the major excitatory amino acid in the brain, directly regulates GnRH release from nerve terminals via NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Moreover, the effects of glutamate action on GnRH secretion are potentiated by estrogens, and this relates to the physiologic control of ovulation by the hypothalamus. We sought to determine the ultrastructural relationship between GnRH neuroterminals and NMDARs, and this regulation by estradiol. Using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, postembedding immunogold electron microscopy, fractionation, and Western blotting, we demonstrated: (i) GnRH is localized in large dense-core vesicles of neurosecretory profiles/terminals, (ii) the NMDAR1 subunit is found primarily on large dense-core vesicles of neurosecretory profiles/terminals, (iii) there is extensive colocalization of GnRH and NMDAR1 on the same vesicles, and (iv) estradiol modestly but significantly alters the distribution of NMDAR1 in GnRH neuroterminals by increasing expression of NMDAR1 on large dense-core vesicles. Western blots of fractionated median eminence support the presence of NMDAR1 in subcellular fractions containing large dense-core vesicles. These data are the first to show the presence of the NMDAR on neuroendocrine secretory vesicles, its co-expression with GnRH, and its regulation by estradiol. The results provide a novel anatomical site for the NMDAR and may represent a new mechanism for the regulation of GnRH release.
|Postnatal development of the primate hippocampal formation.|
Lavenex, P; Banta Lavenex, P; Amaral, DG
Developmental neuroscience 29 179-92 2007
The hippocampal formation is a multicomponent region of the medial temporal lobe preferentially involved in declarative and relational memory processing. Behavioral studies have suggested a protracted functional maturation of these structures in primates, and postnatal developmental abnormalities in the hippocampal formation are thought to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy and Down syndrome. Despite all that we know about the functional organization of the adult hippocampal formation, notably absent is a systematic study of its postnatal maturation in primates. In this article, we review current knowledge of the structural development of the primate hippocampal formation and present new data on its postnatal neuroanatomical development. We summarize what is known about the neurobiological processes, such as the addition of new neurons, the establishment and elaboration of connectivity, and the neurochemical changes, that underlie the structural development and functional maturation of the primate hippocampal formation. We conclude that there is yet insufficient information to identify distinct developmental windows during which different hippocampal regions undergo specific maturational processes. For this reason, it is currently impossible to determine the ages at which specific hippocampal circuits become structurally mature and potentially capable of supporting defined, age-specific functional processes. Together with work in rodents, systematic studies of the structural development and functional maturation of the monkey hippocampal formation will be necessary to gain insight not only into the types of information processing that it subserves, but also into the specific maturational processes that might be affected in human neurodevelopmental disorders.
|Clinical and biochemical correlates of insoluble alpha-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies.|
Klucken, J; Ingelsson, M; Shin, Y; Irizarry, MC; Hedley-Whyte, ET; Frosch, M; Growdon, J; McLean, P; Hyman, BT
Acta neuropathologica 111 101-8 2006
Alpha-synuclein is a major constituent of Lewy bodies, the fibrillar aggregates that form within neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Recent biochemical data show that alpha-synuclein accumulates in Parkinson's disease in a detergent insoluble form. We now examine the relationship between detergent insoluble alpha-synuclein and the presence of Lewy bodies, clinical measures of dementia and biochemical parameters in a series of individuals with DLB. We found that Triton X-100 insoluble alpha-synuclein enriched nearly twofold in the temporal cortex of patients with DLB compared to age-matched controls. By contrast the total amount of alpha-synuclein protein was unchanged. Surprisingly, the degree of Triton X-100 insoluble alpha-synuclein did not correlate with either the duration of illness or the number of Lewy bodies counted using stereological methods from an adjacent block of tissue. However, the Triton X-100 soluble fraction of alpha-synuclein did correlate strongly with the expression of several heat shock proteins (HSPs) in DLB but not control cases, suggesting a coordinated HSP response in DLB neocortex.
|GLT-1 down-regulation induced by clozapine in rat frontal cortex is associated with synaptophysin up-regulation.|
Bragina, L; Melone, M; Fattorini, G; Torres-Ramos, M; Vallejo-Illarramendi, A; Matute, C; Conti, F
Journal of neurochemistry 99 134-41 2006
In rat frontal cortex, extracellular levels of glutamate are raised by the anti-psychotic drug clozapine. We have recently shown that a significant reduction in the levels of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 may be one of the mechanisms responsible for this elevation. Here we studied whether GLT-1 down-regulation induced by chronic clozapine treatment is associated with changes in the expression of synaptophysin, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), three major presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release. Quantitative high-resolution confocal microscopy studies in vivo showed that GLT-1 down-regulation is closely associated with a significant increase in synaptophysin, but not SNAP-25 and VGLUT1, expression. This was confirmed in vitro studies, and in western blotting studies of synaptophysin, SNAP-25 and VGLUT1. In addition, our results show that, following clozapine treatment, synaptophysin expression increases in the very cortical regions in which GLT-1 expression is down-regulated. These findings suggest that part of the effects of clozapine may be exerted via an action on the presynaptic machinery involved in neurotransmitter release.
|Molecular characteristics suggest an effector function of palisade endings in extraocular muscles.|
Konakci, KZ; Streicher, J; Hoetzenecker, W; Blumer, MJ; Lukas, JR; Blumer, R
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46 155-65 2005
To analyze palisade endings in cat extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to clarify whether these EOM-specific organs are sensory or motor.Twelve cats aged between 1 and 16 years were analyzed. Whole EOM tendons were immunostained using four different combinations of triple fluorescence labeling. Triple labeling included antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neurofilament, synaptophysin, and alpha-bungarotoxin. Preparations were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. ChAT-labeled EOMs were also analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of palisade endings.Palisade endings were found in the distal and proximal myotendinous regions of cat EOMs. These endings arose from thin nerve fibers coming from the muscle and extending into the tendon. There, the nerve fibers turned back 180 degrees to divide into terminal branches around the muscle fiber tips. Terminal branches established numerous contacts with the tendon attached to the muscle fiber tip and only a few contacts with the muscle fiber. Often, nerve fibers forming palisade endings on muscle fiber tips were observed to establish multiple motor contacts on muscle fibers outside palisade endings. Three-dimensional reconstructions depicted the complex morphology of the palisade endings. All nerve fibers supplying palisade endings stained positively for ChAT and neurofilament. All nerve terminals in palisade endings were ChAT and synaptophysin positive. Only neuromuscular contacts in palisade endings were positive for alpha-bungarotoxin, as well.This study provides evidence that palisade endings in cat EOMs have effector function. The findings may be of significance for strabismus surgery because palisade endings are also found in human EOMs.
|Beta-secretase protein and activity are increased in the neocortex in Alzheimer disease.|
Fukumoto, H; Cheung, BS; Hyman, BT; Irizarry, MC
Archives of neurology 59 1381-9 2002
Amyloid plaques, a major pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), are composed of an internal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP): the 4-kd amyloid-beta protein (Abeta). The metabolic processing of APP that results in Abeta formation requires 2 enzymatic cleavage events, a gamma-secretase cleavage dependent on presenilin, and a beta-secretase cleavage by the aspartyl protease beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE).To test the hypothesis that BACE protein and activity are increased in regions of the brain that develop amyloid plaques in AD.We developed an antibody capture system to measure BACE protein level and BACE-specific beta-secretase activity in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain homogenates from 61 brains with AD and 33 control brains.In the brains with AD, BACE activity and protein were significantly increased (P<.001). Enzymatic activity increased by 63% in the temporal neocortex (P =.007) and 13% in the frontal neocortex (P =.003) in brains with AD, but not in the cerebellar cortex. Activity in the temporal neocortex increased with the duration of AD (P =.008) but did not correlate with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measures of insoluble Abeta in brains with AD. Protein level was increased by 14% in the frontal cortex of brains with AD (P =.004), with a trend toward a 15% increase in BACE protein in the temporal cortex (P =.07) and no difference in the cerebellar cortex. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that BACE immunoreactivity in the brain was predominantly neuronal and was found in tangle-bearing neurons in AD.The BACE protein and activity levels are increased in brain regions affected by amyloid deposition and remain increased despite significant neuronal and synaptic loss in AD.
|Human synaptic proteins with a heterogeneous distribution in cerebellum and visual cortex.|
Honer, WG; Hu, L; Davies, P
Brain research 609 9-20 1993
Synaptic pathology is likely to be an important feature of a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses. An antibody called EP10 was used previously to demonstrate a regional reduction in a 38 kDa synaptophysin-like protein in Alzheimer's disease. The SP antibodies were developed for further study of this and other synaptic proteins in human brain. Human brain proteins immunoprecipitated with EP10 were used as the immunogen. Hybridoma screening was carried out with a sequential ELISA-immunocytochemical approach. Sixteen antibodies were obtained, the antigens clustered into five groups. Five antibodies were reactive with a 38 kDa synaptophysin-like protein. Another two antibodies were reactive with a 16 kDa antigen which may be synaptobrevin. Immunocytochemical studies indicated these two antigens appeared to be co-localized in human brain. Four antibodies were reactive with a distinct, 34-36 kDa antigen. In the cerebellum, this antigen was restricted to terminals in the molecular layer, putatively in the parallel fibre synapses. Two antibodies were reactive with a 26-27 kDa antigen. In the cerebellum, this antigen localized to a subset of terminals which included the axo-axonal contacts of the Basket and Purkinje cells. The final group of three antibodies detected a complex group of 38 kDa. 40 kDa and higher molecular weight antigens. The results suggest that heterogeneity among synapses can be defined through antibodies directed against distinct proteins. The SP antibodies may be useful probes for studies of human synaptic proteins, and for studies of pathological conditions which disrupt these molecules.
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