Homma, K; Fujisawa, T; Tsuburaya, N; Yamaguchi, N; Kadowaki, H; Takeda, K; Nishitoh, H; Matsuzawa, A; Naguro, I; Ichijo, H
Zinc is an essential trace element, and impaired zinc homeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. However, the mechanisms cells use to respond to zinc deficiency are poorly understood. We previously reported that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked pathogenic mutants of SOD1 cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through specific interactions with Derlin-1, which is a component of the ER-associated degradation machinery. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that this interaction is common to ALS-linked SOD1 mutants, and wild-type SOD1 (SOD1(WT)) comprises a masked Derlin-1 binding region (DBR). Here, we found that, under zinc-deficient conditions, SOD1(WT) adopts a mutant-like conformation that exposes the DBR and induces the homeostatic ER stress response, including the inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of a zinc transporter. We conclude that SOD1 has a function as a molecular switch that activates the ER stress response, which plays an important role in cellular homeostasis under zinc-deficient conditions.
|Annals of neurology|
Fujisawa, T; Homma, K; Yamaguchi, N; Kadowaki, H; Tsuburaya, N; Naguro, I; Matsuzawa, A; Takeda, K; Takahashi, Y; Goto, J; Tsuji, S; Nishitoh, H; Ichijo, H
Annals of neurology
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motoneurons. Although >100 different Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations have been identified in ALS patients, it remains controversial whether all of them are disease-causative mutations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop molecular mechanism-based diagnosis and treatment of ALS caused by SOD1 mutations.We previously reported that 3 pathogenic mutations of SOD1 cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by inducing the binding of SOD1 to Derlin-1, a component of the ER homeostatic machinery. Here, we systematically analyzed 132 SOD1 mutants and found that most have a constitutively exposed Derlin-1-binding region (DBR) that is occluded in the wild-type protein. To develop the novel molecular mechanism-based antibody that can specifically recognize the aberrant structure of toxic SOD1 mutants, we generated the monoclonal antibody against the DBR.MS785, a monoclonal antibody generated against the DBR, distinguished most ALS-causative SOD1 mutants from both wild-type and nontoxic mutants. Moreover, MS785 recognized endogenous SOD1 in B lymphocytes derived from 14 ALS patients carrying SOD1 mutations but not from 11 healthy controls.This is the first study to address the common property of all ALS-causative SOD1 mutants. MS785 is the first molecular mechanism-based antibody that was shown to be able to distinguish ALS-linked toxic SOD1 mutants from both wild-type and nontoxic mutants. MS785 may thus become an innovative tool for the diagnosis of ALS.