MABN15 Sigma-AldrichAnti-Rhodopsin Antibody, clone 4D2
Anti-Rhodopsin Antibody, clone 4D2 is an antibody against Rhodopsin for use in IH, WB, IC, ELISA.More>> Anti-Rhodopsin Antibody, clone 4D2 is an antibody against Rhodopsin for use in IH, WB, IC, ELISA. Less<<
Anti-Rhodopsin Antibody, clone 4D2 MSDS (material safety data sheet) or SDS, CoA and CoQ, dossiers, brochures and other available documents.
Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, F, M||IHC, WB, ICC, ELISA||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2bκ in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Rhodopsin Antibody, clone 4D2 Certificates of Analysis
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2438709||2438709|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2038649||2038649|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2074782||2074782|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2146005||2146005|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2203089||2203089|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2272161||2272161|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2299602||2299602|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2332589||2332589|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 2887591||2887591|
|Anti-Rhodopsin, clone 4D2 - 3185627||3185627|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The Effect of Transient Local Anti-inflammatory Treatment on the Survival of Pig Retinal Progenitor Cell Allotransplants.|
Abud, M; Baranov, P; Hicks, C; Patel, S; Lieppman, B; Regatieri, C; Sinden, J; Isaac, D; Avila, M; Young, M
Translational vision science & technology 4 6 2015
The development of photoreceptor replacement therapy for retinal degenerative disorders requires the identification of the optimal cell source and immunosuppressive regimen in a large animal model. Allotransplants are not acutely rejected in swine subretinal space, although it is not known if survival can be improved with immunosuppression. Here we investigated the survival and integration of expanded pig retinal progenitor cells (pRPCs) in normal recipients with and without transient anti-inflammatory suppression.pRPCs were derived from the neural retina of E60 GFP transgenic pigs, expanded for six passages, characterized, and transplanted into the subretinal space of 12 pigs. Six recipients received a single intravitreal injection of rapamycin and dexamethasone.pRPCs expressed the photoreceptor development genes Sox2, Pax6, Lhx2, Crx, Nrl, and Recoverin in vitro. Transplanted cells were identified in 9 out of 12 recipients 4 weeks after the injection. pRPCs integrated primarily into the photoreceptor inner segment layer and outer nuclear layer with single cells present in the inner nuclear layer. Donor cells remained recoverin-positive and acquired rhodopsin. We did not observe any signs of graft proliferation. The immunosuppression did not affect the survival or distribution of grafts. No macrophage infiltration or loss of retinal structure was observed in either group.Local immunosuppression with rapamycin and dexamethasone does not improve the outcome of pRPC allotransplantation into the subretinal space.Survival and integration of pRPC together with the lack of graft proliferation suggests that allogeneic RPC transplantation without transient immunosuppression is a favorable approach for photoreceptor cell replacement.
|Loss of citron kinase affects a subset of progenitor cells that alters late but not early neurogenesis in the developing rat retina.|
Karunakaran, DK; Chhaya, N; Lemoine, C; Congdon, S; Black, A; Kanadia, R
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56 787-98 2015
To understand how loss of citron kinase (CitK) affects retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in the developing rat retina.We compared knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) retinae by immunohistochemistry. The TdT-mediated dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine cell death. Pulse-chase experiments using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) were carried out to interrogate RPC behavior and in turn neurogenesis.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that CitK was expressed at embryonic day (E)12 and was turned off at approximately postnatal day (P)4. Immunohistochemistry showed CitK being localized as puncta at the apical end of the outer neuroblastic layer (ONBL). Analyses during embryonic development showed that the KO retina was of comparable size to that of WT until E13. However, by E14, there was a reduction in the number of S-phase RPCs with a concomitant increase in TUNEL+ cells in the KO retina. Moreover, early neurogenesis, as reflected by retinal ganglion cell production, was not affected. Postnatal analysis of the retina showed that ONBL in the KO retina was reduced to half the size of that in WT and showed further degeneration. Immunohistochemistry revealed absence of Islet1+ bipolar cells at P2, which was further confirmed by EdU pulse-chase experiments. The CitK KO retinae underwent complete degeneration by P14.Our study showed that CitK is not required for a subset of RPCs before E14, but is necessary for RPC survival post E14. This in turn results in normal early embryonic neurogenesis, but severely compromised later embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis.
|Localization of complement factor H gene expression and protein distribution in the mouse outer retina.|
Smit-McBride, Z; Oltjen, SL; Radu, RA; Estep, J; Nguyen, AT; Gong, Q; Hjelmeland, LM
Molecular vision 21 110-23 2015
To determine the localization of complement factor H (Cfh) mRNA and its protein in the mouse outer retina.Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of Cfh and Cfh-related (Cfhr) transcripts in the RPE/choroid. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed using the novel RNAscope 2.0 FFPE assay to localize the expression of Cfh mRNA in the mouse outer retina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize Cfh protein expression, and western blots were used to characterize CFH antibodies used for IHC.Cfh and Cfhr2 transcripts were detected in the mouse RPE/choroid using qPCR, while Cfhr1, Cfhr3, and Cfhrc (Gm4788) were not detected. ISH showed abundant Cfh mRNA in the RPE of all mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, 129/Sv) tested, with the exception of the Cfh(-/-) eye. Surprisingly, the Cfh protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in photoreceptors rather than in RPE cells. The specificity of the CFH antibodies was tested by western blotting. Our CFH antibodies recognized purified mouse Cfh protein, serum Cfh protein in wild-type C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Sv, and showed an absence of the Cfh protein in the serum of Cfh(-/-) mice. Greatly reduced Cfh protein immunohistological signals in the Cfh(-/-) eyes also supported the specificity of the Cfh protein distribution results.Only Cfh and Cfhr2 genes are expressed in the mouse outer retina. Only Cfh mRNA was detected in the RPE, but no protein. We hypothesize that the steady-state concentration of Cfh protein is low in the cells due to secretion, and therefore is below the detection level for IHC.
|Repair of rhodopsin mRNA by spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing: a new approach for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.|
Berger, A; Lorain, S; Joséphine, C; Desrosiers, M; Peccate, C; Voit, T; Garcia, L; Sahel, JA; Bemelmans, AP
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 23 918-30 2015
The promising clinical results obtained for ocular gene therapy in recent years have paved the way for gene supplementation to treat recessively inherited forms of retinal degeneration. The situation is more complex for dominant mutations, as the toxic mutant gene product must be removed. We used spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing as a strategy for repairing the transcript of the rhodopsin gene, the gene most frequently mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We tested 17 different molecules targeting the pre-mRNA intron 1, by transient transfection of HEK-293T cells, with subsequent trans-splicing quantification at the transcript level. We found that the targeting of some parts of the intron promoted trans-splicing more efficiently than the targeting of other areas, and that trans-splicing rate could be increased by modifying the replacement sequence. We then developed cell lines stably expressing the rhodopsin gene, for the assessment of phenotypic criteria relevant to the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa. Using this model, we showed that trans-splicing restored the correct localization of the protein to the plasma membrane. Finally, we tested our best candidate by AAV gene transfer in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa that expresses a mutant allele of the human rhodopsin gene, and demonstrated the feasibility of trans-splicing in vivo. This work paves the way for trans-splicing gene therapy to treat retinitis pigmentosa due to rhodopsin gene mutation and, more generally, for the treatment of genetic diseases with dominant transmission.
|Long-term retinal cone survival and delayed alteration of the cone mosaic in a transgenic mouse model of stargardt-like dystrophy (STGD3).|
Kuny, S; Filion, MA; Suh, M; Gaillard, F; Sauvé, Y
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 55 424-39 2014
To examine the pattern of cone degeneration in the retina of a transgenic mouse model of Stargartd-like dystrophy (STGD3).Investigations were performed on ELOVL4/TG1-2 transgenic (TG) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates from 1 to 24 months of age. Phenotypes were assessed by fundus imaging, fatty acid analysis, and electroretinogram (ERG) recording. Cone degeneration pattern was determined on retina whole mounts using immunohistochemistry and Voronoi domain analyses.Consistent with low transgene expression, photoreceptors degenerate very slowly. At 1 month, anatomical structure and fatty acid composition of the TG retina is comparable with WT. Rod loss appears at 2 months, exhibiting a central to peripheral gradient, and fundus defects are observed at 3 months. In contrast, cone morphology, distribution and function are still normal at 12 months. Cone loss becomes apparent at 15 months when the outer nuclear layer is reduced to 3 to 4 photoreceptor rows. This process starts at the center of the retina and affects cone subtypes similarly. Very few cones remain at 24 months, after all rods have disappeared (18 months). Quantitative studies focusing on cones expressing M-opsin show a net increase in Voronoi domains and a significant decrease in regularity indexes only beyond 15 months.Photoreceptor degeneration in this STGD3 mouse model follows the time course of a slow rod-cone dystrophy. The cone mosaic is preserved for almost 1 year after the onset of rod loss. This long delay provides an opportunity to examine rod-cone interactions during retinal degeneration and to test therapeutic effectiveness at protracting cone dysfunction.
|Prenatal hypoxia is associated with long-term retinal dysfunction in rats.|
Bourque, SL; Kuny, S; Reyes, LM; Davidge, ST; Sauvé, Y
PloS one 8 e61861 2013
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased predisposition to age-related complications. We tested the hypothesis that rat offspring models of IUGR would exhibit exacerbated, age-related retinal dysfunction.Female Sprague-Dawley rats (maintained at 11.5% O2 from gestational day 15 to 21 to induce IUGR) and control offspring (maintained at 21% O2 throughout pregnancy) had retinal function assessed at 2 months (young) and 14 months of age (aged) with electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. Retinal anatomy was assessed by immunofluorescence.Deficits in rod-driven retina function were observed in aged IUGR offspring, as evidenced by reduced amplitudes of dark-adapted mixed a-wave V(max) (by 49.3%, P less than 0.01), b-wave V(max) (by 42.1%, P less than 0.001) and dark-adapted peak oscillatory potentials (by 42.3%, P less than 0.01). In contrast to the rod-driven defects specific to aged IUGR offspring, light adapted ERG recordings revealed cone defects in young animals, that were stationary until old age. At 2 months, IUGR offspring had amplitude reductions for both b-wave (V(max) by 46%, P less than 0.01) and peak oscillatory potential (V(max) by 38%, P less than 0.05). Finally, defects in cone-driven responses were further confirmed by reduced maximal photopic flicker amplitudes at 2 (by 42%, P less than 0.001) and 14 months (by 34%, P = 0.06) and critical flicker fusion frequencies at 14 months (42 ± 1 Hz, IUGR: 35 ± 2 Hz, P less than 0.05). These functional changes were not paralleled by anatomical losses in IUGR offspring retinas.These data support that the developing retina is sensitive to stressors, and that pathways governing cone- and rod-driven function differ in their susceptibilities. In the case of prenatal hypoxia, cone- and rod-driven dysfunction manifest at young and old ages, respectively. We must, therefore, take into account the specific impact that fetal programming might exert on age-related retinal dystrophies when considering related diagnoses and therapeutic applications.
|Differential gene expression in eyecup and retina of a mouse model of Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3).|
Kuny, S; Gaillard, F; Sauvé, Y
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53 664-75 2012
To investigate differentially expressed genes in eyecup and retina of the ELOVL4 transgenic mouse, a model of Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3).We examined gene and protein expression in known pathways relevant to retinal degeneration using PCR arrays, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Investigations were performed on ELOVL4 transgenic mice at 9 months, when 50% of rod (but no cone) photoreceptors had degenerated. Age-matched wild-type littermates served as controls.Significant expression level changes were found in only 17 of the 252 genes examined. Nine were upregulated (Fgf2, Fgfr1, Ntf5, Cbln1, Ngfr, Ntrk1, Trp53, Tlr6, and Herpud1), and eight were downregulated (Ccl22, Ccr3, Il18rap, Nf1, Ccl11, Atf6β, Rpn1, and Serp1). Overexpression of FGF2 was detected at 1 month, before rod loss onset, and was maintained at high levels until cone loss (18 months). By 9 months, FGF2 overexpression was seen in photoreceptor cell bodies. Increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression due to glial cell reactivity followed the same time course. Levels of NGFR/p75NTR remained invariant. Although present in rod outer segments at 1 month, the macrophage chemoattracting chemokine CCL22 became undetectable by 9 months, a likely consequence of progressive rod outer segment truncation.At a mid-degeneration stage, major changes in gene expression in the ELOVL4 transgenic mouse retina included upregulation of Fgf2 and Fgfr1 and downregulation of Ccl22. Modulation of FGF2 occurred very early, concomitant with an increase in GFAP expression. Future studies will address which factors upstream of Fgf2 could provide potential therapeutic targets to slow photoreceptor degeneration in STGD3.