Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, M||ELISA, ICC, IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2a in buffer containing 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl, and 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-RAGE Antibody, clone DD/A11 or A11 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Signaling Interferes with the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Contractile Phenotype and Function.|
Simard, E; Söllradl, T; Maltais, JS; Boucher, J; D'Orléans-Juste, P; Grandbois, M
PloS one 10 e0128881 2015
Increased blood glucose concentrations promote reactions between glucose and proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGE). Circulating AGE in the blood plasma can activate the receptor for advanced end-products (RAGE), which is present on both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). RAGE exhibits a complex signaling that involves small G-proteins and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), which lead to increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. While RAGE signaling has been previously addressed in endothelial cells, little is known regarding its impact on the function of VSMC. Therefore, we hypothesized that RAGE signaling leads to alterations in the mechanical and functional properties of VSMC, which could contribute to complications associated with diabetes. We demonstrated that RAGE is expressed and functional in the A7r5 VSMC model, and its activation by AGE significantly increased NF-κB activity, which is known to interfere with the contractile phenotype of VSMC. The protein levels of the contraction-related transcription factor myocardin were also decreased by RAGE activation with a concomitant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of transgelin (SM-22α), a regulator of VSMC contraction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that RAGE activation increased the overall cell rigidity, an effect that can be related to an increase in myosin activity. Finally, although RAGE stimulation amplified calcium signaling and slightly myosin activity in VSMC challenged with vasopressin, their contractile capacity was negatively affected. Overall, RAGE activation in VSMC could represent a keystone in the development of vascular diseases associated with diabetes by interfering with the contractile phenotype of VSMC through the modification of their mechanical and functional properties.
|Statins stimulate the production of a soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products.|
Quade-Lyssy, P; Kanarek, AM; Baiersdörfer, M; Postina, R; Kojro, E
Journal of lipid research 54 3052-61 2013
The beneficial effects of statin therapy in the reduction of cardiovascular pathogenesis, atherosclerosis, and diabetic complications are well known. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an important role in the progression of these diseases. In contrast, soluble forms of RAGE act as decoys for RAGE ligands and may prevent the development of RAGE-mediated disorders. Soluble forms of RAGE are either produced by alternative splicing [endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE)] or by proteolytic shedding mediated by metalloproteinases [shed RAGE (sRAGE)]. Therefore we analyzed whether statins influence the production of soluble RAGE. Lovastatin treatment of either mouse alveolar epithelial cells endogenously expressing RAGE or HEK cells overexpressing RAGE caused induction of RAGE shedding, but did not influence secretion of esRAGE from HEK cells overexpressing esRAGE. Lovastatin-induced secretion of sRAGE was also evident after restoration of the isoprenylation pathway, demonstrating a correlation of sterol biosynthesis and activation of RAGE shedding. Lovastatin-stimulated induction of RAGE shedding was completely abolished by a metalloproteinase ADAM10 inhibitor. We also demonstrate that statins stimulate RAGE shedding at low physiologically relevant concentrations. Our results show that statins, due to their cholesterol-lowering effects, increase the soluble RAGE level by inducing RAGE shedding, and by doing this, might prevent the development of RAGE-mediated pathogenesis.
|AGEs-RAGE mediated up-regulation of connexin43 in activated human microglial CHME-5 cells.|
Shamim B Shaikh,Benedict Uy,Amali Perera,Louise F B Nicholson
Neurochemistry international 60 2012
Microglial activation is a significant contributor to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia respond to a range of stimuli including pathogenic protein deposits such as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs are prominent inflammatory stimuli that accumulate in the ageing brain. AGEs can activate microglia, leading to the production of excessive amounts of inflammatory cytokines and coupling via gap junction proteins especially connexin43 (Cx43). The literature on the expression of microglial Cx43 during inflammation is controversial. Many cellular effects of AGEs are thought to be mediated by the receptor RAGE. There is however, no evidence suggesting Cx43 is a downstream effector of AGEs-RAGE interaction in microglia. In addition, most of the AGEs-related studies have been undertaken using rodent microglia; the information on human microglia is sparse. Microglia of human and rodent origin respond differently to certain stimuli. The aims of this study were to investigate the AGEs-RAGE-mediated activation of human microglia and establish if Cx43 is one of the downstream effectors of AGEs-RAGE interaction in these cells. Human microglial CHME-5 cells were treated with different doses of AGEs for a selected time-period and microglial activation studied using specific markers. The protein expression of RAGE, Cx43 and TNF-α-receptors (RI and RII) was analysed in response to AGEs in the absence/presence of various doses of anti-RAGE Fabs. TNF-α levels in media were measured using ELISA. TNF-α-induced opening of gap junctional channels was assessed by dye uptake assays and the effect of neutralising TNFRII on Cx43 levels was also studied. CHME-5 cells showed an up-regulation of RAGE, TNF-α, TNFRs (especially TNFRII) and Cx43 upon AGEs treatment and a significant dose-dependent drop in the levels of TNF-α, TNFRII and Cx43 in the presence of anti-RAGE Fabs. TNF-α induced gap junctional/hemichannel opening whereas blocking TNFRII inhibited TNF-α-induced increase in Cx43 levels. Results suggested that TNF-α, TNFRII and Cx43 are downstream effectors of the AGEs-RAGE interaction in human microglial CHME-5 cells.
|Induction of RAGE shedding by activation of G protein-coupled receptors.|
Metz, VV; Kojro, E; Rat, D; Postina, R
PloS one 7 e41823 2012
The multiligand Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) is involved in various pathophysiological processes, including diabetic inflammatory conditions and Alzheimers disease. Full-length RAGE, a cell surface-located type I membrane protein, can proteolytically be converted by metalloproteinases ADAM10 and MMP9 into a soluble RAGE form. Moreover, administration of recombinant soluble RAGE suppresses activation of cell surface-located RAGE by trapping RAGE ligands. Therefore stimulation of RAGE shedding might have a therapeutic value regarding inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate whether RAGE shedding is inducible via ligand-induced activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We chose three different GPCRs coupled to distinct signaling cascades: the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) activating adenylyl cyclase, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) linked to phospholipase Cβ, and the PACAP receptor (subtype PAC1) coupled to adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase Cβ, calcium signaling and MAP kinases. We generated HEK cell lines stably coexpressing an individual GPCR and full-length RAGE and then investigated GPCR ligand-induced activation of RAGE shedding. We found metalloproteinase-mediated RAGE shedding on the cell surface to be inducible via ligand-specific activation of all analyzed GPCRs. By using specific inhibitors we have identified Ca(2+) signaling, PKCα/PKCβI, CaMKII, PI3 kinases and MAP kinases to be involved in PAC1 receptor-induced RAGE shedding. We detected an induction of calcium signaling in all our cell lines coexpressing RAGE and different GPCRs after agonist treatment. However, we did not disclose a contribution of adenylyl cyclase in RAGE shedding induction. Furthermore, by using a selective metalloproteinase inhibitor and siRNA-mediated knock-down approaches, we show that ADAM10 and/or MMP9 are playing important roles in constitutive and PACAP-induced RAGE shedding. We also found that treatment of mice with PACAP increases the amount of soluble RAGE in the mouse lung. Our findings suggest that pharmacological stimulation of RAGE shedding might open alternative treatment strategies for Alzheimers disease and diabetes-induced inflammation.
|Fisetin lowers methylglyoxal dependent protein glycation and limits the complications of diabetes.|
Maher, P; Dargusch, R; Ehren, JL; Okada, S; Sharma, K; Schubert, D
PloS one 6 e21226 2011
The elevated glycation of macromolecules by the reactive dicarbonyl and α-oxoaldehyde methylglyoxal (MG) has been associated with diabetes and its complications. We have identified a rare flavone, fisetin, which increases the level and activity of glyoxalase 1, the enzyme required for the removal of MG, as well as the synthesis of its essential co-factor, glutathione. It is shown that fisetin reduces two major complications of diabetes in Akita mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. Although fisetin had no effect on the elevation of blood sugar, it reduced kidney hypertrophy and albuminuria and maintained normal levels of locomotion in the open field test. This correlated with a reduction in proteins glycated by MG in the blood, kidney and brain of fisetin-treated animals along with an increase in glyoxalase 1 enzyme activity and an elevation in the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of glutathione, a co-factor for glyoxalase 1. The expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), serum amyloid A and serum C-reactive protein, markers of protein oxidation, glycation and inflammation, were also increased in diabetic Akita mice and reduced by fisetin. It is concluded that fisetin lowers the elevation of MG-protein glycation that is associated with diabetes and ameliorates multiple complications of the disease. Therefore, fisetin or a synthetic derivative may have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of diabetic complications.
|Gradual increase of high mobility group protein b1 in the lungs after the onset of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.|
Ebina, M; Taniguchi, H; Miyasho, T; Yamada, S; Shibata, N; Ohta, H; Hisata, S; Ohkouchi, S; Tamada, T; Nishimura, H; Ishizaka, A; Maruyama, I; Okada, Y; Takashi, K; Nukiwa, T
Pulmonary medicine 2011 916486 2011
The pathogenesis of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains to be elucidated. To evaluate the roles of inflammatory mediators in acute exacerbation, the concentrations of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), a chief mediator of acute lung injury, and 18 inflammatory cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serially sampled from seven IPF patients after the onset of acute exacerbation. HMGB1 gradually increased in the alveolar fluid after the onset of acute exacerbation, in positive correlation with monocytes chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a potent fibrogenic mediator. In the lung tissues of eight IPF patients autopsied after acute exacerbation, intense cytoplasmic staining for HMGB1 was observed in the alveolar epithelial cells in alveolar capillary augmented lesions, where the capillary endothelial cells remarkably reduced the expression of thrombomodulin, an intrinsic antagonist of HMGB1. These results suggest pathogenic roles for HMGB1 and MCP-1 in the late phase of acute exacerbation of IPF.Full Text Article
|Alternatively spliced RAGEv1 inhibits tumorigenesis through suppression of JNK signaling.|
Kalea, Anastasia Z, et al.
Cancer Res., 70: 5628-38 (2010) 2010
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands are overexpressed in multiple cancers. RAGE has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis, but little is known of the mechanisms involved. In this study, we define a specific functional role for an alternate splice variant termed RAGE splice variant 1 (RAGEv1), which encodes a soluble endogenous form of the receptor that inhibits tumorigenesis. RAGEv1 was downregulated in lung, prostate, and brain tumors relative to control matched tissues. Overexpressing RAGEv1 in tumor cells altered RAGE ligand stimulation of several novel classes of genes that are critical in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Additionally, RAGEv1 inhibited tumor formation, cell invasion, and angiogenesis induced by RAGE ligand signaling. Analysis of signal transduction pathways underlying these effects revealed marked suppression of c-jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) pathway signaling, and JNK inhibition suppressed signaling through the RAGE pathway. Tumors expressing RAGEv1 were significantly smaller than wild-type tumors and displayed prominently reduced activation of JNK. Our results identify RAGEv1 as a novel suppressor, the study of which may offer new cancer therapeutic directions.
|Neural-activity-dependent release of S100B from astrocytes enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations in vivo.|
Sakatani, S; Seto-Ohshima, A; Shinohara, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, H; Itohara, S; Hirase, H
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 10928-36 2008
S100B is the principal calcium-binding protein of astrocytes and known to be secreted to extracellular space. Although secreted S100B has been reported to promote neurite extension and cell survival via its receptor [receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)], effects of extracellular S100B on neural activity have been mostly unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that secreted S100B enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations. Local infusion of S100B in S100B(-/-) mice enhanced hippocampal kainate-induced gamma oscillations in vivo. In a complementary set of experiments, local application of anti-S100B antibody in wild-type mice attenuated the gamma oscillations. Both results indicate that the presence of extracellular S100B enhances the kainate-induced gamma oscillations. In acutely isolated hippocampal slices, kainate application increased S100B secretion in a neural-activity-dependent manner. Further pharmacological experiments revealed that S100B secretion was critically dependent on presynaptic release of neurotransmitter and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3. Moreover, the kainate-induced gamma oscillations were attenuated by the genetic deletion or antibody blockade of RAGE in vivo. These results suggest RAGE activation by S100B enhances the gamma oscillations. Together, we propose a novel pathway of neuron-glia communications--astrocytic release of S100B modulates neural network activity through RAGE activation.
|Receptor for advanced glycation end products is subjected to protein ectodomain shedding by metalloproteinases.|
Zhang, L; Bukulin, M; Kojro, E; Roth, A; Metz, VV; Fahrenholz, F; Nawroth, PP; Bierhaus, A; Postina, R
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 35507-16 2008
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a 55-kDa type I membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Ligand-induced up-regulation of RAGE is involved in various pathophysiological processes, including late diabetic complications and Alzheimer disease. Application of recombinant soluble RAGE has been shown to block RAGE-mediated pathophysiological conditions. After expression of full-length RAGE in HEK cells we identified a 48-kDa soluble RAGE form (sRAGE) in the culture medium. This variant of RAGE is smaller than a 51-kDa soluble version derived from alternative splicing. The release of sRAGE can be induced by the phorbol ester PMA and the calcium ionophore calcimycin via calcium-dependent protein kinase C subtypes. Hydroxamic acid-based metalloproteinase inhibitors block the release of sRAGE, and by RNA interference experiments we identified ADAM10 and MMP9 to be involved in RAGE shedding. In protein biotinylation experiments we show that membrane-anchored full-length RAGE is the precursor of sRAGE and that sRAGE is efficiently released from the cell surface. We identified cleavage of RAGE to occur close to the cell membrane. Ectodomain shedding of RAGE simultaneously generates sRAGE and a membrane-anchored C-terminal RAGE fragment (RAGE-CTF). The amount of RAGE-CTF increases when RAGE-expressing cells are treated with a gamma-secretase inhibitor, suggesting that RAGE-CTF is normally further processed by gamma-secretase. Identification of these novel mechanisms involved in regulating the availability of cell surface-located RAGE and its soluble ectodomain may influence further research in RAGE-mediated processes in cell biology and pathophysiology.
|A soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is produced by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound form by the sheddase a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10).|
Raucci, A; Cugusi, S; Antonelli, A; Barabino, SM; Monti, L; Bierhaus, A; Reiss, K; Saftig, P; Bianchi, ME
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 3716-27 2008
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) mediates responses to cell danger and stress. When bound by its many ligands (which include advanced glycation endproducts, certain members of the S100/calgranulin family, extracellular high-mobility group box 1, the integrin Mac-1, amyloid beta-peptide and fibrils), RAGE activates programs responsible for acute and chronic inflammation. RAGE is therefore also involved in cancer progression, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. RAGE has several isoforms deriving from alternative splicing, including a soluble form called endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE). We show here that most soluble RAGE, either produced by cell lines or present in human blood, is not recognized by an anti-esRAGE antibody. Cells transfected with the cDNA for full-length RAGE, and thus not expressing esRAGE, produce a form of soluble RAGE, cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) that derives from proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound molecules and acts as a decoy receptor. By screening chemical inhibitors and genetically modified mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we identify the sheddase ADAM10 as a membrane protease responsible for RAGE cleavage. Binding of its ligand HMGB1 promotes RAGE shedding. Our data do not disprove the interpretation that high levels of soluble forms of RAGE protect against chronic inflammation, but rather suggest that they correlate with high levels of ongoing inflammation.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress (EMD)|
|White Paper- Modern Methods in Oxidative Stress Research (EMD)|