|Cytosolic peroxiredoxin attenuates the activation of Jnk and p38 but potentiates that of Erk in Hela cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha.|
Kang, Sang Won, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 279: 2535-43 (2004)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induces the activation of all three types of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK): c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). This cytokine also induces the production of several types of reactive oxygen species, including H(2)O(2). With the use both of HeLa cells expressing wild-type or dominant negative forms of the cytosolic peroxidase peroxiredoxin II and of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in this protein, we evaluated the roles of H(2)O(2) in the activation of MAPKs by TNF-alpha. In vitro kinase assays as well as immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific for activated MAPKs indicated that H(2)O(2) produced in response to TNF-alpha potentiates the activation of JNK and p38 induced by this cytokine but inhibits that of ERK. Our results also suggest that cytosolic peroxiredoxins are important regulators of TNF signaling pathways.
|Nonredundant antioxidant defense by multiple two-cysteine peroxiredoxins in human prostate cancer cells.|
Shen, Chuanlu and Nathan, Carl
Mol. Med., 8: 95-102 (2002)
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are antioxidant enzymes expressed by most free-living organisms, often in multiple isoforms. Because mammalian Prxs have not been experimentally deleted or inhibited, it is not known how much they contribute to antioxidant defense, nor whether the multiple isoforms afford redundant or additive protection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of the four members of the 2-Cys family of human Prxs was tested in human tumor cell lines. Monospecific antibodies were developed and used to monitor the extent and specificity of inhibition of expression of each isoform in prostate cancer cells stably transfected with antisense constructs. RESULTS: Seventeen tumor lines transcribed genes for all four human Prxs. Prostate cancer cells coexpressed each isoform at the protein level. Stable transfection with antisense allowed partial, selective suppression of Prx 1, 2, 3, or 4. Prostate cancer cells were rendered more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide or an organic hydroperoxide when Prx 1, 2, or 3 but not 4 was partially suppressed, bringing them into the range of sensitivity of mouse cells. The effect of partially suppressing a single Prx was comparable to that of depleting glutathione. In contrast, sensitization to adriamycin, an antitumor agent with a redox-active quinone, followed the partial suppression of Prxs 1, 2, or 4 but not 3. Individual suppression of Prxs 1-4 had no effect on sensitivity of the cells to reactive nitrogen intermediates, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), paclitaxel (Taxol), or etoposide. CONCLUSIONS: The 2-Cys Prxs act in a mutually nonredundant and sometimes stress-specific fashion to protect human cells from oxidant injury. The substantial resistance of human cells to hydroperoxides may result in part from the additive action of multiple Prxs.