|Angiotensin II-induced contraction is attenuated by nitric oxide in afferent arterioles from the nonclipped kidney in 2K1C.|
Helle, F; Hultström, M; Skogstrand, T; Palm, F; Iversen, BM
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) is a model of renovascular hypertension where we previously found an exaggerated intracellular calcium (Ca(i)(2+)) response to ANG II in isolated afferent arterioles (AAs) from the clipped kidney (Helle F, Vagnes OB, Iversen BM. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291: F140-F147, 2006). To test whether nitric oxide (NO) ameliorates the exaggerated ANG II response in 2K1C, we studied ANG II (10(-7) mol/l)-induced calcium signaling and contractility with or without the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). In AAs from the nonclipped kidney, l-NAME increased the ANG II-induced Ca(i)(2+) response from 0.28 +/- 0.05 to 0.55 +/- 0.09 (fura 2, 340 nm/380 nm ratio) and increased contraction from 80 +/- 6 to 60 +/- 6% of baseline (P less than 0.05). In vessels from sham and clipped kidneys, l-NAME had no effect. In diaminofluorescein-FM diacetate-loaded AAs from the nonclipped kidney, ANG II increased NO-derived fluorescence to 145 +/- 34% of baseline (P less than 0.05 vs. sham), but not in vessels from the sham or clipped kidney. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and ser-1177 phosphorylation were unchanged in both kidneys from 2K1C, while eNOS protein was reduced in the clipped kidney compared with sham. Cationic amino acid transferase-1 and 2 mRNAs were increased in 2K1C, indicating increased availability of l-arginine for NO synthesis, but counteracted by decreased scavenging of the eNOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2. In conclusion, the Ca(i)(2+) and contractile responses to ANG II are blunted by NO release in the nonclipped kidney. This may protect the nonclipped kidney from the hypertension and elevated ANG II levels in 2K1C.
|The interactive effects of hypoxia and nitric oxide on catecholamine secretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).|
McNeill, B; Perry, SF
The Journal of experimental biology
Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that exposure of rainbow trout to repetitive hypoxia would result in a decreased capacity of chromaffin cells to secrete catecholamines owing to increased production of nitric oxide (NO), a potent inhibitor of catecholamine secretion. A partial sequence of trout neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was cloned and its mRNA was found to be present in the posterior cardinal vein (PCV), the predominant site of chromaffin cells in trout. Using heterologous antibodies, nNOS and endothelial NOS (eNOS) were localized in close proximity to the chromaffin cells of the PCV. Exposure of trout to acute hypoxia (5.33 kPa for 30 min) in vivo resulted in significant increases in plasma catecholamine and NO levels. However, after 4 days of twice-daily exposures to hypoxia, the elevation of plasma catecholamine levels during hypoxia was markedly reduced. Associated with the reduction in plasma catecholamine levels during acute hypoxia was a marked increase in basal and hypoxia-evoked circulating levels of NO that became apparent after 2-4 days of repetitive hypoxia. The capacity of the chromaffin cells of the hypoxia-exposed fish to secrete catecholamine was assessed by electrical stimulation of an in situ saline-perfused PCV preparation. Compared with control (normoxic) fish, the PCV preparations derived from fish exposed to repeated hypoxia displayed a significant reduction in electrically evoked catecholamine secretion that was concomitant with a marked increased in NO production. This additional rise in NO secretion in preparations derived from hypoxic fish was prevented after adding NOS inhibitors to the perfusate; concomitantly, the reduction in catecholamine secretion was prevented. The increased production of NO during hypoxia in vivo and during electrical stimulation in situ was consistent with significant elevations of nNOS mRNA and protein; eNOS protein was unaffected. These results suggest that the reduced capacity of trout chromaffin cells to secrete catecholamines after repeated hypoxia reflects an increase in the expression of nNOS and a subsequent increase in NO production during chromaffin-cell activation.