Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||ICC, IHC, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit polyclonal serum in buffer containing liquid 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II Antibody SDS
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II||2459002|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 2392230||2392230|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 2064696||2064696|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 2227120||2227120|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 3217778||3217778|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 3283233||3283233|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 3425718||3425718|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 3597326||3597326|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - 3728343||3728343|
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - JBC1766784||JBC1766784|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration in the olfactory bulb of aged mice.|
Yang, MJ; Sim, S; Jeon, JH; Jeong, E; Kim, HC; Park, YJ; Kim, IB
PloS one 8 e59673 2013
Olfactory sensory function declines with age; though, the underlying molecular changes that occur in the olfactory bulb (OB) are relatively unknown. An important cellular signaling molecule involved in the processing, modulation, and formation of olfactory memories is nitric oxide (NO). However, excess NO can result in the production of peroxynitrite to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study, we assessed whether changes in the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), a neurochemical marker of peroxynitrite and thus oxidative damage, exists in the OB of young, adult, middle-aged, and aged mice. Our results demonstrate that OB 3-NT levels increase with age in normal C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, in aged mice, 3-NT immunoreactivity was found in some blood vessels and microglia throughout the OB. Notably, large and strongly immunoreactive puncta were found in mitral and tufted cells, and these were identified as lipofuscin granules. Additionally, we found many small-labeled puncta within the glomeruli of the glomerular layer and in the external plexiform layer, and these were localized to mitochondria and discrete segments of mitral and tufted dendritic plasma membranes. These results suggest that mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration, along with microglia and blood vessels, in the OB during aging.
|Dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of rabbit skeletal muscles modulates the biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia.|
Hsieh, YL; Yang, SA; Yang, CC; Chou, LW
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2012 342165 2012
Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP). However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D) or five dosages (5D) into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.
|Spontaneously hypertensive rats display reduced microglial activation in response to ischemic stroke and lipopolysaccharide.|
De Geyter, D; Stoop, W; Zgavc, T; Sarre, S; Michotte, Y; De Keyser, J; Kooijman, R
Journal of neuroinflammation 9 114 2012
For successful translation to clinical stroke studies, the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Round Table criteria have been proposed. Two important criteria are testing of therapeutic interventions in conscious animals and the presence of a co-morbidity factor. We chose to work with hypertensive rats since hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for stroke and influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to compare the susceptibility to ischemia in hypertensive rats with those in normotensive controls in a rat model for induction of ischemic stroke in conscious animals.The vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 was stereotactically applied in the vicinity of the middle cerebral artery of control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYRs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) to induce a transient decrease in striatal blood flow, which was measured by the laser Doppler technique. Infarct size was assessed histologically by cresyl violet staining. Sensory-motor functions were measured at several time points using the neurological deficit score. Activation of microglia and astrocytes in the striatum and cortex was investigated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD68/Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein.The SHRs showed significantly larger infarct volumes and more pronounced sensory-motor deficits, compared to the WKYRs at 24 h after the insult. However, both differences disappeared between 24 and 72 h. In SHRs, microglia were less susceptible to activation by lipopolysaccharide and there was a reduced microglial activation after induction of ischemic stroke. These quantitative and qualitative differences may be relevant for studying the efficacy of new treatments for stroke in accordance to the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Round Table criteria.
|Proteomic characterization of the cellular response to nitrosative stress mediated by s-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibition.|
Foster, MW; Yang, Z; Gooden, DM; Thompson, JW; Ball, CH; Turner, ME; Hou, Y; Pi, J; Moseley, MA; Que, LG
Journal of proteome research 11 2480-91 2012
The S-nitrosoglutathione-metabolizing enzyme, GSNO reductase (GSNOR), has emerged as an important regulator of protein S-nitrosylation. GSNOR ablation is protective in models of asthma and heart failure, raising the idea that GSNOR inhibitors might hold therapeutic value. Here, we investigated the effects of a small molecule inhibitor of GSNOR (GSNORi) in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that GSNORi increased protein S-nitrosylation in cytokine-stimulated cells, and we utilized stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to quantify the cellular response to this "nitrosative stress". The expression of several cytokine-inducible immunomodulators, including osteopontin, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase isoform 2 (NOS2), were decreased by GSNORi. In addition, selective targets of the redox-regulated transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory subunit-were induced by GSNORi in a NOS2- and Nrf2-dependent manner. In cytokine-stimulated cells, Nrf2 protected from GSNORi-induced glutathione depletion and cytotoxicity and HO-1 activity was required for down-regulation of NOS2. Interestingly, GSNORi also affected a marked increase in NOS2 protein stability. Collectively, these data provide the most complete description of the global effects of GSNOR inhibition and demonstrate several important mechanisms for inducible response to GSNORi-mediated nitrosative stress.
|Localization of a wide-ranging panel of antigens in the rat retina by immunohistochemistry: comparison of Davidson's solution and formalin as fixatives.|
Chidlow, G; Daymon, M; Wood, JP; Casson, RJ
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 59 884-98 2011
The preferred fixative for whole eyes is Davidson's solution, which provides optimal tissue preservation while avoiding retinal detachment. Hitherto, the compatibility of Davidson's solution with immunohistochemistry has been largely untested. The goal of the present study was to compare the immunolabeling patterns of a wide-ranging panel of commercially available, previously validated antibodies in formalin- and Davidson's-fixed retinas. Immunohistochemistry was performed in normal pigmented rat eyes and, to facilitate localization of inducible proteins, eyes injected with the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide or subjected to laser-induced photoreceptor damage. Specificity of labeling was judged by the morphology and distribution of immunopositive cells, by the absence of signal in appropriate controls, and by comparison with expected staining patterns. Retinas fixed in formalin displayed only adequate morphological integrity but were highly compatible with all 39 antibodies evaluated. Retinas fixed in Davidson's solution displayed morphological integrity superior to those fixed in formalin. Generally, the cellular and subcellular patterns and intensities of immunoreactivities obtained with each fixative were identical; however, Davidson's fixative was less compatible with certain antibodies, such as the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, the microglial marker iba1, the macroglial stress protein nestin, and the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, shortfalls that somewhat temper enthusiasm concerning its use.
|Dexamethasone inhibits the Nox-dependent ROS production via suppression of MKP-1-dependent MAPK pathways in activated microglia.|
Huo, Y; Rangarajan, P; Ling, EA; Dheen, ST
BMC neuroscience 12 49 2011
Nox-2 (also known as gp91phox), a subunit component of NADPH oxidases, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox-dependent ROS generation and nitric oxide (NO) release by microglia have been implicated in a variety of diseases in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone (Dex) has been shown to suppress the ROS production, NO release and inflammatory reaction of activated microglial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.The present study showed that the increased ROS production and NO release in activated BV-2 microglial cells by LPS were associated with increased expression of Nox-2 and iNOS. Dex suppressed the upregulation of Nox-2 and iNOS, as well as the subsequent ROS production and NO synthesis in activated BV-2 cells. This inhibition caused by Dex appeared to be mediated by upregulation of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which antagonizes the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Dex induced-suppression of Nox-2 and -upregulation of MKP-1 was also evident in the activated microglia from corpus callosum of postnatal rat brains. The overexpression of MKP-1 or inhibition of MAPKs (by specific inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPKs), were found to downregulate the expression of Nox-2 and iNOS and thereby inhibit the synthesis of ROS and NO in activated BV-2 cells. Moreover, Dex was unable to suppress the LPS-induced synthesis of ROS and NO in BV-2 cells transfected with MKP-1 siRNA. On the other hand, knockdown of Nox-2 in BV-2 cells suppressed the LPS-induced ROS production and NO release.In conclusion, it is suggested that downregulation of Nox-2 and overexpression of MKP-1 that regulate ROS and NO may form the potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.Full Text Article
|Peripheral purinergic receptor modulation influences the trigeminal ganglia nitroxidergic system in an experimental murine model of inflammatory orofacial pain.|
Borsani, Elisa, et al.
J. Neurosci. Res., 88: 2715-26 (2010) 2010
ATP plays an important role as an endogenous pain mediator generating and/or modulating pain signaling from the periphery to the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of peripheral purinergic receptors in modulation of the nitroxidergic system at a trigeminal ganglia level by monitoring changes in nitric oxide synthase isoforms. We also evaluated Fos-positive neurons in brainstem (spinal trigeminal nucleus) and pain-related behavior. We found that local administration of the P2 purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) decreased face-rubbing activity, nitric oxide synthase isoform expression in trigeminal ganglia, and Fos expression in spinal trigeminal nucleus after subcutaneous injection of formalin. These results suggest a role for peripheral P2 purinergic receptors in orofacial pain transmission through modulation of the nitroxidergic system. .
|Distinct pattern of microglial response, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the aged rat brain after excitotoxic damage.|
O Campuzano,M M Castillo-Ruiz,L Acarin,B Castellano,B Gonzalez
Journal of neuroscience research 86 2008
Microglial and inflammatory responses to acute damage in aging are still poorly understood, although the aged brain responds differently to injury, showing poor lesion outcome. In this study, excitotoxicity was induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate in adult (3-4 months) and aged (22-24 months) rats. Cryostat brain sections were processed for the analysis of microglial response by lectin histochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by immunohistochemistry and confocal analysis. Aged injured animals showed more widespread area of microglial response at 12 hr postlesion (hpl) and greater microglia/macrophage density at 3 days postlesion (dpl). However, aged reactive microglia showed prevalence of ramified morphologies and fewer amoeboid/round forms. Aged injured animals presented a diminished area of COX2 expression, but a significantly larger density of COX2(+) cells, with higher numbers of COX2(+) neurons during the first 24 hpl and COX2(+) microglia/macrophages later. In contrast, the amount of COX2(+) neutrophils was diminished in the aged. iNOS was more rapidly induced in the aged injured striatum, with higher cell density at 12 hpl, when expression was mainly neuronal. From 1 dpl, both the iNOS(+) area and the density of iNOS(+) cells were reduced in the aged, with lower numbers of iNOS(+) neurons, microglia/macrophages, neutrophils, and astrocytes. In conclusion, excitotoxic damage in aging induces a distinct pattern of microglia/macrophage response and expression of inflammatory enzymes, which may account for the changes in lesion outcome in the aged, and highlight the importance of using aged animals for the study of acute age-related insults.
|Hepatocyte survival in acute hepatitis is due to c-Jun/AP-1-dependent expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.|
Hasselblatt, P; Rath, M; Komnenovic, V; Zatloukal, K; Wagner, EF
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 17105-10 2007
Analysis of the molecular factors determining hepatocyte survival or death in response to inflammatory stimuli is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver disease and for identifying novel therapeutic approaches. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a major mediator of cytokine-induced cell death during hepatitis, but the signaling pathways downstream of JNK remain less well defined. Here we show that the transcription factor c-Jun/AP-1, a prototypic target of JNK, is strongly expressed in the liver of patients with acute liver injury. The molecular function of c-Jun in inflammatory liver disease was analyzed in mice by using the Con A model of T cell-mediated hepatitis. Mice lacking c-Jun in hepatocytes display increased liver cell death and mortality upon Con A injection. This phenotype is caused by impaired expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (nos2), a direct transcriptional target of c-Jun, and reduced production of hepatoprotective nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, increased hepatotoxicity in mutant mice is likely caused by hypoxia and oxidative stress and can be rescued pharmacologically by liver-specific NO delivery. These findings demonstrate that c-Jun/AP-1 is hepatoprotective during acute hepatitis by regulating nos2/NO expression and thus functionally antagonizes the cell death-promoting functions of JNK.Full Text Article
|Nasal vaccination with a proteosome-based adjuvant and glatiramer acetate clears beta-amyloid in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.|
Frenkel, D; Maron, R; Burt, DS; Weiner, HL
The Journal of clinical investigation 115 2423-33 2005
Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) appears to play a key pathogenic role in Alzheimer disease (AD). Immune therapy in mouse models of AD via Abeta immunization or passive administration of Abeta antibodies markedly reduces Abeta levels and reverses behavioral impairment. However, a human trial of Abeta immunization led to meningoencephalitis in some patients and was discontinued. Here we show that nasal vaccination with a proteosome-based adjuvant that is well tolerated in humans plus glatiramer acetate, an FDA-approved synthetic copolymer used to treat multiple sclerosis, potently decreases Abeta plaques in an AD mouse model. This effect did not require the presence of antibody, as it was observed in B cell-deficient (Ig mu-null) mice. Vaccinated animals developed activated microglia that colocalized with Abeta fibrils, and the extent of microglial activation correlated strongly with the decrease in Abeta fibrils. Activation of microglia and clearing of Abeta occurred with the adjuvant alone, although to a lesser degree. Our results identify a novel approach to immune therapy for AD that involves clearing of Abeta through the utilization of compounds that have been safely tested on or are currently in use in humans.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress (EMD)|
|White Paper- Modern Methods in Oxidative Stress Research (EMD)|