Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Ma||WB, ICC, IHC||M||Affinity Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified antibody in PBS, 50% glycerol, and 5 mM sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||300 µL|
Anti-Neurofilament 145 kDa Antibody, CT, clone 3H11 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Differential calcium signaling mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels in rat retinal ganglion cells and their unmyelinated axons.|
Sargoy, A; Sun, X; Barnes, S; Brecha, NC
PloS one 9 e84507 2014
Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC) regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury.
|Therapeutic laquinimod treatment decreases inflammation, initiates axon remyelination, and improves motor deficit in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.|
Moore, S; Khalaj, AJ; Yoon, J; Patel, R; Hannsun, G; Yoo, T; Sasidhar, M; Martinez-Torres, L; Hayardeny, L; Tiwari-Woodruff, SK
Brain and behavior 3 664-82 2013
Therapeutic strategies that induce effective neuroprotection and enhance intrinsic repair mechanisms are central goals for future treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as other diseases. Laquinimod (LQ) is an orally administered, central nervous system (CNS)-active immunomodulator with demonstrated efficacy in MS clinical trials and a favorable safety and tolerability profile.We aimed to explore the pathological, functional, and behavioral consequences of prophylactic and therapeutic (after presentation of peak clinical disease) LQ treatment in the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS.Active EAE-induced 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with 5 or 25 mg/kg/day LQ via oral gavage beginning on EAE post-immunization day 0, 8, or 21. Clinical scores and rotorod motor performance were assessed throughout the disease course. Immune analysis of autoantigen-stimulated splenocytes, electrophysiological conduction of callosal axons, and immunohistochemistry of white matter-rich corpus callosum and spinal cord were performed.Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with LQ significantly decreased mean clinical disease scores, inhibited Th1 cytokine production, and decreased the CNS inflammatory response. LQ-induced improvement in axon myelination and integrity during EAE was functional, as evidenced by significant recovery of callosal axon conduction and axon refractoriness and pronounced improvement in rotorod motor performance. These improvements correlate with LQ-induced attenuation of EAE-induced demyelination and axon damage, and improved myelinated axon numbers.Even when initiated at peak disease, LQ treatment has beneficial effects within the chronic EAE mouse model. In addition to its immunomodulatory effects, the positive effects of LQ treatment on oligodendrocyte numbers and myelin density are indicative of significant, functional neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects.Our results support a potential neuroprotective, in addition to immunomodulatory, effect of LQ treatment in inhibiting ongoing MS/EAE disease progression.
|Channel density and porosity of degradable bridging scaffolds on axon growth after spinal injury.|
Thomas, AM; Kubilius, MB; Holland, SJ; Seidlits, SK; Boehler, RM; Anderson, AJ; Cummings, BJ; Shea, LD
Biomaterials 34 2213-20 2013
Bridges implanted into the injured spinal cord function to stabilize the injury, while also supporting and directing axon growth. The architecture of the bridge is critical to its function, with pores to support cell infiltration that integrates the implant with the host and channels to direct axon elongation. Here, we developed a sucrose fiber template to create poly(lactide-co-glycolide) multiple channel bridges for implantation into a lateral hemisection that had a 3-fold increase in channel number relative to previous bridges and an overall porosity ranging from approximately 70%-90%. Following implantation into rat and mouse models, axons were observed within channels for all conditions. The axon density within the bridge increased nearly 7-fold relative to previous bridges with fewer channels. Furthermore, increasing the bridge porosity substantially increased the number of axons, which correlated with the extent of cell infiltration throughout the bridge. Analysis of these cell types identified an increased presence of mature oligodendrocytes within the bridge at higher porosities. These results demonstrate that channels and bridge porosity influence the re-growth of axons through the injury. These bridges provide a platform technology capable of being combined with the delivery of regenerative factors for the ultimate goal of achieving functional recovery.
|Polysaccharide-modified scaffolds for controlled lentivirus delivery in vitro and after spinal cord injury.|
Thomas, AM; Shea, LD
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society 170 421-9 2013
Gene delivering biomaterials have increasingly been employed to modulate the cellular microenvironment to promote tissue regeneration, yet low transduction efficiency has been a persistent challenge for in vivo applications. In this report, we investigated the surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds with polysaccharides, which have been implicated in binding lentivirus but have not been used for delivery. Chitosan was directly conjugated onto PLG scaffolds, whereas heparin and hyaluronan were indirectly conjugated onto PLG scaffolds with multi-amine crosslinkers. The addition of chitosan and heparin onto PLG promoted the association of lentivirus to these scaffolds and enhanced their transduction efficiency in vitro relative to hyaluronan-conjugated and control scaffolds that had limited lentivirus association and transduction. Transduction efficiency in vitro was increased partly due to an enhanced retention of virus on the scaffold as well as an extended half-life of viral activity. Transduction efficiency was also evaluated in vivo using porous, multiple channel PLG bridges that delivered lentivirus to the injured mouse spinal cord. Transgene expression persisted for weeks after implantation, and was able to enhance axon growth and myelination. These studies support gene-delivering PLG scaffolds for in vivo regenerative medicine applications.
|Clusters of iron-rich cells in the upper beak of pigeons are macrophages not magnetosensitive neurons.|
Christoph Daniel Treiber,Marion Claudia Salzer,Johannes Riegler,Nathaniel Edelman,Cristina Sugar,Martin Breuss,Paul Pichler,Herve Cadiou,Martin Saunders,Mark Lythgoe,Jeremy Shaw,David Anthony Keays
Nature 484 2012
Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian species, which consists of magnetite-containing trigeminal afferents located at six specific loci in the rostral subepidermis of the beak. These studies have been widely accepted in the field and heavily relied upon by both behavioural biologists and physicists. Here we show that clusters of iron-rich cells in the rostro-medial upper beak of the pigeon Columbia livia are macrophages, not magnetosensitive neurons. Our systematic characterization of the pigeon upper beak identified iron-rich cells in the stratum laxum of the subepidermis, the basal region of the respiratory epithelium and the apex of feather follicles. Using a three-dimensional blueprint of the pigeon beak created by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, we mapped the location of iron-rich cells, revealing unexpected variation in their distribution and number--an observation that is inconsistent with a role in magnetic sensation. Ultrastructure analysis of these cells, which are not unique to the beak, showed that their subcellular architecture includes ferritin-like granules, siderosomes, haemosiderin and filopodia, characteristics of iron-rich macrophages. Our conclusion that these cells are macrophages and not magnetosensitive neurons is supported by immunohistological studies showing co-localization with the antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility complex class II. Our work necessitates a renewed search for the true magnetite-dependent magnetoreceptor in birds.
|Biochip∕laser cell deposition system to assess polarized axonal growth from single neurons and neuron∕glia pairs in microchannels with novel asymmetrical geometries.|
Pirlo, RK; Sweeney, AJ; Ringeisen, BR; Kindy, M; Gao, BZ
Biomicrofluidics 5 13408 2011
Axon path-finding plays an important role in normal and pathogenic brain development as well as in neurological regenerative medicine. In both scenarios, axonal growth is influenced by the microenvironment including the soluble molecules and contact-mediated signaling from guiding cells and cellular matrix. Microfluidic devices are a powerful tool for creating a microenvironment at the single cell level. In this paper, an asymmetrical-channel-based biochip, which can be later incorporated into microfluidic devices for neuronal network study, was developed to investigate geometric as well as supporting cell control of polarized axonal growth in forming a defined neuronal circuitry. A laser cell deposition system was used to place single cells, including neuron-glia pairs, into specific microwells of the device, enabling axonal growth without the influence of cytophilic∕phobic surface patterns. Phase microscopy showed that a novel "snag" channel structure influenced axonal growth in the intended direction 4:1 over the opposite direction. In heterotypic experiments, glial cell influence over the axonal growth path was observed with time-lapse microscopy. Thus, it is shown that single cell and heterotypic neuronal path-finding models can be developed in laser patterned biochips.
|Human embryonic stem cell neural differentiation and enhanced cell survival promoted by hypoxic preconditioning.|
Francis, KR; Wei, L
Cell death & disease 1 e22 2010
Transplantation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provides a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. However, poor graft survival within the host environment has hampered the benefits and applications of cell-based therapies. The present investigation tested a preconditioning strategy to enhance hESC tolerance, thereby improving graft survival and the therapeutic potential of hESC transplantation. UC06 hESCs underwent neural induction and terminal differentiation for up to 30 days, becoming neural lineage cells, exhibiting extensive neurites and axonal projections, generating synapses and action potentials. To induce a cytoprotective phenotype, hESC-derived neurospheres were cultured at 0.1% oxygen for 12 h, dissociated and plated for terminal differentiation under 21% oxygen. Immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology demonstrated the 'hypoxic preconditioning' promoted neuronal differentiation. Western blotting revealed significantly upregulated oxygen-sensitive transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α, while producing a biphasic response within HIF targets, including erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor and Bcl-2 family members, during hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation. This cytoprotective phenotype resulted in a 50% increase in both total and neural precursor cell survival after either hydrogen peroxide insult or oxygen-glucose deprivation. Cellular protection was maintained for at least 5 days and corresponded to upregulation of neuroprotective proteins. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning could be used to improve the effectiveness of human neural precursor transplantation therapies.Full Text Article
|Involvement of TRPV2 activation in intestinal movement through nitric oxide production in mice.|
Mihara, H; Boudaka, A; Shibasaki, K; Yamanaka, A; Sugiyama, T; Tominaga, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 16536-44 2010
Transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) can detect various stimuli such as temperature (greater than 52 °C), stretch, and chemicals, including 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, probenecid, and lysophospholipids. Although expressed in many tissues, including sensory and motor neurons, TRPV2 expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract is poorly understood. Here, we show TRPV2 expression in the murine intestine and its involvement in intestinal function. Almost all mouse intestinal intrinsic sensory and inhibitory motor neurons, both cell bodies and nerve fibers, showed TRPV2 immunoreactivity. Several known TRPV2 activators increased cytosolic Ca²+ concentrations and evoked TRPV2-like current responses in dissociated myenteric neurons. Interestingly, mechanical stimuli activated inward currents in a strength-dependent manner, which were inhibited by a TRPV2 inhibitor tranilast. TRPV2 activation in isolated intestine inhibited spontaneous circular muscle contraction, which did not occur in the presence of the TRPV2 antagonist, tetrodotoxin or nitro oxide (NO) synthase pathway inhibitors. Also, increased intestinal NO production was observed in response to a TRPV2 agonist, and gastrointestinal transit in vivo was accelerated by TRPV2 agonists or an NO donor. In conclusion, TRPV2 may contribute to intestinal motility through NO production, and TRPV2 is a promising target for controlling intestinal movement.
|Maintenance of axo-oligodendroglial paranodal junctions requires DCC and netrin-1.|
Jarjour, AA; Bull, SJ; Almasieh, M; Rajasekharan, S; Baker, KA; Mui, J; Antel, JP; Di Polo, A; Kennedy, TE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 11003-14 2008
Paranodal axoglial junctions are essential for the segregation of myelinated axons into distinct domains and efficient conduction of action potentials. Here, we show that netrin-1 and deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) are enriched at the paranode in CNS myelin. We then address whether netrin-1 signaling influences paranodal adhesion between oligodendrocytes and axons. In the absence of netrin-1 or DCC function, oligodendroglial paranodes initially develop and mature normally but later become disorganized. Lack of DCC or netrin-1 resulted in detachment of paranodal loops from the axonal surface and the disappearance of transverse bands. Furthermore, the domain organization of myelin is compromised in the absence of netrin-1 signaling: K+ channels inappropriately invade the paranodal region, and the normally restricted paranodal distribution of Caspr expands longitudinally along the axon. Our findings identify an essential role for netrin-1 and DCC regulating the maintenance of axoglial junctions.
|Reduced expression of A-type potassium channels in primary sensory neurons induces mechanical hypersensitivity.|
Chien, LY; Cheng, JK; Chu, D; Cheng, CF; Tsaur, ML
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 9855-65 2007
A-type K+ channels (A-channels) are crucial in controlling neuronal excitability, and their downregulation in pain-sensing neurons may increase pain sensation. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the expression of two A-channels, Kv3.4 and Kv4.3, in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Kv3.4 was expressed mainly in the nociceptive DRG neurons, in their somata, axons, and nerve terminals innervating the dorsal horn of spinal cord. In contrast, Kv4.3 appeared selectively in the somata of a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptive DRG neurons. Most Kv4.3(+) DRG neurons also expressed Kv3.4. In a neuropathic pain model induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats, the protein levels of Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 in the DRG neurons were greatly reduced. After Kv3.4 or Kv4.3 expression in lumbar DRG neurons was suppressed by intrathecal injections of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, mechanical but not thermal hypersensitivity developed. Together, our data suggest that reduced expression of A-channels in pain-sensing neurons may induce mechanical hypersensitivity, a major symptom of neuropathic pain.
|MOUSE ANTI-NEUROFILAMENT M (145K)|