Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Ch, Ft, H, M, Po, R, Sal||FC, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse immunoglobulin IgG1 liquid in buffer containing 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||500 µg|
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 SDS
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60||3075598|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2118033||2118033|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2375608||2375608|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2392283||2392283|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2424507||2424507|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2428671||2428671|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2453249||2453249|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 1991263||1991263|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2062313||2062313|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2074765||2074765|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Pre-existing astrocytes form functional perisynaptic processes on neurons generated in the adult hippocampus.|
Krzisch, M; Temprana, SG; Mongiat, LA; Armida, J; Schmutz, V; Virtanen, MA; Kocher-Braissant, J; Kraftsik, R; Vutskits, L; Conzelmann, KK; Bergami, M; Gage, FH; Schinder, AF; Toni, N
Brain structure & function 220 2027-42 2015
The adult dentate gyrus produces new neurons that morphologically and functionally integrate into the hippocampal network. In the adult brain, most excitatory synapses are ensheathed by astrocytic perisynaptic processes that regulate synaptic structure and function. However, these processes are formed during embryonic or early postnatal development and it is unknown whether astrocytes can also ensheathe synapses of neurons born during adulthood and, if so, whether they play a role in their synaptic transmission. Here, we used a combination of serial-section immuno-electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and electrophysiology to examine the formation of perisynaptic processes on adult-born neurons. We found that the afferent and efferent synapses of newborn neurons are ensheathed by astrocytic processes, irrespective of the age of the neurons or the size of their synapses. The quantification of gliogenesis and the distribution of astrocytic processes on synapses formed by adult-born neurons suggest that the majority of these processes are recruited from pre-existing astrocytes. Furthermore, the inhibition of astrocytic glutamate re-uptake significantly reduced postsynaptic currents and increased paired-pulse facilitation in adult-born neurons, suggesting that perisynaptic processes modulate synaptic transmission on these cells. Finally, some processes were found intercalated between newly formed dendritic spines and potential presynaptic partners, suggesting that they may also play a structural role in the connectivity of new spines. Together, these results indicate that pre-existing astrocytes remodel their processes to ensheathe synapses of adult-born neurons and participate to the functional and structural integration of these cells into the hippocampal network.
|Enrichment rescues contextual discrimination deficit associated with immediate shock.|
Clemenson, GD; Lee, SW; Deng, W; Barrera, VR; Iwamoto, KS; Fanselow, MS; Gage, FH
Hippocampus 25 385-92 2015
Adult animals continue to modify their behavior throughout life, a process that is highly influenced by past experiences. To shape behavior, specific mechanisms of neural plasticity to learn, remember, and recall information are required. One of the most robust examples of adult plasticity in the brain occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is strongly upregulated by external factors such as voluntary wheel running (RUN) and environmental enrichment (EE); however, the functional differences between these two factors remain unclear. Although both manipulations result in increased neurogenesis, RUN dramatically increases the proliferation of newborn cells and EE promotes their survival. We hypothesize that the method by which these newborn neurons are induced influences their functional role. Furthermore, we examine how EE-induced neurons may be primed to encode and recognize features of novel environments due to their previous enrichment experience. Here, we gave mice a challenging contextual fear-conditioning (FC) procedure to tease out the behavioral differences between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. Despite the robust increases in neurogenesis seen in the RUN mice, we found that only EE mice were able to discriminate between similar contexts in this task, indicating that EE mice might use a different cognitive strategy when processing contextual information. Furthermore, we showed that this improvement was dependent on EE-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a fundamental functional difference between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis.
|An anterograde rabies virus vector for high-resolution large-scale reconstruction of 3D neuron morphology.|
Haberl, MG; Viana da Silva, S; Guest, JM; Ginger, M; Ghanem, A; Mulle, C; Oberlaender, M; Conzelmann, KK; Frick, A
Brain structure & function 220 1369-79 2015
Glycoprotein-deleted rabies virus (RABV ∆G) is a powerful tool for the analysis of neural circuits. Here, we demonstrate the utility of an anterograde RABV ∆G variant for novel neuroanatomical approaches involving either bulk or sparse neuronal populations. This technology exploits the unique features of RABV ∆G vectors, namely autonomous, rapid high-level expression of transgenes, and limited cytotoxicity. Our vector permits the unambiguous long-range and fine-scale tracing of the entire axonal arbor of individual neurons throughout the brain. Notably, this level of labeling can be achieved following infection with a single viral particle. The vector is effective over a range of ages (greater than 14 months) aiding the studies of neurodegenerative disorders or aging, and infects numerous cell types in all brain regions tested. Lastly, it can also be readily combined with retrograde RABV ∆G variants. Together with other modern technologies, this tool provides new possibilities for the investigation of the anatomy and physiology of neural circuits.
|Nicotine accelerates diabetes-induced retinal changes.|
Boretsky, A; Gupta, P; Tirgan, N; Liu, R; Godley, BF; Zhang, W; Tilton, RG; Motamedi, M
Current eye research 40 368-77 2015
To investigate the effects of nicotine on retinal alterations in early-stage diabetes in an established rodent model.Sprague-Dawley rats were examined using a combination of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography to determine changes in retinal structure in response to nicotine exposure, diabetes and the combined effects of nicotine and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and nicotine injections were administered subcutaneously daily. Retinal thickness in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants were determined based on the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans (20° × 20°) centered on the optic disc. Segmentation of discrete retinal layers was performed on a subset of SD-OCT cross-sections to further examine changes in each treatment group. Survival of neurons within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) was assessed by confocal morphometric imaging.The control group did not experience any significant change throughout the study. The nicotine treatment group experienced an average decrease in total retinal thickness (TRT) of 9.4 µm with the majority of the loss localized within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) as determined by segmentation analysis (p less than 0.05). The diabetic group exhibited a trend toward decreased TRT while segmentation analysis of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group revealed significant thinning within the ONL (p less than 0.05). The combination of nicotine and diabetes revealed a significant increase of 8.9 µm in the TRT (p less than 0.05) accompanied by a decrease in the number of GCL neurons.We demonstrated significant temporal changes in retinal morphology in response to nicotine exposure, diabetes and with the combined effects of nicotine and diabetes. These findings may have implications in determining treatment strategies for diabetic patients using products containing nicotine, such as cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes or smoking cessation products.
|PERK inhibition prevents tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia.|
Radford, H; Moreno, JA; Verity, N; Halliday, M; Mallucci, GR
Acta neuropathologica 130 633-42 2015
The PERK-eIF2α branch of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) mediates the transient shutdown of translation in response to rising levels of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. PERK and eIF2α activation are increasingly recognised in postmortem analyses of patients with neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the tauopathies and prion disorders. These are all characterised by the accumulation of misfolded disease-specific proteins in the brain in association with specific patterns of neuronal loss, but the role of UPR activation in their pathogenesis is unclear. In prion-diseased mice, overactivation of PERK-P/eIF2α-P signalling results in the sustained reduction in global protein synthesis, leading to synaptic failure, neuronal loss and clinical disease. Critically, restoring vital neuronal protein synthesis rates by inhibiting the PERK-eIF2α pathway, both genetically and pharmacologically, prevents prion neurodegeneration downstream of misfolded prion protein accumulation. Here we show that PERK-eIF2α-mediated translational failure is a key process leading to neuronal loss in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia, where the misfolded protein is a form of mutant tau. rTg4510 mice, which overexpress the P301L tau mutation, show dysregulated PERK signalling and sustained repression of protein synthesis by 6 months of age, associated with onset of neurodegeneration. Treatment with the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, from this time point in mutant tau-expressing mice restores protein synthesis rates, protecting against further neuronal loss, reducing brain atrophy and abrogating the appearance of clinical signs. Further, we show that PERK-eIF2α activation also contributes to the pathological phosphorylation of tau in rTg4510 mice, and that levels of phospho-tau are lowered by PERK inhibitor treatment, providing a second mechanism of protection. The data support UPR-mediated translational failure as a generic pathogenic mechanism in protein-misfolding disorders, including tauopathies, that can be successfully targeted for prevention of neurodegeneration.
|Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons.|
Saunders, A; Granger, AJ; Sabatini, BL
eLife 4 2015
Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons.
|The serine protease inhibitor SerpinA3N attenuates neuropathic pain by inhibiting T cell-derived leukocyte elastase.|
Vicuña, L; Strochlic, DE; Latremoliere, A; Bali, KK; Simonetti, M; Husainie, D; Prokosch, S; Riva, P; Griffin, RS; Njoo, C; Gehrig, S; Mall, MA; Arnold, B; Devor, M; Woolf, CJ; Liberles, SD; Costigan, M; Kuner, R
Nature medicine 21 518-23 2015
Neuropathic pain is a major, intractable clinical problem and its pathophysiology is not well understood. Although recent gene expression profiling studies have enabled the identification of novel targets for pain therapy, classical study designs provide unclear results owing to the differential expression of hundreds of genes across sham and nerve-injured groups, which can be difficult to validate, particularly with respect to the specificity of pain modulation. To circumvent this, we used two outbred lines of rats, which are genetically similar except for being genetically segregated as a result of selective breeding for differences in neuropathic pain hypersensitivity. SerpinA3N, a serine protease inhibitor, was upregulated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after nerve injury, which was further validated for its mouse homolog. Mice lacking SerpinA3N developed more neuropathic mechanical allodynia than wild-type (WT) mice, and exogenous delivery of SerpinA3N attenuated mechanical allodynia in WT mice. T lymphocytes infiltrate the DRG after nerve injury and release leukocyte elastase (LE), which was inhibited by SerpinA3N derived from DRG neurons. Genetic loss of LE or exogenous application of a LE inhibitor (Sivelastat) in WT mice attenuated neuropathic mechanical allodynia. Overall, we reveal a novel and clinically relevant role for a member of the serpin superfamily and a leukocyte elastase and crosstalk between neurons and T cells in the modulation of neuropathic pain.
|Quantitative and functional interrogation of parent-of-origin allelic expression biases in the brain.|
Perez, JD; Rubinstein, ND; Fernandez, DE; Santoro, SW; Needleman, LA; Ho-Shing, O; Choi, JJ; Zirlinger, M; Chen, SK; Liu, JS; Dulac, C
eLife 4 e07860 2015
The maternal and paternal genomes play different roles in mammalian brains as a result of genomic imprinting, an epigenetic regulation leading to differential expression of the parental alleles of some genes. Here we investigate genomic imprinting in the cerebellum using a newly developed Bayesian statistical model that provides unprecedented transcript-level resolution. We uncover 160 imprinted transcripts, including 41 novel and independently validated imprinted genes. Strikingly, many genes exhibit parentally biased--rather than monoallelic--expression, with different magnitudes according to age, organ, and brain region. Developmental changes in parental bias and overall gene expression are strongly correlated, suggesting combined roles in regulating gene dosage. Finally, brain-specific deletion of the paternal, but not maternal, allele of the paternally-biased Bcl-x, (Bcl2l1) results in loss of specific neuron types, supporting the functional significance of parental biases. These findings reveal the remarkable complexity of genomic imprinting, with important implications for understanding the normal and diseased brain.
|Milnacipran remediates impulsive deficits in rats with lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.|
Tsutsui-Kimura, I; Yoshida, T; Ohmura, Y; Izumi, T; Yoshioka, M
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Deficits in impulse control are often observed in psychiatric disorders in which abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex are observed, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. We recently found that milnacipran, a serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, could suppress impulsive action in normal rats. However, whether milnacipran could suppress elevated impulsive action in rats with lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is functionally comparable with the human prefrontal cortex, remains unknown.Selective lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were made using quinolinic acid in rats previously trained on a 3-choice serial reaction time task. Sham rats received phosphate buffered saline. Following a period of recovery, milnacipran (0 or 10mg/kg/d × 14 days) was orally administered 60 minutes prior to testing on the 3-choice task. After 7 days of drug cessation, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiological analysis, and morphological analysis were conducted.Lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex induced impulsive deficits, and repeated milnacipran ameliorated the impulsive deficit both during the dosing period and after the cessation of the drug. Repeated milnacipran remediated the protein levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor and postsynaptic density-95, dendritic spine density, and excitatory currents in the few surviving neurons in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of ventromedial prefrontal cortex-lesioned rats.The findings of this study suggest that milnacipran treatment could be a novel strategy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders that are associated with a lack of impulse control.
|Modeling the interaction between quinolinate and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE): relevance for early neuropathological processes.|
Serratos, IN; Castellanos, P; Pastor, N; Millán-Pacheco, C; Rembao, D; Pérez-Montfort, R; Cabrera, N; Reyes-Espinosa, F; Díaz-Garrido, P; López-Macay, A; Martínez-Flores, K; López-Reyes, A; Sánchez-García, A; Cuevas, E; Santamaria, A
PloS one 10 e0120221 2015
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor involved in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. RAGE induces cellular signaling upon binding to a variety of ligands. Evidence suggests that RAGE up-regulation is involved in quinolinate (QUIN)-induced toxicity. We investigated the QUIN-induced toxic events associated with early noxious responses, which might be linked to signaling cascades leading to cell death. The extent of early cellular damage caused by this receptor in the rat striatum was characterized by image processing methods. To document the direct interaction between QUIN and RAGE, we determined the binding constant (Kb) of RAGE (VC1 domain) with QUIN through a fluorescence assay. We modeled possible binding sites of QUIN to the VC1 domain for both rat and human RAGE. QUIN was found to bind at multiple sites to the VC1 dimer, each leading to particular mechanistic scenarios for the signaling evoked by QUIN binding, some of which directly alter RAGE oligomerization. This work contributes to the understanding of the phenomenon of RAGE-QUIN recognition, leading to the modulation of RAGE function.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|