Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Ch, Ft, H, M, Po, R, Sal||FC, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse immunoglobulin IgG1 liquid in buffer containing 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||500 µg|
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 SDS
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60||3075598|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2118033||2118033|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2375608||2375608|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2392283||2392283|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2424507||2424507|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2428671||2428671|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2453249||2453249|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 1991263||1991263|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2062313||2062313|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2074765||2074765|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Age- and sex-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters.|
Kang, SK; Markowitz, GJ; Kim, ST; Johnston, MV; Kadam, SD
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 173 2015
Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB), with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN) as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in post-natal day 7, 10, and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs) quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.
|Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling.|
Zuckermann, M; Hovestadt, V; Knobbe-Thomsen, CB; Zapatka, M; Northcott, PA; Schramm, K; Belic, J; Jones, DT; Tschida, B; Moriarity, B; Largaespada, D; Roussel, MF; Korshunov, A; Reifenberger, G; Pfister, SM; Lichter, P; Kawauchi, D; Gronych, J
Nature communications 6 7391 2015
In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer.
|Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Causes Selective Death of Mature Oligodendrocytes and Central Nervous System Demyelination.|
Linden, JR; Ma, Y; Zhao, B; Harris, JM; Rumah, KR; Schaeren-Wiemers, N; Vartanian, T
mBio 6 e02513 2015
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ε-toxin) is responsible for a devastating multifocal central nervous system (CNS) white matter disease in ruminant animals. The mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter damage is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which ε-toxin causes pathological changes to white matter. In primary CNS cultures, ε-toxin binds to and kills oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons. In cerebellar organotypic culture, ε-toxin induces demyelination, which occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while preserving neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. ε-Toxin specificity for oligodendrocytes was confirmed using enriched glial culture. Sensitivity to ε-toxin is developmentally regulated, as only mature oligodendrocytes are susceptible to ε-toxin; oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are not. ε-Toxin sensitivity is also dependent on oligodendrocyte expression of the proteolipid myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL), as MAL-deficient oligodendrocytes are insensitive to ε-toxin. In addition, ε-toxin binding to white matter follows the spatial and temporal pattern of MAL expression. A neutralizing antibody against ε-toxin inhibits oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. This study provides several novel insights into the action of ε-toxin in the CNS. (i) ε-Toxin causes selective oligodendrocyte death while preserving all other neural elements. (ii) ε-Toxin-mediated oligodendrocyte death is a cell autonomous effect. (iii) The effects of ε-toxin on the oligodendrocyte lineage are restricted to mature oligodendrocytes. (iv) Expression of the developmentally regulated proteolipid MAL is required for the cytotoxic effects. (v) The cytotoxic effects of ε-toxin can be abrogated by an ε-toxin neutralizing antibody.Our intestinal tract is host to trillions of microorganisms that play an essential role in health and homeostasis. Disruption of this symbiotic relationship has been implicated in influencing or causing disease in distant organ systems such as the brain. Epsilon toxin (ε-toxin)-carrying Clostridium perfringens strains are responsible for a devastating white matter disease in ruminant animals that shares similar features with human multiple sclerosis. In this report, we define the mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter disease. We find that ε-toxin specifically targets the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes, leading to cell death. The selectivity of ε-toxin for oligodendrocytes is remarkable, as other cells of the CNS are unaffected. Importantly, ε-toxin-induced oligodendrocyte death results in demyelination and is dependent on expression of myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL). These results help complete the mechanistic pathway from bacteria to brain by explaining the specific cellular target of ε-toxin within the CNS.
|When larger brains do not have more neurons: increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals.|
Herculano-Houzel, S; Messeder, DJ; Fonseca-Azevedo, K; Pantoja, NA
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 9 64 2015
There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.
|Expression changes of microRNA-1 and its targets Connexin 43 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the peripheral nervous system of chronic neuropathic rats.|
Neumann, E; Hermanns, H; Barthel, F; Werdehausen, R; Brandenburger, T
Molecular pain 11 39 2015
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the neuroplastic changes which induce and maintain neuropathic pain. However, it is unknown whether nerve injury leads to altered miRNA expression and modulation of pain relevant target gene expression within peripheral nerves. In the present study, expression profiles of miR-1 and the pain-relevant targets, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Connexin 43 (Cx43), were studied in peripheral neuropathic pain, which was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. The expression of miR-1 was investigated in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the ipsilateral spinal cord by qPCR. Changes of BDNF and Cx43 expression patterns were studied using qPCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA and immunohistochemistry.In sciatic nerves of naïve rats, expression levels of miR-1 were more than twice as high as in DRG and spinal cord. In neuropathic rats, CCI lead to a time-dependent downregulation of miR-1 in the sciatic nerve but not in DRG and spinal cord. Likewise, protein expression of the miR-1 targets BDNF and Cx43 was upregulated in the sciatic nerve and DRG after CCI. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an endoneural abundancy of Cx43 in injured sciatic nerves which was absent after Sham operation.This study demonstrates that CCI leads to a regulation of miRNAs (miR-1) in the peripheral nervous system. This regulation is associated with alterations in the expression and localization of the miR-1 dependent pain-relevant proteins BDNF and Cx43. Further studies will have to explore the function of miRNAs in the context of neuropathic pain in the peripheral nervous system.
|Targeted Overexpression of α-Synuclein by rAAV2/1 Vectors Induces Progressive Nigrostriatal Degeneration and Increases Vulnerability to MPTP in Mouse.|
Song, LK; Ma, KL; Yuan, YH; Mu, Z; Song, XY; Niu, F; Han, N; Chen, NH
PloS one 10 e0131281 2015
Mutations, duplication and triplication of α-synuclein genes are linked to familial Parkinson's disease (PD), and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in Lewy bodies (LB) is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The targeted overexpression of α-syn in the substantia nigra (SN) mediated by viral vectors may provide a better alternative to recapitulate the neurodegenerative features of PD. Therefore, we overexpressed human wild-type α-syn using rAAV2/1 vectors in the bilateral SN of mouse and examined the effects for up to 12 weeks. Delivery of rAAV-2/1-α-syn caused significant nigrostriatal degeneration including appearance of dystrophic striatal neurites, loss of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and dissolving nigral neuron bodies in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the α-syn overexpressed mice also developed significant deficits in motor function at 12 weeks when the loss of DA neurons exceeded a threshold of 50%. To investigate the sensitivity to neurotoxins in mice overexpressing α-syn, we performed an MPTP treatment with the subacute regimen 8 weeks after rAAV injection. The impact of the combined genetic and environmental insults on DA neuronal loss, striatal dopamine depletion, dopamine turnover and motor dysfunction was markedly greater than that of either alone. Moreover, we observed increased phosphorylation (S129), accumulation and nuclear distribution of α-syn after the combined insults. In summary, these results reveal that the overexpressed α-syn induces progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and increases the susceptibility of DA neurons to MPTP. Therefore, the targeted overexpression of α-syn and the combination with environmental toxins may provide valuable models for understanding PD pathogenesis and developing related therapies.
|Quantitative and functional interrogation of parent-of-origin allelic expression biases in the brain.|
Perez, JD; Rubinstein, ND; Fernandez, DE; Santoro, SW; Needleman, LA; Ho-Shing, O; Choi, JJ; Zirlinger, M; Chen, SK; Liu, JS; Dulac, C
eLife 4 e07860 2015
The maternal and paternal genomes play different roles in mammalian brains as a result of genomic imprinting, an epigenetic regulation leading to differential expression of the parental alleles of some genes. Here we investigate genomic imprinting in the cerebellum using a newly developed Bayesian statistical model that provides unprecedented transcript-level resolution. We uncover 160 imprinted transcripts, including 41 novel and independently validated imprinted genes. Strikingly, many genes exhibit parentally biased--rather than monoallelic--expression, with different magnitudes according to age, organ, and brain region. Developmental changes in parental bias and overall gene expression are strongly correlated, suggesting combined roles in regulating gene dosage. Finally, brain-specific deletion of the paternal, but not maternal, allele of the paternally-biased Bcl-x, (Bcl2l1) results in loss of specific neuron types, supporting the functional significance of parental biases. These findings reveal the remarkable complexity of genomic imprinting, with important implications for understanding the normal and diseased brain.
|Distinct speed dependence of entorhinal island and ocean cells, including respective grid cells.|
Sun, C; Kitamura, T; Yamamoto, J; Martin, J; Pignatelli, M; Kitch, LJ; Schnitzer, MJ; Tonegawa, S
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 9466-71 2015
Entorhinal-hippocampal circuits in the mammalian brain are crucial for an animal's spatial and episodic experience, but the neural basis for different spatial computations remain unknown. Medial entorhinal cortex layer II contains pyramidal island and stellate ocean cells. Here, we performed cell type-specific Ca(2+) imaging in freely exploring mice using cellular markers and a miniature head-mounted fluorescence microscope. We found that both oceans and islands contain grid cells in similar proportions, but island cell activity, including activity in a proportion of grid cells, is significantly more speed modulated than ocean cell activity. We speculate that this differential property reflects island cells' and ocean cells' contribution to different downstream functions: island cells may contribute more to spatial path integration, whereas ocean cells may facilitate contextual representation in downstream circuits.
|Cancer-associated TERT promoter mutations abrogate telomerase silencing.|
Chiba, K; Johnson, JZ; Vogan, JM; Wagner, T; Boyle, JM; Hockemeyer, D
eLife 4 2015
Mutations in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent non-coding mutations in cancer, but their molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis has not been established. We used genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells with physiological telomerase expression to elucidate the mechanism by which these mutations contribute to human disease. Surprisingly, telomerase-expressing embryonic stem cells engineered to carry any of the three most frequent TERT promoter mutations showed only a modest increase in TERT transcription with no impact on telomerase activity. However, upon differentiation into somatic cells, which normally silence telomerase, cells with TERT promoter mutations failed to silence TERT expression, resulting in increased telomerase activity and aberrantly long telomeres. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are sufficient to overcome the proliferative barrier imposed by telomere shortening without additional tumor-selected mutations. These data establish that TERT promoter mutations can promote immortalization and tumorigenesis of incipient cancer cells.
|Interleukin-18 expression increases in response to neurovascular damage following soman-induced status epilepticus in rats.|
Johnson, EA; Guignet, MA; Dao, TL; Hamilton, TA; Kan, RK
Journal of inflammation (London, England) 12 43 2015
Status epilepticus (SE) can cause neuronal cell death and impaired behavioral function. Acute exposure to potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as soman (GD) can cause prolonged SE activity, micro-hemorrhage and cell death in the hippocampus, thalamus and piriform cortex. Neuroinflammation is a prominent feature of brain injury with upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including those of the IL-1 family. The highly pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines and can propagate neuroinflammation by promoting immune cell infiltration, leukocyte and lymphocyte activation, and angiogenesis and helps facilitate the transition from the innate to the adaptive immune response. The purpose of this study is to characterize the regional and temporal expression of IL -18 and related factors in the brain following SE in a rat GD seizure model followed by localization of IL-18 to specific cell types.The protein levels of IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor and interferon gamma was quantified in the lysates of injured brain regions up to 72 h following GD-induced SE onset using bead multiplex immunoassays. IL-18 was localized to various cell types using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, macrophage appearance scoring and T-cell quantification was determined using immunohistochemistry. Micro-hemorrhages were identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain sections.Significant increases in IL-18 occurred in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus following SE. IL-18 was primarily expressed by endothelial cells and astrocytes associated with the damaged neurovascular unit. The increase in IL-18 was not related to macrophage accumulation, neutrophil infiltration or T-cell appearance in the injured tissue.These data show that IL-18 is significantly upregulated following GD-induced SE and localized primarily to endothelial cells in damaged brain vasculature. IL-18 upregulation occurred following leukocyte/lymphocyte infiltration and in the absence of other IL-18-related cytokines, suggesting another function, potentially for angiogenesis related to GD-induced micro-hemorrhage formation. Further studies at more chronic time points may help to elucidate this function.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|