MAB377 Sigma-AldrichAnti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 detects level of NeuN and has been published and validated for use in FC, IC, IF, IH, IH(P), IP and WB.More>> Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 detects level of NeuN and has been published and validated for use in FC, IC, IF, IH, IH(P), IP and WB. Less<<
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 MSDS (material safety data sheet) or SDS, CoA and CoQ, dossiers, brochures and other available documents.
Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Ch, Ft, H, M, Po, R, Sal||FC, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse immunoglobulin IgG1 liquid in buffer containing 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||500 µg|
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 SDS
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 Certificates of Analysis
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60||3075598|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2118033||2118033|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2375608||2375608|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2392283||2392283|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2424507||2424507|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2428671||2428671|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2453249||2453249|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 1991263||1991263|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2062313||2062313|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2074765||2074765|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|An anterograde rabies virus vector for high-resolution large-scale reconstruction of 3D neuron morphology.|
Haberl, MG; Viana da Silva, S; Guest, JM; Ginger, M; Ghanem, A; Mulle, C; Oberlaender, M; Conzelmann, KK; Frick, A
Brain structure & function 220 1369-79 2015
Glycoprotein-deleted rabies virus (RABV ∆G) is a powerful tool for the analysis of neural circuits. Here, we demonstrate the utility of an anterograde RABV ∆G variant for novel neuroanatomical approaches involving either bulk or sparse neuronal populations. This technology exploits the unique features of RABV ∆G vectors, namely autonomous, rapid high-level expression of transgenes, and limited cytotoxicity. Our vector permits the unambiguous long-range and fine-scale tracing of the entire axonal arbor of individual neurons throughout the brain. Notably, this level of labeling can be achieved following infection with a single viral particle. The vector is effective over a range of ages (greater than 14 months) aiding the studies of neurodegenerative disorders or aging, and infects numerous cell types in all brain regions tested. Lastly, it can also be readily combined with retrograde RABV ∆G variants. Together with other modern technologies, this tool provides new possibilities for the investigation of the anatomy and physiology of neural circuits.
|Nicotine accelerates diabetes-induced retinal changes.|
Boretsky, A; Gupta, P; Tirgan, N; Liu, R; Godley, BF; Zhang, W; Tilton, RG; Motamedi, M
Current eye research 40 368-77 2015
To investigate the effects of nicotine on retinal alterations in early-stage diabetes in an established rodent model.Sprague-Dawley rats were examined using a combination of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography to determine changes in retinal structure in response to nicotine exposure, diabetes and the combined effects of nicotine and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and nicotine injections were administered subcutaneously daily. Retinal thickness in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants were determined based on the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans (20° × 20°) centered on the optic disc. Segmentation of discrete retinal layers was performed on a subset of SD-OCT cross-sections to further examine changes in each treatment group. Survival of neurons within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) was assessed by confocal morphometric imaging.The control group did not experience any significant change throughout the study. The nicotine treatment group experienced an average decrease in total retinal thickness (TRT) of 9.4 µm with the majority of the loss localized within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) as determined by segmentation analysis (p less than 0.05). The diabetic group exhibited a trend toward decreased TRT while segmentation analysis of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group revealed significant thinning within the ONL (p less than 0.05). The combination of nicotine and diabetes revealed a significant increase of 8.9 µm in the TRT (p less than 0.05) accompanied by a decrease in the number of GCL neurons.We demonstrated significant temporal changes in retinal morphology in response to nicotine exposure, diabetes and with the combined effects of nicotine and diabetes. These findings may have implications in determining treatment strategies for diabetic patients using products containing nicotine, such as cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes or smoking cessation products.
|Pre-existing astrocytes form functional perisynaptic processes on neurons generated in the adult hippocampus.|
Krzisch, M; Temprana, SG; Mongiat, LA; Armida, J; Schmutz, V; Virtanen, MA; Kocher-Braissant, J; Kraftsik, R; Vutskits, L; Conzelmann, KK; Bergami, M; Gage, FH; Schinder, AF; Toni, N
Brain structure & function 220 2027-42 2015
The adult dentate gyrus produces new neurons that morphologically and functionally integrate into the hippocampal network. In the adult brain, most excitatory synapses are ensheathed by astrocytic perisynaptic processes that regulate synaptic structure and function. However, these processes are formed during embryonic or early postnatal development and it is unknown whether astrocytes can also ensheathe synapses of neurons born during adulthood and, if so, whether they play a role in their synaptic transmission. Here, we used a combination of serial-section immuno-electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and electrophysiology to examine the formation of perisynaptic processes on adult-born neurons. We found that the afferent and efferent synapses of newborn neurons are ensheathed by astrocytic processes, irrespective of the age of the neurons or the size of their synapses. The quantification of gliogenesis and the distribution of astrocytic processes on synapses formed by adult-born neurons suggest that the majority of these processes are recruited from pre-existing astrocytes. Furthermore, the inhibition of astrocytic glutamate re-uptake significantly reduced postsynaptic currents and increased paired-pulse facilitation in adult-born neurons, suggesting that perisynaptic processes modulate synaptic transmission on these cells. Finally, some processes were found intercalated between newly formed dendritic spines and potential presynaptic partners, suggesting that they may also play a structural role in the connectivity of new spines. Together, these results indicate that pre-existing astrocytes remodel their processes to ensheathe synapses of adult-born neurons and participate to the functional and structural integration of these cells into the hippocampal network.
|Interleukin-18 expression increases in response to neurovascular damage following soman-induced status epilepticus in rats.|
Johnson, EA; Guignet, MA; Dao, TL; Hamilton, TA; Kan, RK
Journal of inflammation (London, England) 12 43 2015
Status epilepticus (SE) can cause neuronal cell death and impaired behavioral function. Acute exposure to potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as soman (GD) can cause prolonged SE activity, micro-hemorrhage and cell death in the hippocampus, thalamus and piriform cortex. Neuroinflammation is a prominent feature of brain injury with upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including those of the IL-1 family. The highly pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines and can propagate neuroinflammation by promoting immune cell infiltration, leukocyte and lymphocyte activation, and angiogenesis and helps facilitate the transition from the innate to the adaptive immune response. The purpose of this study is to characterize the regional and temporal expression of IL -18 and related factors in the brain following SE in a rat GD seizure model followed by localization of IL-18 to specific cell types.The protein levels of IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor and interferon gamma was quantified in the lysates of injured brain regions up to 72 h following GD-induced SE onset using bead multiplex immunoassays. IL-18 was localized to various cell types using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, macrophage appearance scoring and T-cell quantification was determined using immunohistochemistry. Micro-hemorrhages were identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain sections.Significant increases in IL-18 occurred in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus following SE. IL-18 was primarily expressed by endothelial cells and astrocytes associated with the damaged neurovascular unit. The increase in IL-18 was not related to macrophage accumulation, neutrophil infiltration or T-cell appearance in the injured tissue.These data show that IL-18 is significantly upregulated following GD-induced SE and localized primarily to endothelial cells in damaged brain vasculature. IL-18 upregulation occurred following leukocyte/lymphocyte infiltration and in the absence of other IL-18-related cytokines, suggesting another function, potentially for angiogenesis related to GD-induced micro-hemorrhage formation. Further studies at more chronic time points may help to elucidate this function.
|Essential roles for the splicing regulator nSR100/SRRM4 during nervous system development.|
Quesnel-Vallières, M; Irimia, M; Cordes, SP; Blencowe, BJ
Genes & development 29 746-59 2015
Alternative splicing (AS) generates vast transcriptomic complexity in the vertebrate nervous system. However, the extent to which trans-acting splicing regulators and their target AS regulatory networks contribute to nervous system development is not well understood. To address these questions, we generated mice lacking the vertebrate- and neural-specific Ser/Arg repeat-related protein of 100 kDa (nSR100/SRRM4). Loss of nSR100 impairs development of the central and peripheral nervous systems in part by disrupting neurite outgrowth, cortical layering in the forebrain, and axon guidance in the corpus callosum. Accompanying these developmental defects are widespread changes in AS that primarily result in shifts to nonneural patterns for different classes of splicing events. The main component of the altered AS program comprises 3- to 27-nucleotide (nt) neural microexons, an emerging class of highly conserved AS events associated with the regulation of protein interaction networks in developing neurons and neurological disorders. Remarkably, inclusion of a 6-nt, nSR100-activated microexon in Unc13b transcripts is sufficient to rescue a neuritogenesis defect in nSR100 mutant primary neurons. These results thus reveal critical in vivo neurodevelopmental functions of nSR100 and further link these functions to a conserved program of neuronal microexon splicing.
|Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism.|
Lundgaard, I; Li, B; Xie, L; Kang, H; Sanggaard, S; Haswell, JD; Sun, W; Goldman, S; Blekot, S; Nielsen, M; Takano, T; Deane, R; Nedergaard, M
Nature communications 6 6807 2015
Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging.
|Role of the 5-HT4 receptor in chronic fluoxetine treatment-induced neurogenic activity and granule cell dematuration in the dentate gyrus.|
Imoto, Y; Kira, T; Sukeno, M; Nishitani, N; Nagayasu, K; Nakagawa, T; Kaneko, S; Kobayashi, K; Segi-Nishida, E
Molecular brain 8 29 2015
Chronic treatment with selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) facilitates adult neurogenesis and reverses the state of maturation in mature granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Recent studies have suggested that the 5-HT4 receptor is involved in both effects. However, it is largely unknown how the 5-HT4 receptor mediates neurogenic effects in the DG and, how the neurogenic and dematuration effects of SSRIs interact with each other.We addressed these issues using 5-HT4 receptor knockout (5-HT4R KO) mice. Expression of the 5-HT4 receptor was detected in mature GCs but not in neuronal progenitors of the DG. We found that chronic treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine significantly increased cell proliferation and the number of doublecortin-positive cells in the DG of wild-type mice, but not in 5-HT4R KO mice. We then examined the correlation between the increased neurogenesis and the dematuration of GCs. As reported previously, reduced expression of calbindin in the DG, as an index of dematuration, by chronic fluoxetine treatment was observed in wild-type mice but not in 5-HT4R KO mice. The proliferative effect of fluoxetine was inversely correlated with the expression level of calbindin in the DG. The expression of neurogenic factors in the DG, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), was also associated with the progression of dematuration. These results indicate that the neurogenic effects of fluoxetine in the DG are closely associated with the progression of dematuration of GCs. In contrast, the DG in which neurogenesis was impaired by irradiation still showed significant reduction of calbindin expression by chronic fluoxetine treatment, suggesting that dematuration of GCs by fluoxetine does not require adult neurogenesis in the DG.We demonstrated that the 5-HT4 receptor plays an important role in fluoxetine-induced adult neurogenesis in the DG in addition to GC dematuration, and that these phenomena are closely associated. Our results suggest that 5-HT4 receptor-mediated phenotypic changes, including dematuration in mature GCs, underlie the neurogenic effect of SSRIs in the DG, providing new insight into the cellular mechanisms of the neurogenic actions of SSRIs in the hippocampus.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum.|
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Nuclear export inhibitors avert progression in preclinical models of inflammatory demyelination.|
Haines, JD; Herbin, O; de la Hera, B; Vidaurre, OG; Moy, GA; Sun, Q; Fung, HY; Albrecht, S; Alexandropoulos, K; McCauley, D; Chook, YM; Kuhlmann, T; Kidd, GJ; Shacham, S; Casaccia, P
Nature neuroscience 18 511-20 2015
Axonal damage has been associated with aberrant protein trafficking. We examined a newly characterized class of compounds that target nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling by binding to the catalytic groove of the nuclear export protein XPO1 (also known as CRM1, chromosome region maintenance protein 1). Oral administration of reversible CRM1 inhibitors in preclinical murine models of demyelination significantly attenuated disease progression, even when started after the onset of paralysis. Clinical efficacy was associated with decreased proliferation of immune cells, characterized by nuclear accumulation of cell cycle inhibitors, and preservation of cytoskeletal integrity even in demyelinated axons. Neuroprotection was not limited to models of demyelination, but was also observed in another mouse model of axonal damage (that is, kainic acid injection) and detected in cultured neurons after knockdown of Xpo1, the gene encoding CRM1. A proteomic screen for target molecules revealed that CRM1 inhibitors in neurons prevented nuclear export of molecules associated with axonal damage while retaining transcription factors modulating neuroprotection.
|Differential expression and clinical significance of three inflammation-related microRNAs in gangliogliomas.|
Prabowo, AS; van Scheppingen, J; Iyer, AM; Anink, JJ; Spliet, WG; van Rijen, PC; Schouten-van Meeteren, AY; Aronica, E
Journal of neuroinflammation 12 97 2015
miR21, miR146, and miR155 represent a trio of microRNAs which has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression and clinical significance of these three miRNAs in glioneuronal tumors (gangliogliomas, GGs) which are characterized by prominent activation of the innate immune response.The expression levels of miR21, miR146, and miR155 were evaluated using Taqman PCR in 34 GGs, including 15 cases with sufficient amount of perilesional cortex. Their expression was correlated with the tumor features and the clinical history of epilepsy. In addition, in situ hybridization was used to evaluate their cellular distribution in both tumor and peritumoral cortex.Increased expression of miR146a was observed in both tumor and peritumoral cortex compared to control samples. miR146a was detected in both neuronal and astroglial cells. Tumor and peritumoral miR146a expression was negatively correlated with frequency of seizures and the density of activated microglial cells. Neuronal and astroglial expression was observed for both miR21 and miR155 with increased expression of miR21 within the tumor and miR155 in the peritumoral region. Negative correlations were observed between the miRNA levels and the expression of putative targets within the astroglial component of the tumor.We report a differential regulation of three miRNAs, known to be related to inflammation, in both tumor and peritumoral cortex of patients with GG. Moreover, our findings suggest a functional relationship between miR146a expression and epilepsy, either directly in epileptogenesis or as modulation of seizure activity.
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|