Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit polyclonal serum. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µL|
Anti-Neprilysin Antibody (Neutral Endopeptidase, Nep) SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Neurochemical profile of dementia pugilistica.|
Kokjohn, TA; Maarouf, CL; Daugs, ID; Hunter, JM; Whiteside, CM; Malek-Ahmadi, M; Rodriguez, E; Kalback, W; Jacobson, SA; Sabbagh, MN; Beach, TG; Roher, AE
Journal of neurotrauma 30 981-97 2013
Dementia pugilistica (DP), a suite of neuropathological and cognitive function declines after chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI), is present in approximately 20% of retired boxers. Epidemiological studies indicate TBI is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). Some biochemical alterations observed in AD and PD may be recapitulated in DP and other TBI persons. In this report, we investigate long-term biochemical changes in the brains of former boxers with neuropathologically confirmed DP. Our experiments revealed biochemical and cellular alterations in DP that are complementary to and extend information already provided by histological methods. ELISA and one-dimensional and two dimensional Western blot techniques revealed differential expression of select molecules between three patients with DP and three age-matched non-demented control (NDC) persons without a history of TBI. Structural changes such as disturbances in the expression and processing of glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau, and α-synuclein were evident. The levels of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin were reduced in the patients with DP. Amyloid-β levels were elevated in the DP participant with the concomitant diagnosis of AD. In addition, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the axonal transport proteins kinesin and dynein were substantially decreased in DP relative to NDC participants. Traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for dementia development, and our findings are consistent with permanent structural and functional damage in the cerebral cortex and white matter of boxers. Understanding the precise threshold of damage needed for the induction of pathology in DP and TBI is vital.
|Isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment by a mechanism independent of amyloid-beta levels and tau protein phosphorylation changes in aged rats.|
Liu, W; Xu, J; Wang, H; Xu, C; Ji, C; Wang, Y; Feng, C; Zhang, X; Xu, Z; Wu, A; Xie, Z; Yue, Y
Neurological research 34 3-10 2012
The molecular mechanism of postoperative cognitive dysfunction is largely unknown. Isoflurane has been shown to promote Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We set out to determine whether the effect of isoflurane on spatial memory is associated with amyloid-beta (A-beta) levels and tau phosphorylation in aged rats.Eighteen-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned as anesthesia group (n = 31, received 1.4% isoflurane for 2 hours and had behavioral testing), training group (n = 20, received no anesthesia but had behavioral testing), and control group (n = 10, received no anesthesia and had no behavioral testing). Spatial memory was measured before and 2 days after the anesthesia by the Morris water maze. We divided the anesthesia group into an isoflurane-induced severe memory impairment group (SIG, n = 6) and a no severe memory impairment group (NSIG, n = 25), according to whether the escape latency was more than 1.96 stand deviation of that from the training group. Levels of A-beta and tau in the hippocampus were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative western blot at the end of behavioral testing.We found that isoflurane increased the escape latency in the SIG as compared to that in the training group and NSIG without affecting swimming speed. However, there were no differences in the levels of A-beta and tau among SIG, NSIG, training, and control groups.Isoflurane may induce spatial memory impairment through non-A-beta or tau neuropathogenesis mechanisms in aged rats.
|The expression of renin-angiotensin system components in the human gastric mucosa.|
Hallersund, P; Elfvin, A; Helander, HF; Fändriks, L
Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS 12 54-64 2011
The aim of the present study was to map the distribution of representative protein components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the human gastric mucosa.Biopsies from the antral and corporal mucosa of healthy Helicobacter pylori negative and positive volunteers were assessed by histology, Western blot and immunohistochemistry for angiotensin II subtype 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) and other RAS components (angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin converting enzyme, and neprilysin). Mucosal levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) served as a protein marker of neutrophil infiltration.AT1R and AT2R were located in a variety of cells in the human gastric mucosa, including AT1R on a subpopulation of endocrine cells in the antral mucosa. Angiotensinogen and renin were expressed by resident mesenchymal cells in lamina propria. All investigated RAS components were found in vascular endothelial cells. The AT1R protein expression was 3-4 times higher in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori positive subjects compared to the gastric mucosa of H. pylori negative subjects (p less than 0.05). Gastric mucosal AT1R protein expression correlated positively with neutrophil infiltration (r = 0.7, p less than 0.05).Protein components of RAS are present in the human gastric mucosa. The results suggest an angiotensin II mediated impact on mucosal epithelial functions, antral endocrine properties, microvascular permeability, and gastric inflammation.
|Alzheimer's disease and non-demented high pathology control nonagenarians: comparing and contrasting the biochemistry of cognitively successful aging.|
Maarouf, CL; Daugs, ID; Kokjohn, TA; Walker, DG; Hunter, JM; Kruchowsky, JC; Woltjer, R; Kaye, J; Castaño, EM; Sabbagh, MN; Beach, TG; Roher, AE
PloS one 6 e27291 2011
The amyloid cascade hypothesis provides an economical mechanistic explanation for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and correlated neuropathology. However, some nonagenarian individuals (high pathology controls, HPC) remain cognitively intact while enduring high amyloid plaque loads for decades. If amyloid accumulation is the prime instigator of neurotoxicity and dementia, specific protective mechanisms must enable these HPC to evade cognitive decline. We evaluated the neuropathological and biochemical differences existing between non-demented (ND)-HPC and an age-matched cohort with AD dementia. The ND-HPC selected for our study were clinically assessed as ND and possessed high amyloid plaque burdens. ELISA and Western blot analyses were used to quantify a group of proteins related to APP/Aβ/tau metabolism and other neurotrophic and inflammation-related molecules that have been found to be altered in neurodegenerative disorders and are pivotal to brain homeostasis and mental health. The molecules assumed to be critical in AD dementia, such as soluble or insoluble Aβ40, Aβ42 and tau were quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, only Aβ42 demonstrated a significant increase in ND-HPC when compared to the AD group. The vascular amyloid load which was not used in the selection of cases, was on the average almost 2-fold greater in AD than the ND-HPC, suggesting that a higher degree of microvascular dysfunction and perfusion compromise was present in the demented cohort. Neurofibrillary tangles were less frequent in the frontal cortices of ND-HPC. Biochemical findings included elevated vascular endothelial growth factor, apolipoprotein E and the neuroprotective factor S100B in ND-HPC, while anti-angiogenic pigment epithelium derived factor levels were lower. The lack of clear Aβ-related pathological/biochemical demarcation between AD and ND-HPC suggests that in addition to amyloid plaques other factors, such as neurofibrillary tangle density and vascular integrity, must play important roles in cognitive failure.
|Focal cerebral ischemia in rats alters APP processing and expression of Abeta peptide degrading enzymes in the thalamus.|
Mikko Hiltunen, Petra Mäkinen, Sirpa Peräniemi, Juhani Sivenius, Thomas van Groen, Hilkka Soininen, Jukka Jolkkonen, Mikko Hiltunen, Petra Mäkinen, Sirpa Peräniemi, Juhani Sivenius, Thomas van Groen, Hilkka Soininen, Jukka Jolkkonen, Mikko Hiltunen, Petra Mäkinen, Sirpa Peräniemi, Juhani Sivenius, Thomas van Groen, Hilkka Soininen, Jukka Jolkkonen
Neurobiology of disease 35 103-13 2009
We have previously demonstrated aggregation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) to dense plaque-like deposits in the thalamus of rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we investigated the underlying molecular effects of MCAO on APP processing and expression profiles of Abeta degrading enzymes in the cortex adjacent to the infarct (penumbra) and ipsilateral thalamus 2, 7 and 30 days after ischemic insult. Enhanced beta-amyloidogenic processing of APP and altered insulin degrading enzyme and neprilysin expression were observed in the thalamus, but not the penumbral cortex, 7 and 30 days after MCAO coinciding with increased calcium levels and beta-secretase (BACE) activity. Consecutively, increased BACE activity associated with depletion of BACE trafficking protein GGA3, suggesting a post-translational stabilization of BACE. These results demonstrate that focal cerebral ischemia leads to complex pathogenic events in the thalamus long after the initial insult.
|The epigenetic effects of amyloid-beta(1-40) on global DNA and neprilysin genes in murine cerebral endothelial cells.|
Kun-Lin Chen,Steven Sheng-Shih Wang,Yi-Yuan Yang,Rey-Yue Yuan,Ruei-Ming Chen,Chaur-Jong Hu
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 378 2009
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) is the core component of senile plaques, which are the pathological markers for Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. DNA methylation/demethylation plays a crucial role in gene regulation and could also be responsible for presentation of senescence. Oxidative stress, which may be induced by Abeta, is thought to be an important contributor of DNA hyper-methylation; however, contradicting this is the fact that global DNA hypo-methylation has been found in aging brains. It therefore remains largely unknown as to whether Abeta does in fact cause DNA methylation/demethylation. Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the enzymes responsible for Abeta degradation, with its expression decreasing in both Alzheimer and aging brains. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we explore whether Abeta is responsible for alteration of the global DNA methylation status on a murine cerebral endothelial cells model, and also use methylation-specific PCR (MSPCR) to examine whether DNA methylation status is altered on the NEP promoter region. We find that Abeta reduces global DNA methylation whilst increasing NEP DNA methylation and further suppressing the NEP expression in mRNA and protein levels. Our results support that Abeta induces epigenetic effects, implying that DNA methylation may be part of a vicious cycle involving the reduction in NEP expression along with a resultant increase in Abeta accumulation, and that Abeta may induce global DNA hypo-methylation.
|Increased expression of Abeta degrading enzyme IDE in the cortex of transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology.|
Saila Vepsäläinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Seppo Helisalmi, Jun Wang, Thomas van Groen, Heikki Tanila, Hilkka Soininen
Neuroscience letters 438 216-20 2008
Expression levels of amyloid beta (Abeta)-degrading enzymes, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and neprilysin (NEP), were examined in transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology. After the development of first Abeta plaques in transgenic mice brain, cortical mRNA and protein levels of IDE were significantly up-regulated in the transgenic mice compared to their non-transgenic littermates. Up-regulation of IDE mRNA-levels occurred in parallel with increased Abeta40 and Abeta42 production. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between protein levels of IDE and full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the cerebral cortex. mRNA and protein levels of NEP were also nominally up-regulated in Tg mice compared to controls. These data may reflect up-regulation of the IDE and possibly of NEP expression in response to the Abeta accumulation.