|A Viral Immunoevasin Controls Innate Immunity by Targeting the Prototypical Natural Killer Cell Receptor Family.|
Aguilar, OA; Berry, R; Rahim, MMA; Reichel, JJ; Popović, B; Tanaka, M; Fu, Z; Balaji, GR; Lau, TNH; Tu, MM; Kirkham, CL; Mahmoud, AB; Mesci, A; Krmpotić, A; Allan, DSJ; Makrigiannis, AP; Jonjić, S; Rossjohn, J; Carlyle, JR
Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in innate immunity by detecting alterations in self and non-self ligands via paired NK cell receptors (NKRs). Despite identification of numerous NKR-ligand interactions, physiological ligands for the prototypical NK1.1 orphan receptor remain elusive. Here, we identify a viral ligand for the inhibitory and activating NKR-P1 (NK1.1) receptors. This murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded protein, m12, restrains NK cell effector function by directly engaging the inhibitory NKR-P1B receptor. However, m12 also interacts with the activating NKR-P1A/C receptors to counterbalance m12 decoy function. Structural analyses reveal that m12 sequesters a large NKR-P1 surface area via a "polar claw" mechanism. Polymorphisms in, and ablation of, the viral m12 protein and host NKR-P1B/C alleles impact NK cell responses in vivo. Thus, we identify the long-sought foreign ligand for this key immunoregulatory NKR family and reveal how it controls the evolutionary balance of immune recognition during host-pathogen interplay.
|Genetically linked C-type lectin-related ligands for the NKRP1 family of natural killer cell receptors.|
Iizuka, K; Naidenko, OV; Plougastel, BF; Fremont, DH; Yokoyama, WM
The natural killer (NK) gene complex (NKC) encodes orphan lectin-like NK cell receptors that may explain uncharacterized NK cell specificities. Unlike other NKC-encoded receptors that recognize molecules with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I folds, here we show that mouse Nkrp1d and Nkrp1f bind specific C-type lectin-related (Clr) molecules. Nkrp1d mediated inhibition when recognizing Clrb, a molecule expressed in dendritic cells and macrophages. Nkrp1 (official gene name, Klrb1) and Clr are intertwined in a genetically conserved NKC region showing recombination suppression, reminiscent of plant self-incompatibility loci. Thus, these findings broaden the 'missing-self' hypothesis from solely involving MHC class I to including related NK cell receptors for lectin-like ligands, and reflect genetic strategies for biological self-recognition processes in other species.