MAB3418 Sigma-AldrichAnti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20
Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20 detects level of MAP2 & has been published & validated for use in IH & WB.More>> Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20 detects level of MAP2 & has been published & validated for use in IH & WB. Less<<
Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20 MSDS (material safety data sheet) or SDS, CoA and CoQ, dossiers, brochures and other available documents.
Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, H, M, R, Xn, Qu||IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in buffer containing 0.02 M Phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, 0.25 M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20 SDS
Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20 Certificates of Analysis
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20||3064831|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2150722||2150722|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2452494||2452494|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 1993775||1993775|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2019958||2019958|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2041105||2041105|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2062312||2062312|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2276343||2276343|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2332553||2332553|
|Anti-MAP2, clone AP20 - 2489065||2489065|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The HIF-1/glial TIM-3 axis controls inflammation-associated brain damage under hypoxia.|
Koh, HS; Chang, CY; Jeon, SB; Yoon, HJ; Ahn, YH; Kim, HS; Kim, IH; Jeon, SH; Johnson, RS; Park, EJ
Nature communications 6 6340 2015
Inflammation is closely related to the extent of damage following cerebral ischaemia, and the targeting of this inflammation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we present that hypoxia-induced glial T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein (TIM)-3 can function as a modulator that links inflammation and subsequent brain damage after ischaemia. We find that TIM-3 is highly expressed in hypoxic brain regions of a mouse cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia (H/I) model. TIM-3 is distinctively upregulated in activated microglia and astrocytes, brain resident immune cells, in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-dependent manner. Notably, blockade of TIM-3 markedly reduces infarct size, neuronal cell death, oedema formation and neutrophil infiltration in H/I mice. Hypoxia-triggered neutrophil migration and infarction are also decreased in HIF-1α-deficient mice. Moreover, functional neurological deficits after H/I are significantly improved in both anti-TIM-3-treated mice and myeloid-specific HIF-1α-deficient mice. Further understanding of these insights could serve as the basis for broadening the therapeutic scope against hypoxia-associated brain diseases.
|Crmp4 deletion promotes recovery from spinal cord injury by neuroprotection and limited scar formation.|
Nagai, J; Kitamura, Y; Owada, K; Yamashita, N; Takei, K; Goshima, Y; Ohshima, T
Scientific reports 5 8269 2015
Axonal outgrowth inhibitors and scar formation are two major obstacles to central nervous system (CNS) repair. No target molecule that regulates both axonal growth and scarring has been identified. Here we identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), a common mediator of inhibitory signals after neural injury, as a crucial factor that contributes to both axonal growth inhibition and scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found increases in the inhibitory and toxic forms of CRMP4 in injured spinal cord. Notably, CRMP4 expression was evident in inflammatory cells as well as in neurons after spinal cord transection. Crmp4-/- mice displayed neuroprotection against SCI and reductions in inflammatory response and scar formation. This permissive environment for axonal growth due to CRMP4 deletion restored locomotor activity at an unusually early phase of healing. These results suggest that deletion of CRMP4 is a unique therapeutic strategy that overcomes two obstacles to CNS repair after SCI.
|Differential regulation of apical-basolateral dendrite outgrowth by activity in hippocampal neurons.|
Yuan, Y; Seong, E; Yuan, L; Singh, D; Arikkath, J
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 314 2015
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons have characteristic dendrite asymmetry, characterized by structurally and functionally distinct apical and basolateral dendrites. The ability of the neuron to generate and maintain dendrite asymmetry is vital, since synaptic inputs received are critically dependent on dendrite architecture. Little is known about the role of neuronal activity in guiding maintenance of dendrite asymmetry. Our data indicate that dendrite asymmetry is established and maintained early during development. Further, our results indicate that cell intrinsic and global alterations of neuronal activity have differential effects on net extension of apical and basolateral dendrites. Thus, apical and basolateral dendrite extension may be independently regulated by cell intrinsic and network neuronal activity during development, suggesting that individual dendrites may have autonomous control over net extension. We propose that regulated individual dendrite extension in response to cell intrinsic and neuronal network activity may allow temporal control of synapse specificity in the developing hippocampus.
|Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Neuronal Cells Cultured on Chemically-Defined Hydrogels for Sensitive In Vitro Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin.|
Pellett, S; Schwartz, MP; Tepp, WH; Josephson, R; Scherf, JM; Pier, CL; Thomson, JA; Murphy, WL; Johnson, EA
Scientific reports 5 14566 2015
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) detection provides a useful model for validating cell-based neurotoxicity screening approaches, as sensitivity is dependent on functionally competent neurons and clear quantitative endpoints are available for correlating results to approved animal testing protocols. Here, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neuronal cells were cultured on chemically-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels formed by "thiol-ene" photopolymerization and tested as a cell-based neurotoxicity assay by determining sensitivity to active BoNT/A1. BoNT/A1 sensitivity was comparable to the approved in vivo mouse bioassay for human iPSC-derived neurons and neural stem cells (iPSC-NSCs) cultured on PEG hydrogels or treated tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces. However, maximum sensitivity for BoNT detection was achieved two weeks earlier for iPSC-NSCs that were differentiated and matured on PEG hydrogels compared to TCP. Therefore, chemically-defined synthetic hydrogels offer benefits over standard platforms when optimizing culture conditions for cell-based screening and achieve sensitivities comparable to an approved animal testing protocol.
|Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells.|
Bershteyn, M; Hayashi, Y; Desachy, G; Hsiao, EC; Sami, S; Tsang, KM; Weiss, LA; Kriegstein, AR; Yamanaka, S; Wynshaw-Boris, A
Nature 507 99-103 2014
Ring chromosomes are structural aberrations commonly associated with birth defects, mental disabilities and growth retardation. Rings form after fusion of the long and short arms of a chromosome, and are sometimes associated with large terminal deletions. Owing to the severity of these large aberrations that can affect multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have been proposed. During cell division, ring chromosomes can exhibit unstable behaviour leading to continuous production of aneuploid progeny with low viability and high cellular death rate. The overall consequences of this chromosomal instability have been largely unexplored in experimental model systems. Here we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts containing ring chromosomes with large deletions and found that reprogrammed cells lost the abnormal chromosome and duplicated the wild-type homologue through the compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD) mechanism. The karyotypically normal iPSCs with isodisomy for the corrected chromosome outgrew co-existing aneuploid populations, enabling rapid and efficient isolation of patient-derived iPSCs devoid of the original chromosomal aberration. Our results suggest a fundamentally different function for cellular reprogramming as a means of 'chromosome therapy' to reverse combined loss-of-function across many genes in cells with large-scale aberrations involving ring structures. In addition, our work provides an experimentally tractable human cellular system for studying mechanisms of chromosomal number control, which is of critical relevance to human development and disease.
|Heterogeneous calretinin expression in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis.|
Bloom, S; Williams, A; MacLeod, KM
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO 15 603-20 2014
Multiple calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are expressed at high levels and in complementary patterns in the auditory pathways of birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, but whether specific members of the CaBP family can be used to identify neuronal subpopulations is unclear. We used double immunofluorescence labeling of calretinin (CR) in combination with neuronal markers to investigate the distribution of CR-expressing neurons in brainstem sections of the cochlear nucleus in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). While CR was homogeneously expressed in cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, CR expression was highly heterogeneous in cochlear nucleus angularis (NA), a nucleus with diverse cell types analogous in function to neurons in the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. To quantify the distribution of CR in the total NA cell population, we used antibodies against neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), a postmitotic neuron-specific nuclear marker. In NA neurons, NeuN label was variably localized to the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the intensity of NeuN immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with the intensity of CR immunoreactivity. The percentage of CR + neurons in NA increased from 31 % in embryonic (E)17/18 chicks, to 44 % around hatching (E21), to 51 % in postnatal day (P) 8 chicks. By P8, the distribution of CR + neurons was uniform, both rostrocaudal and in the tonotopic (dorsoventral) axis. Immunoreactivity for the voltage-gated potassium ion channel Kv1.1, used as a marker for physiological type, showed broad and heterogeneous postsynaptic expression in NA, but did not correlate with CR expression. These results suggest that CR may define a subpopulation of neurons within nucleus angularis.
|An inherited duplication at the gene p21 Protein-Activated Kinase 7 (PAK7) is a risk factor for psychosis.|
Morris, DW; Pearson, RD; Cormican, P; Kenny, EM; O'Dushlaine, CT; Perreault, LP; Giannoulatou, E; Tropea, D; Maher, BS; Wormley, B; Kelleher, E; Fahey, C; Molinos, I; Bellini, S; Pirinen, M; Strange, A; Freeman, C; Thiselton, DL; Elves, RL; Regan, R; Ennis, S; Dinan, TG; McDonald, C; Murphy, KC; O'Callaghan, E; Waddington, JL; Walsh, D; O'Donovan, M; Grozeva, D; Craddock, N; Stone, J; Scolnick, E; Purcell, S; Sklar, P; Coe, B; Eichler, EE; Ophoff, R; Buizer, J; Szatkiewicz, J; Hultman, C; Sullivan, P; Gurling, H; Mcquillin, A; St Clair, D; Rees, E; Kirov, G; Walters, J; Blackwood, D; Johnstone, M; Donohoe, G; , ; O'Neill, FA; , ; Kendler, KS; Gill, M; Riley, BP; Spencer, CC; Corvin, A
Human molecular genetics 23 3316-26 2014
Identifying rare, highly penetrant risk mutations may be an important step in dissecting the molecular etiology of schizophrenia. We conducted a gene-based analysis of large (greater than 100 kb), rare copy-number variants (CNVs) in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2) schizophrenia sample of 1564 cases and 1748 controls all from Ireland, and further extended the analysis to include an additional 5196 UK controls. We found association with duplications at chr20p12.2 (P = 0.007) and evidence of replication in large independent European schizophrenia (P = 0.052) and UK bipolar disorder case-control cohorts (P = 0.047). A combined analysis of Irish/UK subjects including additional psychosis cases (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) identified 22 carriers in 11 707 cases and 10 carriers in 21 204 controls [meta-analysis Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P-value = 2 × 10(-4); odds ratio (OR) = 11.3, 95% CI = 3.7, ∞]. Nineteen of the 22 cases and 8 of the 10 controls carried duplications starting at 9.68 Mb with similar breakpoints across samples. By haplotype analysis and sequencing, we identified a tandem ~149 kb duplication overlapping the gene p21 Protein-Activated Kinase 7 (PAK7, also called PAK5) which was in linkage disequilibrium with local haplotypes (P = 2.5 × 10(-21)), indicative of a single ancestral duplication event. We confirmed the breakpoints in 8/8 carriers tested and found co-segregation of the duplication with illness in two additional family members of one of the affected probands. We demonstrate that PAK7 is developmentally co-expressed with another known psychosis risk gene (DISC1) suggesting a potential molecular mechanism involving aberrant synapse development and plasticity.
|C9ORF72, implicated in amytrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, regulates endosomal trafficking.|
Farg, MA; Sundaramoorthy, V; Sultana, JM; Yang, S; Atkinson, RA; Levina, V; Halloran, MA; Gleeson, PA; Blair, IP; Soo, KY; King, AE; Atkin, JD
Human molecular genetics 23 3579-95 2014
Intronic expansion of a hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) gene is the major cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. However, the cellular function of the C9ORF72 protein remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that C9ORF72 regulates endosomal trafficking. C9ORF72 colocalized with Rab proteins implicated in autophagy and endocytic transport: Rab1, Rab5, Rab7 and Rab11 in neuronal cell lines, primary cortical neurons and human spinal cord motor neurons, consistent with previous predictions that C9ORF72 bears Rab guanine exchange factor activity. Consistent with this notion, C9ORF72 was present in the extracellular space and as cytoplasmic vesicles. Depletion of C9ORF72 using siRNA inhibited transport of Shiga toxin from the plasma membrane to Golgi apparatus, internalization of TrkB receptor and altered the ratio of autophagosome marker light chain 3 (LC3) II:LC3I, indicating that C9ORF72 regulates endocytosis and autophagy. C9ORF72 also colocalized with ubiquilin-2 and LC3-positive vesicles, and co-migrated with lysosome-stained vesicles in neuronal cell lines, providing further evidence that C9ORF72 regulates autophagy. Investigation of proteins interacting with C9ORF72 using mass spectrometry identified other proteins implicated in ALS; ubiquilin-2 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, hnRNPA2/B1 and hnRNPA1, and actin. Treatment of cells overexpressing C9ORF72 with proteasome inhibitors induced the formation of stress granules positive for hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1. Immunohistochemistry of C9ORF72 ALS patient motor neurons revealed increased colocalization between C9ORF72 and Rab7 and Rab11 compared with controls, suggesting possible dysregulation of trafficking in patients bearing the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. Hence, this study identifies a role for C9ORF72 in Rab-mediated cellular trafficking.
|Progranulin protects against amyloid β deposition and toxicity in Alzheimer's disease mouse models.|
Minami, SS; Min, SW; Krabbe, G; Wang, C; Zhou, Y; Asgarov, R; Li, Y; Martens, LH; Elia, LP; Ward, ME; Mucke, L; Farese, RV; Gan, L
Nature medicine 20 1157-64 2014
Haploinsufficiency of the progranulin (PGRN) gene (GRN) causes familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and modulates an innate immune response in humans and in mouse models. GRN polymorphism may be linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of PGRN in AD pathogenesis is unknown. Here we show that PGRN inhibits amyloid β (Aβ) deposition. Selectively reducing microglial expression of PGRN in AD mouse models impaired phagocytosis, increased plaque load threefold and exacerbated cognitive deficits. Lentivirus-mediated PGRN overexpression lowered plaque load in AD mice with aggressive amyloid plaque pathology. Aβ plaque load correlated negatively with levels of hippocampal PGRN, showing the dose-dependent inhibitory effects of PGRN on plaque deposition. PGRN also protected against Aβ toxicity. Lentivirus-mediated PGRN overexpression prevented spatial memory deficits and hippocampal neuronal loss in AD mice. The protective effects of PGRN against Aβ deposition and toxicity have important therapeutic implications. We propose enhancing PGRN as a potential treatment for PGRN-deficient FTLD and AD.
|Spatiotemporal changes in Cx30 and Cx43 expression during neuronal differentiation of P19 EC and NT2/D1 cells.|
Wan, CK; O'Carroll, SJ; Kim, SL; Green, CR; Nicholson, LF
Cell biology international reports 20 13-23 2013
While connexins (Cxs) are thought to be involved in differentiation, their expression and role has yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the temporal expression of Cx30, Cx36 and Cx43 in two in vitro models of neuronal differentiation: human NT2/D1 and murine P19 cells, and the spatial localisation of Cx30 and Cx43 in these models. A temporal Cx43 downregulation was confirmed in both cell lines during RA-induced neuronal differentiation using RT-PCR (P less than 0.05) preceding an increase in neuronal doublecortin protein. RT-PCR showed Cx36 was upregulated twofold in NT2/D1 cells (P less than 0.05) and sixfold in P19 cells (P less than 0.001) during neuronal differentiation. Cx30 exhibited a transient peak in expression midway through the timecourse of differentiation increasing threefold in NT2/D1 cells (P less than 0.001) and eightfold in P19 cells (P less than 0.01). Qualitative immunocytochemistry was used to examine spatiotemporal patterns of Cx protein distribution alongside neuronal differentiation markers. The temporal immunolabelling pattern was similar to that seen using RT-PCR. Cx43 was observed intracellularly and on cell surfaces, while Cx30 was seen as puncta. Spatially Cx43 was seen on doublecortin-negative cells, which may indicate Cx43 downregulation is requisite for differentiation in these models. Conversely, Cx30 puncta were observed on doublecortin-positive and -negative cells in NT2/D1 cells and examination of the Cx30 peak showed puncta also localized to nestin-positive cells, with few puncta on MAP2-positive cells. In P19 cells Cx30 was localized on clusters of cells surrounded by MAP2- and doublecortin-positive processes. The expression pattern of Cx30 indicates a role in neuronal differentiation; the nature of that role warrants future investigation.