Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ma||ELISA, IP, RIA, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Kinesin Antibody, light chain, clone L2|
|Presentation||Liquid in 0.02 M Phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Kinesin Antibody, light chain, clone L2 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Visualization and biochemical analyses of the emerging mammalian 14-3-3-phosphoproteome.|
Johnson, C; Tinti, M; Wood, NT; Campbell, DG; Toth, R; Dubois, F; Geraghty, KM; Wong, BH; Brown, LJ; Tyler, J; Gernez, A; Chen, S; Synowsky, S; MacKintosh, C
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 10 M110.005751 2011
Hundreds of candidate 14-3-3-binding (phospho)proteins have been reported in publications that describe one interaction at a time, as well as high-throughput 14-3-3-affinity and mass spectrometry-based studies. Here, we transcribed these data into a common format, deposited the collated data from low-throughput studies in MINT (http://mint.bio.uniroma2.it/mint), and compared the low- and high-throughput data in VisANT graphs that are easy to analyze and extend. Exploring the graphs prompted questions about technical and biological specificity, which were addressed experimentally, resulting in identification of phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding sites in the mitochondrial import sequence of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme (ISCU), cytoplasmic domains of the mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), and endoplasmic reticulum-tethered receptor expression-enhancing protein 4 (REEP4), RNA regulator SMAUG2, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, namely debrin-like protein (DBNL) and kinesin light chain (KLC) isoforms. Therefore, 14-3-3s undergo physiological interactions with proteins that are destined for diverse subcellular locations. Graphing and validating interactions underpins efforts to use 14-3-3-phosphoproteomics to identify mechanisms and biomarkers for signaling pathways in health and disease.
|Mutant SOD1 impairs axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine release by sequestering KAP3.|
Tateno, M; Kato, S; Sakurai, T; Nukina, N; Takahashi, R; Araki, T
Human molecular genetics 18 942-55 2009
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), likely due to the toxic properties of misfolded mutant SOD1 protein. Here we demonstrated that, starting from the pre-onset stage of FALS, misfolded SOD1 species associates specifically with kinesin-associated protein 3 (KAP3) in the ventral white matter of SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mouse spinal cord. KAP3 is a kinesin-2 subunit responsible for binding to cargos including choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Motor axons in SOD1(G93A)-Tg mice also showed a reduction in ChAT transport from the pre-onset stage. By employing a novel FALS modeling system using NG108-15 cells, we showed that microtubule-dependent release of acetylcholine was significantly impaired by misfolded SOD1 species. Furthermore, such impairment was able to be normalized by KAP3 overexpression. KAP3 was incorporated into SOD1 aggregates in human FALS cases as well. These results suggest that KAP3 sequestration by misfolded SOD1 species and the resultant inhibition of ChAT transport play a role in the dysfunction of ALS.
|Fast axonal transport of kinesin in the rat visual system: functionality of kinesin heavy chain isoforms.|
Elluru, R G, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 6: 21-40 (1995) 1995
The mechanochemical ATPase kinesin is thought to move membrane-bounded organelles along microtubules in fast axonal transport. However, fast transport includes several classes of organelles moving at rates that differ by an order of magnitude. Further, the fact that cytoplasmic forms of kinesin exist suggests that kinesins might move cytoplasmic structures such as the cytoskeleton. To define cellular roles for kinesin, the axonal transport of kinesin was characterized. Retinal proteins were pulse-labeled, and movement of radiolabeled kinesin through optic nerve and tract into the terminals was monitored by immunoprecipitation. Heavy and light chains of kinesin appeared in nerve and tract at times consistent with fast transport. Little or no kinesin moved with slow axonal transport indicating that effectively all axonal kinesin is associated with membranous organelles. Both kinesin heavy chain molecular weight variants of 130,000 and 124,000 M(r) (KHC-A and KHC-B) moved in fast anterograde transport, but KHC-A moved at 5-6 times the rate of KHC-B. KHC-A cotransported with the synaptic vesicle marker synaptophysin, while a portion of KHC-B cotransported with the mitochondrial marker hexokinase. These results suggest that KHC-A is enriched on small tubulovesicular structures like synaptic vesicles and that at least one form of KHC-B is predominantly on mitochondria. Biochemical specialization may target kinesins to appropriate organelles and facilitate differential regulation of transport.
|Submolecular domains of bovine brain kinesin identified by electron microscopy and monoclonal antibody decoration.|
Hirokawa, N, et al.
Cell, 56: 867-78 (1989) 1989
Kinesin is a microtubule-activated ATPase thought to transport membrane-bounded organelles along MTs. To illuminate the structural basis for this function, EM was used to locate submolecular domains on bovine brain kinesin. Rotary shadowed kinesin appeared rod-shaped and approximately 80 nm long. One end of each molecule contained a pair of approximately 10 x 9 nm globular domains, while the opposite end was fan-shaped. Monoclonal antibodies against the approximately 124 kd heavy chains of kinesin decorated the globular structures, while those specific for the approximately 64 kd light chains labeled the fan-shaped end. Quick-freeze, deep-etch EM was used to analyze MTs polymerized from tubulin and cross-linked to latex microspheres by kinesin. Microspheres frequently attached to MTs by arm-like structures, 25-30 nm long. The MT attachment sites often appeared as one or two approximately 10 nm globular bulges. Morphologically similar cross-links were observed by quick-freeze, deep-etch EM between organelles and MTs in the neuronal cytoskeleton in vivo. These collective observations suggest that bovine brain kinesin binds to MTs by globular domains that contain the heavy chains, and that the attachment sites for organelles are at the opposite, fan-shaped end of kinesin, where the light chains are located.
|Monoclonal antibodies to kinesin heavy and light chains stain vesicle-like structures, but not microtubules, in cultured cells.|
Pfister, K K, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 108: 1453-63 (1989) 1989
Kinesin, a microtubule-activated ATPase and putative motor protein for the transport of membrane-bounded organelles along microtubules, was purified from bovine brain and used as an immunogen for the production of murine monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma lines that secreted five distinct antikinesin IgGs were cloned. Three of the antibodies reacted on immunoblots with the 124-kD heavy chain of kinesin, while the other two antibodies recognized the 64-kD light chain. When used for immunofluorescence microscopy, the antibodies stained punctate, cytoplasmic structures in a variety of cultured mammalian cell types. Consistent with the identification of these structures as membrane-bounded organelles was the observation that cells which had been extracted with Triton X-100 before fixation contained little or no immunoreactive material. Staining of microtubules in the interphase cytoplasm or mitotic spindle was never observed, nor were associated structures, such as centrosomes and primary cilia, labeled by any of the antibodies. Nevertheless, in double-labeling experiments using antibodies to kinesin and tubulin, kinesin-containing particles were most abundant in regions where microtubules were most highly concentrated and the particles often appeared to be aligned on microtubules. These results constitute the first direct evidence for the association of kinesin with membrane-bounded organelles, and suggest a molecular mechanism for organelle motility based on transient interactions of organelle-bound kinesin with the microtubule surface.
|MOUSE ANTI-KINESIN, LIGHT CHAIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|