Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, Ma, Sqd, Su, H, M, R||ELISA, ICC, IHC, IP, FUNC, RIA, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2b in buffer containing 0.02 M Phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Kinesin Antibody, heavy chain, a.a.420-445, clone H2 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|A method for multiprotein assembly in cells reveals independent action of kinesins in complex.|
Norris, SR; Soppina, V; Dizaji, AS; Schimert, KI; Sept, D; Cai, D; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Verhey, KJ
The Journal of cell biology 207 393-406 2014
Teams of processive molecular motors are critical for intracellular transport and organization, yet coordination between motors remains poorly understood. Here, we develop a system using protein components to generate assemblies of defined spacing and composition inside cells. This system is applicable to studying macromolecular complexes in the context of cell signaling, motility, and intracellular trafficking. We use the system to study the emergent behavior of kinesin motors in teams. We find that two kinesin motors in complex act independently (do not help or hinder each other) and can alternate their activities. For complexes containing a slow kinesin-1 and fast kinesin-3 motor, the slow motor dominates motility in vitro but the fast motor can dominate on certain subpopulations of microtubules in cells. Both motors showed dynamic interactions with the complex, suggesting that motor-cargo linkages are sensitive to forces applied by the motors. We conclude that kinesin motors in complex act independently in a manner regulated by the microtubule track.
|Recycling of kinesin-1 motors by diffusion after transport.|
Blasius, TL; Reed, N; Slepchenko, BM; Verhey, KJ
PloS one 8 e76081 2013
Kinesin motors drive the long-distance anterograde transport of cellular components along microtubule tracks. Kinesin-dependent transport plays a critical role in neurogenesis and neuronal function due to the large distance separating the soma and nerve terminal. The fate of kinesin motors after delivery of their cargoes is unknown but has been postulated to involve degradation at the nerve terminal, recycling via retrograde motors, and/or recycling via diffusion. We set out to test these models concerning the fate of kinesin-1 motors after completion of transport in neuronal cells. We find that kinesin-1 motors are neither degraded nor returned by retrograde motors. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental analysis, we propose a model in which the distribution and recycling of kinesin-1 motors fits a "loose bucket brigade" where individual motors alter between periods of active transport and free diffusion within neuronal processes. These results suggest that individual kinesin-1 motors are utilized for multiple rounds of transport.
|RNA interference of Marlin-1/Jakmip1 results in abnormal morphogenesis and migration of cortical pyramidal neurons.|
Ren Vidal,Patricio Fuentes,Jos Valenzuela,Carlos P Alvarado-Diaz,Omar A Ram,Manuel Kukuljan,Andr Couve
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 51 2012
The formation of the nervous systems requires processes that coordinate proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells, which extend axons, generate dendritic branching and establish synaptic connections during development. The structural organization and dynamic remodeling of the cytoskeleton and its association to the secretory pathway are critical determinants of cell morphogenesis and migration. Marlin-1 (Jakmip1) is a microtubule-associated protein predominantly expressed in neurons and lymphoid cells. Marlin-1 participates in polarized secretion in lymphocytes, but its functional association with the neuronal cytoskeleton and its contribution to brain development have not been explored. Combining in vitro and in vivo approaches we show that Marlin-1 contributes to the establishment of neuronal morphology. Marlin-1 associates to the cytoskeleton in neurites, is required for the maintenance of an intact Golgi apparatus and its depletion produces the down-regulation of kinesin-1, a plus-end directed molecular motor with a central function in morphogenesis and migration. RNA interference of Marlin-1 in vivo results in abnormal migration of newborn pyramidal neurons during the formation of the cortex. Our results support the involvement of Marlin-1 in the acquisition of the complex architecture and migration of pyramidal neurons, two fundamental processes for the laminar layering of the cortex.
|A non-mammalian type opsin 5 functions dually in the photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive organs of birds.|
Ohuchi, H; Yamashita, T; Tomonari, S; Fujita-Yanagibayashi, S; Sakai, K; Noji, S; Shichida, Y
PloS one 7 e31534 2012
A mammalian type opsin 5 (neuropsin) is a recently identified ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive pigment of the retina and other photosensitive organs in birds. Two other opsin 5-related molecules have been found in the genomes of non-mammalian vertebrates. However, their functions have not been examined as yet. Here, we identify the molecular properties of a second avian opsin 5, cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), and its localization in the post-hatch chicken. Spectrophotometric analysis and radionucleotide-binding assay have revealed that cOpn5L2 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with the Gi subtype of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). As a bistable pigment, it also shows the direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal to activate G protein. The absorption maxima of UV-light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms were 350 and 521 nm, respectively. Expression analysis showed relatively high expression of cOpn5L2 mRNA in the adrenal gland, which is not photoreceptive but an endocrine organ, while lower expression was found in the brain and retina. At the protein level, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were present in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. In the brain, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, known for photoreceptive deep brain areas. In the retina, cOpn5L2 protein was localized to subsets of cells in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. These results suggest that the non-mammalian type opsin 5 (Opn5L2) functions as a second UV sensor in the photoreceptive organs, while it might function as chemosensor using its direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal in non-photoreceptive organs such as the adrenal gland of birds.
|Opposing microtubule motors drive robust nuclear dynamics in developing muscle cells.|
Wilson, MH; Holzbaur, EL
Journal of cell science 125 4158-69 2012
Dynamic interactions with the cytoskeleton drive the movement and positioning of nuclei in many cell types. During muscle cell development, myoblasts fuse to form syncytial myofibers with nuclei positioned regularly along the length of the cell. Nuclear translocation in developing myotubes requires microtubules, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We find that as nuclei actively translocate through the cell, they rotate in three dimensions. The nuclear envelope, nucleoli and chromocenters within the nucleus rotate together as a unit. Both translocation and rotation require an intact microtubule cytoskeleton, which forms a dynamic bipolar network around nuclei. The plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motor proteins, kinesin-1 and dynein, localize to the nuclear envelope in myotubes. Kinesin-1 localization is mediated at least in part by interaction with klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne homology (KASH) proteins. Depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes nuclear rotation and significantly inhibits nuclear translocation, resulting in the abnormal aggregation of nuclei at the midline of the myotube. Dynein depletion also inhibits nuclear dynamics, but to a lesser extent, leading to altered spacing between adjacent nuclei. Thus, oppositely directed motors acting from the surface of the nucleus drive nuclear motility in myotubes. The variable dynamics observed for individual nuclei within a single myotube are likely to result from the stochastic activity of competing motors interacting with a complex bipolar microtubule cytoskeleton that is also continuously remodeled as the nuclei move. The three-dimensional rotation of myotube nuclei may facilitate their motility through the complex and crowded cellular environment of the developing muscle cell, allowing for proper myonuclear positioning.
|Distinct mechanisms of axonal globule formation in mice expressing human wild type α-synuclein or dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H β-synuclein.|
Sekigawa, A; Fujita, M; Sekiyama, K; Takamatsu, Y; Hatano, T; Rockenstein, E; La Spada, AR; Masliah, E; Hashimoto, M
Molecular brain 5 34 2012
Axonopathy is critical in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Axonal swellings such as globules and spheroids are a distinct feature of axonopathy and our recent study showed that transgenic (tg) mice expressing DLB-linked P123H β-synuclein (P123H βS) were characterized by P123H βS-immunoreactive axonal swellings (P123H βS-globules). Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate α-synuclein (αS)-immunoreactive axonal swellings (αS-globules) in the brains of tg mice expressing human wild-type αS and to compare them with the globules in P123H βS tg mice.In αS tg mice, αS-globules were formed in an age-dependent manner in various brain regions, including the thalamus and basal ganglia. These globules were composed of autophagosome-like membranous structures and were reminiscent of P123H βS-globules in P123H βS tg mice. In the αS-globules, frequent clustering and deformation of mitochondria were observed. These changes were associated with oxidative stress, based on staining of nitrated αS and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). In accord with the absence of mitochondria in the P123H βS-globules, staining of nitrated αS and 4-HNE in these globules was weaker than that for αS-globules. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), the PARK8 of familial PD, was detected exclusively in αS-globules, suggesting a specific role of this molecule in these globules.Lysosomal pathology was similarly observed for both αS- and P123H βS-globules, while oxidative stress was associated with the αS-globules, and to a lesser extent with the P123H βS-globules. Other pathologies, such as mitochondrial alteration and LRRK2 accumulation, were exclusively detected for αS-globules. Collectively, both αS- and P123H βS-globules were formed through similar but distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that synuclein family members might contribute to diverse axonal pathologies.
|In vitro motility of liver connexin vesicles along microtubules utilizes kinesin motors.|
Fort, AG; Murray, JW; Dandachi, N; Davidson, MW; Dermietzel, R; Wolkoff, AW; Spray, DC
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 22875-85 2011
Trafficking of the proteins that form gap junctions (connexins) from the site of synthesis to the junctional domain appears to require cytoskeletal delivery mechanisms. Although many cell types exhibit specific delivery of connexins to polarized cell sites, such as connexin32 (Cx32) gap junctions specifically localized to basolateral membrane domains of hepatocytes, the precise roles of actin- and tubulin-based systems remain unclear. We have observed fluorescently tagged Cx32 trafficking linearly at speeds averaging 0.25 μm/s in a polarized hepatocyte cell line (WIF-B9), which is abolished by 50 μM of the microtubule-disrupting agent nocodazole. To explore the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the delivery of connexins, we have used a preparation of isolated Cx32-containing vesicles from rat hepatocytes and assayed their ATP-driven motility along stabilized rhodamine-labeled microtubules in vitro. These assays revealed the presence of Cx32 and kinesin motor proteins in the same vesicles. The addition of 50 μM ATP stimulated vesicle motility along linear microtubule tracks with velocities of 0.4-0.5 μm/s, which was inhibited with 1 mM of the kinesin inhibitor AMP-PNP (adenylyl-imidodiphosphate) and by anti-kinesin antibody but only minimally affected by 5 μM vanadate, a dynein inhibitor, or by anti-dynein antibody. These studies provide evidence that Cx32 can be transported intracellularly along microtubules and presumably to junctional domains in cells and highlight an important role of kinesin motor proteins in microtubule-dependent motility of Cx32.
|KASH protein Syne-2/Nesprin-2 and SUN proteins SUN1/2 mediate nuclear migration during mammalian retinal development.|
Yu, J; Lei, K; Zhou, M; Craft, CM; Xu, G; Xu, T; Zhuang, Y; Xu, R; Han, M
Human molecular genetics 20 1061-73 2011
Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). Furthermore, newly formed photoreceptor cells migrate and form the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In the current study, we demonstrated that a KASH domain-containing protein, Syne-2/Nesprin-2, as well as SUN domain-containing proteins, SUN1 and SUN2, play critical roles during INM and photoreceptor cell migration in the mouse retina. A deletion mutation of Syne-2/Nesprin-2 or double mutations of Sun1 and Sun2 caused severe reduction of the thickness of the ONL, mislocalization of photoreceptor nuclei and profound electrophysiological dysfunction of the retina characterized by a reduction of a- and b-wave amplitudes. We also provide evidence that Syne-2/Nesprin-2 forms complexes with either SUN1 or SUN2 at the nuclear envelope to connect the nucleus with dynein/dynactin and kinesin molecular motors during the nuclear migrations in the retina. These key retinal developmental signaling results will advance our understanding of the mechanism of nuclear migration in the mammalian retina.Full Text Article
|Effects of ALS-related SOD1 mutants on dynein- and KIF5-mediated retrograde and anterograde axonal transport.|
Ping Shi,Anna-Lena Ström,Jozsef Gal,Haining Zhu
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1802 2010
Transport of material and signals between extensive neuronal processes and the cell body is essential to neuronal physiology and survival. Slowing of axonal transport has been shown to occur before the onset of symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously shown that several familial ALS-linked copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants (A4V, G85R, and G93A) interacted and colocalized with the retrograde dynein-dynactin motor complex in cultured cells and affected tissues of ALS mice. We also found that the interaction between mutant SOD1 and the dynein motor played a critical role in the formation of large inclusions containing mutant SOD1. In this study, we showed that, in contrast to the dynein situation, mutant SOD1 did not interact with anterograde transport motors of the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, B and C). Using dynein and kinesin accumulation at the sciatic nerve ligation sites as a surrogate measurement of axonal transport, we also showed that dynein mediated retrograde transport was slower in G93A than in WT mice at an early presymptomatic stage. While no decrease in KIF5A-mediated anterograde transport was detected, the slowing of anterograde transport of dynein heavy chain as a cargo was observed in the presymptomatic G93A mice. The results from this study along with other recently published work support that mutant SOD1 might only interact with and interfere with some kinesin members, which, in turn, could result in the impairment of a selective subset of cargos. Although it remains to be further investigated how mutant SOD1 affects different axonal transport motor proteins and various cargos, it is evident that mutant SOD1 can induce defects in axonal transport, which, subsequently, contribute to the propagation of toxic effects and ultimately motor neuron death in ALS.Full Text Article
|Mutant SOD1 impairs axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine release by sequestering KAP3.|
Tateno, M; Kato, S; Sakurai, T; Nukina, N; Takahashi, R; Araki, T
Human molecular genetics 18 942-55 2009
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), likely due to the toxic properties of misfolded mutant SOD1 protein. Here we demonstrated that, starting from the pre-onset stage of FALS, misfolded SOD1 species associates specifically with kinesin-associated protein 3 (KAP3) in the ventral white matter of SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mouse spinal cord. KAP3 is a kinesin-2 subunit responsible for binding to cargos including choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Motor axons in SOD1(G93A)-Tg mice also showed a reduction in ChAT transport from the pre-onset stage. By employing a novel FALS modeling system using NG108-15 cells, we showed that microtubule-dependent release of acetylcholine was significantly impaired by misfolded SOD1 species. Furthermore, such impairment was able to be normalized by KAP3 overexpression. KAP3 was incorporated into SOD1 aggregates in human FALS cases as well. These results suggest that KAP3 sequestration by misfolded SOD1 species and the resultant inhibition of ChAT transport play a role in the dysfunction of ALS.