Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||NEUT, ABA, WB, ELISA||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid, no preservatives|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Store at -20°C for up to one year. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||500 µL|
Anti-Interferon-α2 Antibody, clone ST2541 SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|HIV-1 Gag co-opts a cellular complex containing DDX6, a helicase that facilitates capsid assembly.|
Reed, JC; Molter, B; Geary, CD; McNevin, J; McElrath, J; Giri, S; Klein, KC; Lingappa, JR
The Journal of cell biology 198 439-56 2012
To produce progeny virus, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) Gag assembles into capsids that package the viral genome and bud from the infected cell. During assembly of immature capsids, Gag traffics through a pathway of assembly intermediates (AIs) that contain the cellular adenosine triphosphatase ABCE1 (ATP-binding cassette protein E1). In this paper, we showed by coimmunoprecipitation and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) that these Gag-containing AIs also contain endogenous processing body (PB)-related proteins, including AGO2 and the ribonucleic acid (RNA) helicase DDX6. Moreover, we found a similar complex containing ABCE1 and PB proteins in uninfected cells. Additionally, knockdown and rescue studies demonstrated that the RNA helicase DDX6 acts enzymatically to facilitate capsid assembly independent of RNA packaging. Using IEM, we localized the defect in DDX6-depleted cells to Gag multimerization at the plasma membrane. We also confirmed that DDX6 depletion reduces production of infectious HIV-1 from primary human T cells. Thus, we propose that assembling HIV-1 co-opts a preexisting host complex containing cellular facilitators such as DDX6, which the virus uses to catalyze capsid assembly.
|Innate immune signaling induces high levels of TC-specific deaminase activity in primary monocyte-derived cells through expression of APOBEC3A isoforms.|
Thielen, BK; McNevin, JP; McElrath, MJ; Hunt, BV; Klein, KC; Lingappa, JR
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 27753-66 2010
In HIV-1-infected individuals, G-to-A hypermutation is found in HIV-1 DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These mutations are thought to result from editing by one or more host enzymes in the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases, which act on CC (APOBEC3G) and TC (other A3 proteins) dinucleotide motifs in DNA (edited cytidine underlined). Although many A3 proteins display high levels of deaminase activity in model systems, only low levels of A3 deaminase activity have been found in primary cells examined to date. In contrast, here we report high levels of deaminase activity at TC motifs when whole PBMCs or isolated primary monocyte-derived cells were treated with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) or IFNalpha-inducing toll-like receptor ligands. Induction of TC-specific deaminase activity required new transcription and translation and correlated with the appearance of two APOBEC3A (A3A) isoforms. Knockdown of A3A in monocytes with siRNA abolished TC-specific deaminase activity, confirming that A3A isoforms are responsible for all TC-specific deaminase activity observed. Both A3A isoforms appear to be enzymatically active; moreover, our mutational studies raise the possibility that the smaller isoform results from internal translational initiation. In contrast to the high levels of TC-specific activity observed in IFNalpha-treated monocytes, CC-specific activity remained low in PBMCs, suggesting that A3G deaminase activity is relatively inhibited, unlike that of A3A. Together, these findings suggest that deaminase activity of A3A isoforms in monocytes and macrophages may play an important role in host defense against viruses.
|A hyperfusogenic F protein enhances the oncolytic potency of a paramyxovirus simian virus 5 P/V mutant without compromising sensitivity to type I interferon.|
Gainey, MD; Manuse, MJ; Parks, GD
Journal of virology 82 9369-80 2008
Viral fusogenic membrane proteins have been proposed as tools to increase the potency of oncolytic viruses, but there is a need for mechanisms to control the spread of fusogenic viruses in normal versus tumor cells. We have previously shown that a mutant of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) that harbors mutations in the P/V gene from the canine parainfluenza virus (P/V-CPI(-)) is a potent inducer of type I interferon (IFN) and apoptosis and is restricted for spread through normal but not tumor cells in vitro. Here, we have used the cytopathic P/V-CPI(-) as a backbone vector to test the hypothesis that a virus expressing a hyperfusogenic glycoprotein will be a more effective oncolytic vector but will retain sensitivity to IFN. A P/V mutant virus expressing an F protein with a glycine-to-alanine substitution in the fusion peptide (P/V-CPI(-)-G3A) was more fusogenic than the parental P/V-CPI(-) mutant. In two model prostate tumor cell lines which are defective in IFN production (LNCaP and DU145), the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant had normal growth properties at low multiplicities of infection and was more effective than the parental P/V-CPI(-) mutant at cell killing in vitro. However, in PC3 cells which produce and respond to IFN, the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant was attenuated for growth and spread. Killing of PC3 cells was equivalent between the parental P/V-CPI(-) mutant and the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant. In a nude mouse model using LNCaP cells, the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant was more effective than P/V-CPI(-) at reducing tumor burden. In the case of DU145 tumors, the two vectors based on P/V-CPI(-) were equally effective at limiting tumor growth. Together, our results provide proof of principle that a cytopathic SV5 P/V mutant can serve as an oncolytic virus and that the oncolytic effectiveness of P/V mutants can be enhanced by a fusogenic membrane protein without compromising sensitivity to IFN. The potential advantages of SV5-based oncolytic vectors are discussed.Full Text Article
|Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between subspecies of human interferon-alpha and that detect interferon oligomers.|
Shearer, M, et al.
J. Immunol., 133: 3096-101 (1984) 1984
Monoclonal antibodies to human interferons (HuIFN) of the alpha-class have been prepared by screening against 125I-labeled IFN in a rapid liquid-phase radioimmunoassay. All of the six antibodies produced react with HuIFN-alpha 2 and with some components of HuIFN-alpha N (Namalwa); three of the antibodies also bind HuIFN-alpha 1, and these either do not bind or bind very weakly the 25K component of Namalwa. Reaction of the antibodies with IFN components blotted onto nitrocellulose after separation on reducing gels suggests that two of the antibodies are against conformational determinants, whereas the epitopes recognized by the other antibodies are not destroyed by reduction or SDS treatment; these antibodies can be used to detect the presence of oligomers in IFN preparations. From the reaction of the antibodies with different alpha-IFN in immunoblots, in an antiviral assay, and in an ELISA, it was concluded that at least five different epitopes are recognized by the six antibodies, only one of which is non-neutralizing.
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN α-INTERFERON|