Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB, ICC, DB, ChIP||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Histone H3.3 Antibody SDS
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2146001||2146001|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2368777||2368777|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2395818||2395818|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2448427||2448427|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2006945||2006945|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2020873||2020873|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2033667||2033667|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2055472||2055472|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2202506||2202506|
|Anti-Histone H3.3 - 2273984||2273984|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Suppression of the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway by the chromatin remodelling factor ATRX.|
Clynes, D; Jelinska, C; Xella, B; Ayyub, H; Scott, C; Mitson, M; Taylor, S; Higgs, DR; Gibbons, RJ
Nature communications 6 7538 2015
Fifteen per cent of cancers maintain telomere length independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-associated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. A unifying feature of these tumours are mutations in ATRX. Here we show that expression of ectopic ATRX triggers a suppression of the pathway and telomere shortening. Importantly ATRX-mediated ALT suppression is dependent on the histone chaperone DAXX. Re-expression of ATRX is associated with a reduction in replication fork stalling, a known trigger for HR and loss of MRN from telomeres. A G-quadruplex stabilizer partially reverses the effect of ATRX, inferring ATRX may normally facilitate replication through these sequences that, if they persist, promote ALT. We propose that defective telomere chromatinization through loss of ATRX promotes the persistence of aberrant DNA secondary structures, which in turn present a barrier to DNA replication, leading to replication fork stalling, collapse, HR and subsequent recombination-mediated telomere synthesis in ALT cancers.
|Transcription-coupled recruitment of human CHD1 and CHD2 influences chromatin accessibility and histone H3 and H3.3 occupancy at active chromatin regions.|
Siggens, L; Cordeddu, L; Rönnerblad, M; Lennartsson, A; Ekwall, K
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 4 2015
CHD1 and CHD2 chromatin remodeling enzymes play important roles in development, cancer and differentiation. At a molecular level, the mechanisms are not fully understood but include transcriptional regulation, nucleosome organization and turnover.Here we show human CHD1 and CHD2 enzymes co-occupy active chromatin regions associated with transcription start sites (TSS), enhancer like regions and active tRNA genes. We demonstrate that their recruitment is transcription-coupled. CHD1 and CHD2 show distinct binding profiles across active TSS regions. Depletion of CHD1 influences chromatin accessibility at TSS and enhancer-like chromatin regions. CHD2 depletion causes increased histone H3 and reduced histone variant H3.3 occupancy.We conclude that transcription-coupled recruitment of CHD1 and CHD2 occurs at transcribed gene TSSs and at intragenic and intergenic enhancer-like sites. The recruitment of CHD1 and CHD2 regulates the architecture of active chromatin regions through chromatin accessibility and nucleosome disassembly.
|CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells.|
Chang, FT; Chan, FL; R McGhie, JD; Udugama, M; Mayne, L; Collas, P; Mann, JR; Wong, LH
Nucleic acids research 43 2603-14 2015
Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells.
|The PML-associated protein DEK regulates the balance of H3.3 loading on chromatin and is important for telomere integrity.|
Ivanauskiene, K; Delbarre, E; McGhie, JD; Küntziger, T; Wong, LH; Collas, P
Genome research 24 1584-94 2014
Histone variant H3.3 is deposited in chromatin at active sites, telomeres, and pericentric heterochromatin by distinct chaperones, but the mechanisms of regulation and coordination of chaperone-mediated H3.3 loading remain largely unknown. We show here that the chromatin-associated oncoprotein DEK regulates differential HIRA- and DAAX/ATRX-dependent distribution of H3.3 on chromosomes in somatic cells and embryonic stem cells. Live cell imaging studies show that nonnucleosomal H3.3 normally destined to PML nuclear bodies is re-routed to chromatin after depletion of DEK. This results in HIRA-dependent widespread chromatin deposition of H3.3 and H3.3 incorporation in the foci of heterochromatin in a process requiring the DAXX/ATRX complex. In embryonic stem cells, loss of DEK leads to displacement of PML bodies and ATRX from telomeres, redistribution of H3.3 from telomeres to chromosome arms and pericentric heterochromatin, induction of a fragile telomere phenotype, and telomere dysfunction. Our results indicate that DEK is required for proper loading of ATRX and H3.3 on telomeres and for telomeric chromatin architecture. We propose that DEK acts as a "gatekeeper" of chromatin, controlling chromatin integrity by restricting broad access to H3.3 by dedicated chaperones. Our results also suggest that telomere stability relies on mechanisms ensuring proper histone supply and routing.
|Viral reprogramming of the Daxx histone H3.3 chaperone during early Epstein-Barr virus infection.|
Tsai, K; Chan, L; Gibeault, R; Conn, K; Dheekollu, J; Domsic, J; Marmorstein, R; Schang, LM; Lieberman, PM
Journal of virology 88 14350-63 2014
Host chromatin assembly can function as a barrier to viral infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infection as chromatin-assembled episomes in which all but a few viral genes are transcriptionally silent. The factors that control chromatin assembly and guide transcription regulation during the establishment of latency are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the EBV tegument protein BNRF1 binds the histone H3.3 chaperone Daxx to modulate histone mobility and chromatin assembly on the EBV genome during the early stages of primary infection. We demonstrate that BNRF1 substitutes for the repressive cochaperone ATRX to form a ternary complex of BNRF1-Daxx-H3.3-H4, using coimmunoprecipitation and size-exclusion chromatography with highly purified components. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) assays were used to demonstrate that BNRF1 promotes global mobilization of cellular histone H3.3. Mutation of putative nucleotide binding motifs on BNRF1 attenuates the displacement of ATRX from Daxx. We also show by immunofluorescence combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization that BNRF1 is important for the dissociation of ATRX and Daxx from nuclear bodies during de novo infection of primary B lymphocytes. Virion-delivered BNRF1 suppresses Daxx-ATRX-mediated H3.3 loading on viral chromatin as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and enhances viral gene expression during early infection. We propose that EBV tegument protein BNRF1 replaces ATRX to reprogram Daxx-mediated H3.3 loading, in turn generating chromatin suitable for latent gene expression.Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that efficiently establishes latent infection in primary B lymphocytes. Cellular chromatin assembly plays an important role in regulating the establishment of EBV latency. We show that the EBV tegument protein BNRF1 functions to regulate chromatin assembly on the viral genome during early infection. BNRF1 alters the host cellular chromatin assembly to prevent antiviral repressive chromatin and establish chromatin structure permissive for viral gene expression and the establishment of latent infection.
|Histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed form drive a cellular senescence programme.|
Duarte, LF; Young, AR; Wang, Z; Wu, HA; Panda, T; Kou, Y; Kapoor, A; Hasson, D; Mills, NR; Ma'ayan, A; Narita, M; Bernstein, E
Nature communications 5 5210 2014
The process of cellular senescence generates a repressive chromatin environment, however, the role of histone variants and histone proteolytic cleavage in senescence remains unclear. Here, using models of oncogene-induced and replicative senescence, we report novel histone H3 tail cleavage events mediated by the protease Cathepsin L. We find that cleaved forms of H3 are nucleosomal and the histone variant H3.3 is the preferred cleaved form of H3. Ectopic expression of H3.3 and its cleavage product (H3.3cs1), which lacks the first 21 amino acids of the H3 tail, is sufficient to induce senescence. Further, H3.3cs1 chromatin incorporation is mediated by the HUCA histone chaperone complex. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that H3.3cs1 facilitates transcriptional silencing of cell cycle regulators including RB/E2F target genes, likely via the permanent removal of H3K4me3. Collectively, our study identifies histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed forms as key regulators of cellular senescence.
|Hira-Dependent Histone H3.3 Deposition Facilitates PRC2 Recruitment at Developmental Loci in ES Cells.|
Banaszynski, Laura A, et al.
Cell, 155: 107-20 (2013) 2013
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates gene expression during lineage specification through trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). In Drosophila, polycomb binding sites are dynamic chromatin regions enriched with the histone variant H3.3. Here, we show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), H3.3 is required for proper establishment of H3K27me3 at the promoters of developmentally regulated genes. Upon H3.3 depletion, these promoters show reduced nucleosome turnover measured by deposition of de novo synthesized histones and reduced PRC2 occupancy. Further, we show H3.3-dependent interaction of PRC2 with the histone chaperone, Hira, and that Hira localization to chromatin requires H3.3. Our data demonstrate the importance of H3.3 in maintaining a chromatin landscape in ESCs that is important for proper gene regulation during differentiation. Moreover, our findings support the emerging notion that H3.3 has multiple functions in distinct genomic locations that are not always correlated with an "active" chromatin state.
|The octamer is the major form of CENP-A nucleosomes at human centromeres.|
Hasson, D; Panchenko, T; Salimian, KJ; Salman, MU; Sekulic, N; Alonso, A; Warburton, PE; Black, BE
Nature structural & molecular biology 20 687-95 2013
The centromere is the chromosomal locus that ensures fidelity in genome transmission at cell division. Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a histone H3 variant that specifies centromere location independently of DNA sequence. Conflicting evidence has emerged regarding the histone composition and stoichiometry of CENP-A nucleosomes. Here we show that the predominant form of the CENP-A particle at human centromeres is an octameric nucleosome. CENP-A nucleosomes are very highly phased on α-satellite 171-base-pair monomers at normal centromeres and also display strong positioning at neocentromeres. At either type of functional centromere, CENP-A nucleosomes exhibit similar DNA-wrapping behavior, as do octameric CENP-A nucleosomes reconstituted with recombinant components, having looser DNA termini than those on conventional nucleosomes containing canonical histone H3. Thus, the fundamental unit of the chromatin that epigenetically specifies centromere location in mammals is an octameric nucleosome with loose termini.
|DAXX-dependent supply of soluble (H3.3-H4) dimers to PML bodies pending deposition into chromatin.|
Delbarre, E; Ivanauskiene, K; Küntziger, T; Collas, P
Genome research 23 440-51 2013
Replication-independent chromatin deposition of histone variant H3.3 is mediated by several chaperones. We report a multistep targeting of newly synthesized epitope-tagged H3.3 to chromatin via PML bodies. H3.3 is recruited to PML bodies in a DAXX-dependent manner, a process facilitated by ASF1A. DAXX is required for enrichment of ATRX, but not ASF1A or HIRA, with PML. Nonetheless, the chaperones colocalize with H3.3 at PML bodies and are found in one or more complexes with PML. Both DAXX and PML are necessary to prevent accumulation of a soluble, nonincorporated pool of H3.3. H3.3 targeting to PML is enhanced with an (H3.3-H4)2 tetramerization mutant of H3.3, suggesting H3.3 recruitment to PML as an (H3.3-H4) dimer rather than as a tetramer. Our data support a model of DAXX-mediated recruitment of (H3.3-H4) dimers to PML bodies, which may function as triage centers for H3.3 deposition into chromatin by distinct chaperones.
|Single cell analysis of RNA-mediated histone H3.3 recruitment to a cytomegalovirus promoter-regulated transcription site.|
Newhart, A; Rafalska-Metcalf, IU; Yang, T; Joo, LM; Powers, SL; Kossenkov, AV; Lopez-Jones, M; Singer, RH; Showe, LC; Skordalakes, E; Janicki, SM
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 19882-99 2013
Unlike the core histones, which are incorporated into nucleosomes concomitant with DNA replication, histone H3.3 is synthesized throughout the cell cycle and utilized for replication-independent (RI) chromatin assembly. The RI incorporation of H3.3 into nucleosomes is highly conserved and occurs at both euchromatin and heterochromatin. However, neither the mechanism of H3.3 recruitment nor its essential function is well understood. Several different chaperones regulate H3.3 assembly at distinct sites. The H3.3 chaperone, Daxx, and the chromatin-remodeling factor, ATRX, are required for H3.3 incorporation and heterochromatic silencing at telomeres, pericentromeres, and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. By evaluating H3.3 dynamics at a CMV promoter-regulated transcription site in a genetic background in which RI chromatin assembly is blocked, we have been able to decipher the regulatory events upstream of RI nucleosomal deposition. We find that at the activated transcription site, H3.3 accumulates with sense and antisense RNA, suggesting that it is recruited through an RNA-mediated mechanism. Sense and antisense transcription also increases after H3.3 knockdown, suggesting that the RNA signal is amplified when chromatin assembly is blocked and attenuated by nucleosomal deposition. Additionally, we find that H3.3 is still recruited after Daxx knockdown, supporting a chaperone-independent recruitment mechanism. Sequences in the H3.3 N-terminal tail and αN helix mediate both its recruitment to RNA at the activated transcription site and its interaction with double-stranded RNA in vitro. Interestingly, the H3.3 gain-of-function pediatric glioblastoma mutations, G34R and K27M, differentially affect H3.3 affinity in these assays, suggesting that disruption of an RNA-mediated regulatory event could drive malignant transformation.
|White Paper - The Message in the Marks: Deciphering Cancer Epigenetics (EMD)|