Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ca, H, M, R, Rb, F, Fe, Po||ELISA, IP, ICC, IF, IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified Mouse monoclonal IgG1 in PBS, pH 7.4 with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8ºC in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Antibody, clone 6C5 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Mitofusin 2 Deficiency Affects Energy Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in MEF Cells.|
Kawalec, M; Boratyńska-Jasińska, A; Beręsewicz, M; Dymkowska, D; Zabłocki, K; Zabłocka, B
PloS one 10 e0134162 2015
Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), mitochondrial outer membrane protein which is involved in rearrangement of these organelles, was first described in pathology of hypertension and diabetes, and more recently much attention is paid to its functions in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A neuropathy (CMT2A). Here, cellular energy metabolism was investigated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) differing in the presence of the Mfn2 gene; control (MEFwt) and with Mfn2 gene depleted MEFMfn2-/-. These two cell lines were compared in terms of various parameters characterizing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here, we have shown that relative rate of proliferation of MEFMfn2-/- cells versus control fibroblasts depend on serum supplementation of the growth media. Moreover, MEFMfn2-/- cells exhibited significantly increased respiration rate in comparison to MEFwt, regardless of serum supplementation of the medium. This effect was correlated with increased level of mitochondrial markers (TOM20 and NAO) as well as mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) protein levels and unchanged total ATP content. Interestingly, mitochondrial DNA content in MEFMfn2-/- cells was not reduced. Fundamentally, these results are in contrast to a commonly accepted belief that mitofusin 2 deficiency inevitably results in debilitation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. However, we suggest a balance between negative metabolic consequences of mitofusin 2 deficiency and adaptive processes exemplified by increased level of PGC-1α and TFAM transcription factor which prevent an excessive depletion of mtDNA and severe impairment of cell metabolism.
|A Cre-conditional MYCN-driven neuroblastoma mouse model as an improved tool for preclinical studies.|
Althoff, K; Beckers, A; Bell, E; Nortmeyer, M; Thor, T; Sprüssel, A; Lindner, S; De Preter, K; Florin, A; Heukamp, LC; Klein-Hitpass, L; Astrahantseff, K; Kumps, C; Speleman, F; Eggert, A; Westermann, F; Schramm, A; Schulte, JH
Oncogene 34 3357-68 2015
Neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer that originates from neural crest-derived cells, is the most common deadly solid tumor of infancy. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene, which occurs in approximately 20-25% of human neuroblastomas, is the most prominent genetic marker of high-stage disease. The availability of valid preclinical in vivo models is a prerequisite to develop novel targeted therapies. We here report on the generation of transgenic mice with Cre-conditional induction of MYCN in dopamine β-hydroxylase-expressing cells, termed LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre. These mice develop neuroblastic tumors with an incidence of greater than 75%, regardless of strain background. Molecular profiling of tumors revealed upregulation of the MYCN-dependent miR-17-92 cluster as well as expression of neuroblastoma marker genes, including tyrosine hydroxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule 1. Gene set enrichment analyses demonstrated significant correlation with MYC-associated expression patterns. Array comparative genome hybridization showed that chromosomal aberrations in LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre tumors were syntenic to those observed in human neuroblastomas. Treatment of a cell line established from a tumor derived from a LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre mouse with JQ1 or MLN8237 reduced cell viability and demonstrated oncogene addiction to MYCN. Here we report establishment of the first Cre-conditional human MYCN-driven mouse model for neuroblastoma that closely recapitulates the human disease with respect to tumor localization, histology, marker expression and genomic make up. This mouse model is a valuable tool for further functional studies and to assess the effect of targeted therapies.
|Comparison of the metabolic activation of environmental carcinogens in mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts.|
Krais, AM; Mühlbauer, KR; Kucab, JE; Chinbuah, H; Cornelius, MG; Wei, QX; Hollstein, M; Phillips, DH; Arlt, VM; Schmeiser, HH
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA 29 34-43 2015
We compared mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblasts (MEFs) for their ability to metabolically activate the environmental carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and aristolochic acid I (AAI), measuring DNA adduct formation by (32)P-postlabelling and expression of xenobiotic-metabolism genes by quantitative real-time PCR. At 2 μM, BaP induced Cyp1a1 expression in MEFs to a much greater extent than in ES cells and formed 45 times more adducts. Nqo1 mRNA expression was increased by 3-NBA in both cell types but induction was higher in MEFs, as was adduct formation. For AAI, DNA binding was over 450 times higher in MEFs than in ES cells, although Nqo1 and Cyp1a1 transcriptional levels did not explain this difference. We found higher global methylation of DNA in ES cells than in MEFs, which suggests higher chromatin density and lower accessibility of the DNA to DNA damaging agents in ES cells. However, AAI treatment did not alter DNA methylation. Thus mouse ES cells and MEFs have the metabolic competence to activate a number of environmental carcinogens, but MEFs have lower global DNA methylation and higher metabolic capacity than mouse ES cells.
|Mitochondrial ROS Induces Cardiac Inflammation via a Pathway through mtDNA Damage in a Pneumonia-Related Sepsis Model.|
Yao, X; Carlson, D; Sun, Y; Ma, L; Wolf, SE; Minei, JP; Zang, QS
PloS one 10 e0139416 2015
We have previously shown that mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (Mito-Vit-E), a mtROS specific antioxidant, improves cardiac performance and attenuates inflammation in a pneumonia-related sepsis model. In this study, we applied the same approaches to decipher the signaling pathway(s) of mtROS-dependent cardiac inflammation after sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intratracheal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mito-Vit-E, vitamin E or vehicle was administered 30 minutes later. In myocardium 24 hours post-inoculation, Mito-Vit-E, but not vitamin E, significantly protected mtDNA integrity and decreased mtDNA damage. Mito-Vit-E alleviated sepsis-induced reduction in mitochondria-localized DNA repair enzymes including DNA polymerase γ, AP endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mito-Vit-E dramatically improved metabolism and membrane integrity in mitochondria, suppressed leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm, inhibited up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway factors MYD88 and RAGE, and limited RAGE interaction with its ligand TFAM in septic hearts. Mito-Vit-E also deactivated NF-κB and caspase 1, reduced expression of the essential inflammasome component ASC, and decreased inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In vitro, both Mito-Vit-E and TLR9 inhibitor OND-I suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation in MYD88, RAGE, ASC, active caspase 1, and IL-1β in cardiomyocytes. Since free mtDNA escaped from damaged mitochondria function as a type of DAMPs to stimulate inflammation through TLR9, these data together suggest that sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation is mediated, at least partially, through mtDNA-TLR9-RAGE. At last, Mito-Vit-E reduced the circulation of myocardial injury marker troponin-I, diminished apoptosis and amended morphology in septic hearts, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are a potential cardioprotective approach for sepsis.
|CSB interacts with SNM1A and promotes DNA interstrand crosslink processing.|
Iyama, T; Lee, SY; Berquist, BR; Gileadi, O; Bohr, VA; Seidman, MM; McHugh, PJ; Wilson, DM
Nucleic acids research 43 247-58 2015
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by photosensitivity, impaired development and multisystem progressive degeneration, and consists of two strict complementation groups, A and B. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified the 5'-3' exonuclease SNM1A as one of four strong interacting partners of CSB. This direct interaction was confirmed using purified recombinant proteins-with CSB able to modulate the exonuclease activity of SNM1A on oligonucleotide substrates in vitro-and the two proteins were shown to exist in a common complex in human cell extracts. CSB and SNM1A were also found, using fluorescently tagged proteins in combination with confocal microscopy and laser microirradiation, to be recruited to localized trioxsalen-induced ICL damage in human cells, with accumulation being suppressed by transcription inhibition. Moreover, SNM1A recruitment was significantly reduced in CSB-deficient cells, suggesting coordination between the two proteins in vivo. CSB-deficient neural cells exhibited increased sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, particularly, in a non-cycling, differentiated state, as well as delayed ICL processing as revealed by a modified Comet assay and γ-H2AX foci persistence. The results indicate that CSB coordinates the resolution of ICLs, possibly in a transcription-associated repair mechanism involving SNM1A, and that defects in the process could contribute to the post-mitotic degenerative pathologies associated with CS.
|HMGB1 facilitates repair of mitochondrial DNA damage and extends the lifespan of mutant ataxin-1 knock-in mice.|
Ito, H; Fujita, K; Tagawa, K; Chen, X; Homma, H; Sasabe, T; Shimizu, J; Shimizu, S; Tamura, T; Muramatsu, S; Okazawa, H
EMBO molecular medicine 7 78-101 2015
Mutant ataxin-1 (Atxn1), which causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), binds to and impairs the function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a crucial nuclear protein that regulates DNA architectural changes essential for DNA damage repair and transcription. In this study, we established that transgenic or virus vector-mediated complementation with HMGB1 ameliorates motor dysfunction and prolongs lifespan in mutant Atxn1 knock-in (Atxn1-KI) mice. We identified mitochondrial DNA damage repair by HMGB1 as a novel molecular basis for this effect, in addition to the mechanisms already associated with HMGB1 function, such as nuclear DNA damage repair and nuclear transcription. The dysfunction and the improvement of mitochondrial DNA damage repair functions are tightly associated with the exacerbation and rescue, respectively, of symptoms, supporting the involvement of mitochondrial DNA quality control by HMGB1 in SCA1 pathology. Moreover, we show that the rescue of Purkinje cell dendrites and dendritic spines by HMGB1 could be downstream effects. Although extracellular HMGB1 triggers inflammation mediated by Toll-like receptor and receptor for advanced glycation end products, upregulation of intracellular HMGB1 does not induce such side effects. Thus, viral delivery of HMGB1 is a candidate approach by which to modify the disease progression of SCA1 even after the onset.
|Proteotoxic stress induces phosphorylation of p62/SQSTM1 by ULK1 to regulate selective autophagic clearance of protein aggregates.|
Lim, J; Lachenmayer, ML; Wu, S; Liu, W; Kundu, M; Wang, R; Komatsu, M; Oh, YJ; Zhao, Y; Yue, Z
PLoS genetics 11 e1004987 2015
Disruption of proteostasis, or protein homeostasis, is often associated with aberrant accumulation of misfolded proteins or protein aggregates. Autophagy offers protection to cells by removing toxic protein aggregates and injured organelles in response to proteotoxic stress. However, the exact mechanism whereby autophagy recognizes and degrades misfolded or aggregated proteins has yet to be elucidated. Mounting evidence demonstrates the selectivity of autophagy, which is mediated through autophagy receptor proteins (e.g. p62/SQSTM1) linking autophagy cargos and autophagosomes. Here we report that proteotoxic stress imposed by the proteasome inhibition or expression of polyglutamine expanded huntingtin (polyQ-Htt) induces p62 phosphorylation at its ubiquitin-association (UBA) domain that regulates its binding to ubiquitinated proteins. We find that autophagy-related kinase ULK1 phosphorylates p62 at a novel phosphorylation site S409 in UBA domain. Interestingly, phosphorylation of p62 by ULK1 does not occur upon nutrient starvation, in spite of its role in canonical autophagy signaling. ULK1 also phosphorylates S405, while S409 phosphorylation critically regulates S405 phosphorylation. We find that S409 phosphorylation destabilizes the UBA dimer interface, and increases binding affinity of p62 to ubiquitin. Furthermore, lack of S409 phosphorylation causes accumulation of p62, aberrant localization of autophagy proteins and inhibition of the clearance of ubiquitinated proteins or polyQ-Htt. Therefore, our data provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of selective autophagy by ULK1 and p62 upon proteotoxic stress. Our study suggests a potential novel drug target in developing autophagy-based therapeutics for the treatment of proteinopathies including Huntington's disease.
|Reliable LC3 and p62 autophagy marker detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry.|
Schläfli, AM; Berezowska, S; Adams, O; Langer, R; Tschan, MP
European journal of histochemistry : EJH 59 2481 2015
Autophagy assures cellular homeostasis, and gains increasing importance in cancer, where it impacts on carcinogenesis, propagation of the malignant phenotype and development of resistance. To date, its tissue-based analysis by immunohistochemistry remains poorly standardized. Here we show the feasibility of specifically and reliably assessing the autophagy markers LC3B and p62 (SQSTM1) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry. Preceding functional experiments consisted of depleting LC3B and p62 in H1299 lung cancer cells with subsequent induction of autophagy. Western blot and immunofluorescence validated antibody specificity, knockdown efficiency and autophagy induction prior to fixation in formalin and embedding in paraffin. LC3B and p62 antibodies were validated on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded cell pellets of treated and control cells and finally applied on a tissue microarray with 80 human malignant and non-neoplastic lung and stomach formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples. Dot-like staining of various degrees was observed in cell pellets and 18/40 (LC3B) and 22/40 (p62) tumors, respectively. Seventeen tumors were double positive for LC3B and p62. P62 displayed additional significant cytoplasmic and nuclear staining of unknown significance. Interobserver-agreement for grading of staining intensities and patterns was substantial to excellent (kappa values 0.60 - 0.83). In summary, we present a specific and reliable IHC staining of LC3B and p62 on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue. Our presented protocol is designed to aid reliable investigation of dysregulated autophagy in solid tumors and may be used on large tissue collectives.
|Milnacipran remediates impulsive deficits in rats with lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.|
Tsutsui-Kimura, I; Yoshida, T; Ohmura, Y; Izumi, T; Yoshioka, M
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Deficits in impulse control are often observed in psychiatric disorders in which abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex are observed, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. We recently found that milnacipran, a serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, could suppress impulsive action in normal rats. However, whether milnacipran could suppress elevated impulsive action in rats with lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is functionally comparable with the human prefrontal cortex, remains unknown.Selective lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were made using quinolinic acid in rats previously trained on a 3-choice serial reaction time task. Sham rats received phosphate buffered saline. Following a period of recovery, milnacipran (0 or 10mg/kg/d × 14 days) was orally administered 60 minutes prior to testing on the 3-choice task. After 7 days of drug cessation, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiological analysis, and morphological analysis were conducted.Lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex induced impulsive deficits, and repeated milnacipran ameliorated the impulsive deficit both during the dosing period and after the cessation of the drug. Repeated milnacipran remediated the protein levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor and postsynaptic density-95, dendritic spine density, and excitatory currents in the few surviving neurons in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of ventromedial prefrontal cortex-lesioned rats.The findings of this study suggest that milnacipran treatment could be a novel strategy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders that are associated with a lack of impulse control.
|Global analysis of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 profiles in glioblastoma stem cells and identification of SLC17A7 as a bivalent tumor suppressor gene.|
Lin, B; Lee, H; Yoon, JG; Madan, A; Wayner, E; Tonning, S; Hothi, P; Schroeder, B; Ulasov, I; Foltz, G; Hood, L; Cobbs, C
Oncotarget 6 5369-81 2015
Epigenetic changes, including H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone modification, play an important role in carcinogenesis. However, no genome-wide histone modification map has been generated for gliomas. Here, we report a genome-wide map of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone modifications for 8 glioma stem cell (GSC) lines, together with the associated gene activation or repression patterns. In addition, we compared the genome-wide histone modification maps of GSC lines to those of astrocytes to identify unique gene activation or repression profiles in GSCs and astrocytes. We also identified a set of bivalent genes, which are genes that are associated with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks and are poised for action in embryonic stem cells. These bivalent genes are potential targets for inducing differentiation in glioblastoma (GBM) as a therapeutic approach. Finally, we identified SLC17A7 as a bivalent tumor suppressor gene in GBM, as it is down-regulated at both the protein and RNA levels in GBM tissues compared with normal brain tissues, and it inhibits GBM cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
|Protein Blotting Handbook: 6th Edition (MilliporeSigma)|