Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Application||Use Anti-EED Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody) validated in WB to detect EED also known as embryonic ectoderm development.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-EED Antibody SDS
|Anti-EED - 2118994||2118994|
|Anti-EED - 2391112||2391112|
|Anti-EED - 2463626||2463626|
|Anti-EED - 2044306||2044306|
|Anti-EED - 2194094||2194094|
|Anti-EED - 2262722||2262722|
|Anti-EED - 2828575||2828575|
|Anti-EED - 3255444||3255444|
|Anti-EED - 3543913||3543913|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The central role of EED in the orchestration of polycomb group complexes.|
Cao, Q; Wang, X; Zhao, M; Yang, R; Malik, R; Qiao, Y; Poliakov, A; Yocum, AK; Li, Y; Chen, W; Cao, X; Jiang, X; Dahiya, A; Harris, C; Feng, FY; Kalantry, S; Qin, ZS; Dhanasekaran, SM; Chinnaiyan, AM
Nature communications 5 3127 2014
Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and 2) play a critical role in the epigenetic regulation of transcription during cellular differentiation, stem cell pluripotency and neoplastic progression. Here we show that the polycomb group protein EED, a core component of PRC2, physically interacts with and functions as part of PRC1. Components of PRC1 and PRC2 compete for EED binding. EED functions to recruit PRC1 to H3K27me3 loci and enhances PRC1-mediated H2A ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. Taken together, we suggest an integral role for EED as an epigenetic exchange factor coordinating the activities of PRC1 and 2.
|Reverse engineering a mouse embryonic stem cell-specific transcriptional network reveals a new modulator of neuronal differentiation.|
De Cegli, R; Iacobacci, S; Flore, G; Gambardella, G; Mao, L; Cutillo, L; Lauria, M; Klose, J; Illingworth, E; Banfi, S; di Bernardo, D
Nucleic acids research 41 711-26 2013
Gene expression profiles can be used to infer previously unknown transcriptional regulatory interaction among thousands of genes, via systems biology 'reverse engineering' approaches. We 'reverse engineered' an embryonic stem (ES)-specific transcriptional network from 171 gene expression profiles, measured in ES cells, to identify master regulators of gene expression ('hubs'). We discovered that E130012A19Rik (E13), highly expressed in mouse ES cells as compared with differentiated cells, was a central 'hub' of the network. We demonstrated that E13 is a protein-coding gene implicated in regulating the commitment towards the different neuronal subtypes and glia cells. The overexpression and knock-down of E13 in ES cell lines, undergoing differentiation into neurons and glia cells, caused a strong up-regulation of the glutamatergic neurons marker Vglut2 and a strong down-regulation of the GABAergic neurons marker GAD65 and of the radial glia marker Blbp. We confirmed E13 expression in the cerebral cortex of adult mice and during development. By immuno-based affinity purification, we characterized protein partners of E13, involved in the Polycomb complex. Our results suggest a role of E13 in regulating the division between glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons and glia cells possibly by epigenetic-mediated transcriptional regulation.
|Epigenetic therapy with 3-deazaneplanocin A, an inhibitor of the histone methyltransferase EZH2, inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells.|
Junko Kikuchi,Taichi Takashina,Ichiro Kinoshita,Eiki Kikuchi,Yasushi Shimizu,Jun Sakakibara-Konishi,Satoshi Oizumi,Victor E Marquez,Masaharu Nishimura,Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 78 2012
EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) is the catalytic subunit of PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex 2), which mediates histone methyltransferase activity and functions as transcriptional repressor involved in gene silencing. EZH2 is involved in malignant transformation and biological aggressiveness of several human malignancies. We previously demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) also overexpress EZH2 and that high expression of EZH2 correlates with poor prognosis. Growing evidence indicates that EZH2 may be an appropriate therapeutic target in malignancies, including NSCLCs. Recently, an S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase inhibitor, 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), has been shown to deplete and inhibit EZH2. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of DZNep in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of EZH2 by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in decreased growth of four NSCLC cell lines. MTT assays demonstrated that DZNep treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in the NSCLC cell lines with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranging from 0.08 to 0.24μM. Immortalized but non-cancerous bronchial epithelial and fibroblast cell lines were less sensitive to DZNep than the NSCLC cell lines. Soft agarose assays demonstrated that anchorage-independent growth was also reduced in all three NSCLC cell lines that were evaluated using this assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that DZNep induced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC cells, which was partially associated with cyclin A decrease and p27(Kip1) accumulation. DZNep depleted cellular levels of EZH2 and inhibited the associated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. These results indicated that an epigenetic therapy that pharmacologically targets EZH2 via DZNep may constitute a novel approach to treatment of NSCLCs.
|Ezh2 expression in astrocytes induces their dedifferentiation toward neural stem cells.|
Sher, Falak, et al.
Cell Reprogram, 13: 1-6 (2011) 2011
Recently, we have demonstrated the expression of the polycomb group protein Ezh2 in embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Although Ezh2 remained highly expressed when neural stem cells differentiate into oligodendrocyte precursor cells, it is downregulated during the differentiation into neurons or astrocytes. This is in accordance with the differentiation repressive role Ezh2 is thought to play in the maintenance and self-renewal of stem cells. To establish the importance of downregulation of Ezh2 for becoming astrocytes, we have studied the effect of forced Ezh2 expression in postnatal mouse astrocytes. Upon forced expression of this polycomb group protein, cultured astrocytes retracted their cell extensions and became proliferating round/bipolar cells that occasionally formed small neurosphere-like clusters. Analysis of the expression profile of these Ezh2-expressing astrocytes reveal downregulation of typical astrocytic genes, like GFAP and S100, and upregulation of genes that are generally expressed in neural stem cells, like nestin, Sox2, musashi, and CD133. However, these neural stem cell-like cells lack a differentiation potential, indicating that overexpression of Ezh2 alone is insufficient for a complete dedifferentiation.
|Synergy of Eed and Tsix in the repression of Xist gene and X-chromosome inactivation.|
Shibata, S; Yokota, T; Wutz, A
The EMBO journal 27 1816-26 2008
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) depends on the noncoding Xist gene. Xist transcription is negatively regulated by its antisense partner Tsix, whose disruption results in nonrandom XCI in females. However, males can maintain Xist in a repressed state without Tsix, indicating participation of additional factor(s) in the protection of the single male X from inactivation. Here, we provide evidence that the histone methyltransferase Eed is also involved in the process. Male embryonic stem cells with Eed-null and Tsix mutations (X(Delta)Y Eed-/-) showed Xist hyperactivation upon differentiation, whereas cells with either mutation alone did not. Impaired X-linked gene expression was observed in the X(Delta)Y Eed-/- ES cells at the onset of differentiation. The Xist promoter in the X(Delta)Y Eed-/- cells showed elevated histone H3-dimethyl lysine 4 modifications and lowered CpG methylation, which are characteristics of open chromatin. Hence, we identified Eed as an additional major player in the regulation of Xist expression. The synergy of Polycomb group proteins and antisense Tsix transcription in Xist gene regulation explains why males can repress Xist without Tsix.Full Text Article
|The murine polycomb group protein Eed is required for global histone H3 lysine-27 methylation.|
Montgomery, Nathan D, et al.
Curr. Biol., 15: 942-7 (2005) 2005
PcG proteins mediate heritable transcriptional silencing by generating and recognizing covalent histone modifications. One conserved PcG complex, PRC2, is composed of several proteins including the histone methyltransferase (HMTase) Ezh2, the WD-repeat protein Eed, and the Zn-finger protein Suz12. Ezh2 methylates histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27), which serves as an epigenetic mark mediating silencing. H3K27 can be mono-, di-, or trimethylated (1mH3K27, 2mH3K27, and 3mH3K27, respectively). Hence, either PRC2 must be regulated so as to add one methyl group to certain nucleosomes but two or three to others, or distinct complexes must be responsible for 1m-, 2m-, and 3mH3K27. Consistent with the latter possibility, 2mH3K27 and 3mH3K27, but not 1mH3K27, are absent in Suz12-/- embryos, which lack both Suz12 and Ezh2 protein. Mammalian proteins required for 1mH3K27 have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that unlike Suz12 and Ezh2, Eed is required not only for 2m- and 3mH3K27 but also global 1mH3K27. These results provide a functionally important distinction between PRC2 complex components and implicate Eed in PRC2-independent histone methylation.
|Different EZH2-containing complexes target methylation of histone H1 or nucleosomal histone H3.|
Kuzmichev, Andrei, et al.
Mol. Cell, 14: 183-93 (2004) 2004
Human Enhancer of Zeste homolog (Ezh2) is a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) associated with transcriptional repression. Ezh2 is present in several distinct complexes, one of which, PRC2, we characterized previously. Here we report an additional Ezh2 complex, PRC3. We show that the Ezh2 complexes exhibit differential targeting of specific histones for lysine methylation dependent upon the context of the histone substrates. This differential targeting is a function of the associated Eed protein within each complex. We found that Eed protein is present in four isoforms, which represent alternate translation start site usage from the same mRNA. These Eed isoforms selectively associate with distinct Ezh2-containing complexes with resultant differential targeting of their associated HKMT activity toward histone H3-K27 or histone H1-K26. Our data provide evidence for a novel mechanism regulating the substrate specificity of a chromatin-modifying enzyme through disparate translational products of a regulatory subunit.
|Transcriptional repression mediated by the human polycomb-group protein EED involves histone deacetylation.|
van der Vlag, J and Otte, A P
Nat. Genet., 23: 474-8 (1999) 1999
Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins form multimeric protein complexes, which are involved in maintaining the transcriptional repressive state of genes over successive cell generations. Components of PcG complexes and their mutual interactions have been identified and analysed through extensive genetic and biochemical analyses. Molecular mechanisms underlying PcG-mediated repression of gene activity, however, have remained largely unknown. Previously we reported the existence of two distinct human PcG protein complexes. The EED/EZH protein complex contains the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) and enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2; refs 9,10) PcG proteins. The HPC/HPH PcG complex contains the human polycomb 2 (HPC2; ref. 11), human polyhomeotic (HPH), BMI1 (ref. 13 ) and RING1 (refs 14, 15) proteins. Here we show that EED (refs 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) interacts, both in vitro and in vivo, with histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins. This interaction is highly specific because the HDAC proteins do not interact with other vertebrate PcG proteins. We further find that histone deacetylation activity co-immunoprecipitates with the EED protein. Finally, the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (ref. 17) relieves transcriptional repression mediated by EED, but not by HPC2, a human homologue of polycomb. Our data indicate that PcG-mediated repression of gene activity involves histone deacetylation. This mechanistic link between two distinct, global gene repression systems is accomplished through the interaction of HDAC proteins with a particular PcG protein, EED.