|Cannabinoids attenuate the effects of aging upon neuroinflammation and neurogenesis.|
Marchalant, Yannick, et al.
Neurobiol. Dis., 34: 300-7 (2009)
WIN-55,212-2 (WIN-2) can elicit anti-inflammatory and cognitive-enhancing effect in aged rats. The current study was designed to determine the differential role of the endocannabinoid receptor sub-types 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) in the reduction of age-associated brain inflammation and their effects on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of aged rats. Our results demonstrate that 1) the antagonist actions of WIN-2 at the TRPV1 receptor are responsible for the reduction in microglial activation and 2) the agonist actions of WIN-2 at CB1/2 receptors can trigger neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged rats. Chronic treatment with WIN-2 established an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile within the hippocampus. Our results provide insight into the role of the endocannabinoid and vanilloid systems upon two different and detrimental aspects of normal and pathological aging, chronic neuroinflammation and decline in neurogenesis.
|TRPV1 stimulation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical neurons.|
Hisashi Shirakawa,Tomoko Yamaoka,Kazuaki Sanpei,Hirotoshi Sasaoka,Takayuki Nakagawa,Shuji Kaneko
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) functions as a polymodal nociceptor and is activated by several vanilloids, including capsaicin, protons and heat. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the brain, their roles remain unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of TRPV1 in cytotoxic processes using TRPV1-expressing cultured rat cortical neurons. Capsaicin induced severe neuronal death with apoptotic features, which was completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Interestingly, nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity, even when applied 2-4 h after the capsaicin. ERK inhibitor PD98059 and several antioxidants, but not the JNK and p38 inhibitors, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity. Together, these data indicate that TRPV1 activation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical cultures via L-type Ca(2+) channel opening, Ca(2+) influx, ERK phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species production.