|B-RAF kinase drives developmental axon growth and promotes axon regeneration in the injured mature CNS.|
O'Donovan, KJ; Ma, K; Guo, H; Wang, C; Sun, F; Han, SB; Kim, H; Wong, JK; Charron, J; Zou, H; Son, YJ; He, Z; Zhong, J
The Journal of experimental medicine
Activation of intrinsic growth programs that promote developmental axon growth may also facilitate axon regeneration in injured adult neurons. Here, we demonstrate that conditional activation of B-RAF kinase alone in mouse embryonic neurons is sufficient to drive the growth of long-range peripheral sensory axon projections in vivo in the absence of upstream neurotrophin signaling. We further show that activated B-RAF signaling enables robust regenerative growth of sensory axons into the spinal cord after a dorsal root crush as well as substantial axon regrowth in the crush-lesioned optic nerve. Finally, the combination of B-RAF gain-of-function and PTEN loss-of-function promotes optic nerve axon extension beyond what would be predicted for a simple additive effect. We conclude that cell-intrinsic RAF signaling is a crucial pathway promoting developmental and regenerative axon growth in the peripheral and central nervous systems.
|Serotonin in trigeminal ganglia of female rodents: relevance to menstrual migraine.|
Nancy E J Berman, Veena Puri, Syam Chandrala, Sanjeev Puri, Ronal Macgregor, Christopher S Liverman, Robert M Klein, Nancy E J Berman, Veena Puri, Syam Chandrala, Sanjeev Puri, Ronal Macgregor, Christopher S Liverman, Robert M Klein
OBJECTIVES: We examined changes in the serotonin system across the estrous cycle in trigeminal ganglia of female rodents to determine which components are present and which are regulated by the variations in levels of ovarian steroids that occur during the estrous cycle. BACKGROUND: Migraine is 2-3 times more prevalent in women than in men and attacks are often timed with the menstrual cycle, suggesting a mechanistic link with ovarian steroids. Serotonin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine, and the effectiveness of triptans, selective 5HT-1B/D/F agonists, has provided further support for this concept. It is not known whether serotonin, its rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), or its receptors are regulated by ovarian steroids in trigeminal ganglia. METHODS: We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine gene expression in cycling mice, Western blots to examine protein expression, double-labeling immunohistochemistry using markers of nociceptors and nonnociceptors and confocal microscopy to identify specific types of neurons, and primary tissue culture to examine effects of estrogen on trigeminal neurons in vitro. RESULTS: In C57/BL6 mice mRNA levels of TPH-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, were over 2-fold higher and protein levels were 1.4-fold higher at proestrus, the high estrogen stage of the cycle than at diestrus, the low estrogen stage. TPH protein also was present in primary trigeminal cultures obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats, but levels were not affected by 24-hour treatment with physiological levels (10(-9) M) of 17beta-estradiol. Gene expression of 5HT-1B and 5HT-1D receptors in trigeminal ganglia was not regulated by the estrous cycle. Serotonin was present in trigeminal neurons containing CGRP, a potent vasoactive neuropeptide, peripherin, an intermediate filament present in neurons with unmyelinated axons, neurofilament H, which is present in neurons with myelinated axons, and in neurons binding IB4, a marker of nonpeptidergic nociceptors. Serotonin was also present in neurons containing 5HT-1B. The serotonin-positive population was significantly larger in diameter than the serotonin-negative population. Conclusions.-Expression of the rate-limiting enzyme required for serotonin synthesis is regulated during the natural estrous cycle, and serotonin is present in larger trigeminal neurons of all the major subtypes. Colocalization of serotonin with 5HT-1B suggests that this receptor functions as an autoreceptor to regulate serotonin release. Cyclical changes in serotonin levels in trigeminal ganglia could contribute to the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine.