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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • Branched-chain amino acids and neurotransmitter metabolism: expression of cytosolic branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATc) in the cerebellum and hippocampus. 15329886

    In the brain, catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) provides nitrogen for the synthesis of glutamate and glutamine. Glutamate is formed through transfer of an amino group from BCAA to alpha-ketoglutarate in reaction catalyzed by branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT). There are two isozymes of BCAT: cytosolic BCATc, which is found in the nervous system, ovary, and placenta, and mitochondrial BCATm, which is found in all organs except rat liver. In cell culture systems, BCATc is found only in neurons and developing oligodendrocytes, whereas BCATm is the isoform in astroglia. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of BCATc in the rat brain, focusing on the well-known neural architecture of the cerebellum and hippocampus. We show that BCATc is expressed only in neurons in the adult rat brain. In glutamatergic neurons such as granule cells of the cerebellar cortex and of the dentate gyrus, BCATc is localized to axons and nerve terminals. In contrast, in GABAergic neurons such as cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal basket cells, BCATc is concentrated in cell bodies. A common function for BCATc in these neurotransmitter systems may be to modulate amounts of glutamate available either for release as neurotransmitter or for use as precursor for synthesis of GABA. Particularly striking in our findings is the strong expression of BCATc in the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampal formation. This result is discussed in light of the effectiveness of the anticonvulsant drug gabapentin, which is a specific inhibitor of BCATc.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB5406
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-GAD67 Antibody, clone 1G10.2
  • Dual inhibition of αV integrins and Src kinase activity as a combination therapy strategy for colorectal cancer. 23275294

    Both Src and αV integrins are important for tumor growth and angiogenesis. They are interconnected and responsible for important features of the tumor phenotype including invasiveness, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis. This study examines whether combinational inhibition of both integrin and Src pathways would exert greater antiangiogenesis and antitumor effects than either pathway alone. Using in-vitro cell culture systems, the activity of CNTO95 (Intetumumab), an αV integrin inhibitor, and dasatinib, an Src inhibitor, on proliferation, adhesion, and migration was evaluated in colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116 and RKO, as well as HUVEC cells. The antiangiogenic effect of this combinatory regimen was also tested using an in-vitro tubular network formation assay. The effects of CNTO95 and dasatinib on the activation of Src and integrin pathway signal transduction were also determined by western blotting. The combination of CNTO95 plus dasatinib inhibited adhesion, migration, and paxillin phosphorylation in both HCT-116 and RKO cells. CNTO95 and dasatinib also led to increased apoptosis of HCT-116 cells; however, similar effects were not observed in RKO cells. In addition, dual treatment of CNTO95 and dasatinib exerted enhanced effects on HUVEC cell proliferation, invasion, tubular network formation, and paxillin phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results suggest that concurrent inhibition of both the integrin and the Src pathways exert more pronounced antiangiogenic and antitumor effects than with either pathway being inhibited alone.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Progesterone receptor repression of prolactin/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5-mediated transcription of the beta-casein gene in mammary epithelial cell ... 16973758

    Prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids act synergistically to stimulate transcription of the beta-casein milk protein gene. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) mediates PRL-dependent trans-activation, and glucocorticoid potentiation occurs through cross talk between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and Stat5 at the beta-casein promoter. In the mouse, progesterone withdrawal leads to terminal differentiation and secretory activation of the mammary gland at parturition, indicating progesterone's role in repressing milk protein gene expression during pregnancy. To investigate the mechanism of the inhibitory action of progesterone, experiments were performed with cell culture systems reconstituted to express progesterone receptor (PR), the PRL receptor/Stat5 signaling pathway, and GR, enabling evaluation of PR, GR, and Stat5 interactions at the beta-casein promoter. With COS-1, normal murine mammary gland, HC-11, and primary mammary epithelial cells, progestin-PR directly repressed the PRL receptor/Stat5a signaling pathway's mediation of PRL-induced beta-casein transcription. Progestin-PR also inhibited glucocorticoid-GR enhancement of PRL induced trans-activation of beta-casein. Inhibition depended on a functional PR DNA binding domain and specific PR-DNA interactions at the beta-casein promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in HC-11 cells revealed recruitment of PR and Stat5a to the beta-casein promoter by progestin or PRL, respectively. Recruitment was disrupted by cotreatment with progestin and PRL, suggesting a mutual interference between activated PR and Stat5a. Without PRL, progestin-PR also recruited Stat5a to the beta-casein promoter, suggesting that recruitment of an unactivated form of Stat5a may contribute to inhibition of beta-casein by progesterone. These results define a negative cross talk between PR and Stat5a/GR that may contribute to the physiological role of progesterone to repress lactogenic hormone induction of the beta-casein gene in the mammary gland during pregnancy.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-586
  • Alpha-interferon suppresses hepadnavirus transcription by altering epigenetic modification of cccDNA minichromosomes. 24068929

    Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepadnaviruses exists as an episomal minichromosome in the nucleus of infected hepatocyte and serves as the transcriptional template for viral mRNA synthesis. Elimination of cccDNA is the prerequisite for either a therapeutic cure or immunological resolution of HBV infection. Although accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines-mediated cure of virally infected hepatocytes does occur and plays an essential role in the resolution of an acute HBV infection, the molecular mechanism by which the cytokines eliminate cccDNA and/or suppress its transcription remains elusive. This is largely due to the lack of convenient cell culture systems supporting efficient HBV infection and cccDNA formation to allow detailed molecular analyses. In this study, we took the advantage of a chicken hepatoma cell line that supports tetracycline-inducible duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication and established an experimental condition mimicking the virally infected hepatocytes in which DHBV pregenomic (pg) RNA transcription and DNA replication are solely dependent on cccDNA. This cell culture system allowed us to demonstrate that cccDNA transcription required histone deacetylase activity and IFN-α induced a profound and long-lasting suppression of cccDNA transcription, which required protein synthesis and was associated with the reduction of acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and 27 (H3K27) in cccDNA minichromosomes. Moreover, IFN-α treatment also induced a delayed response that appeared to accelerate the decay of cccDNA. Our studies have thus shed light on the molecular mechanism by which IFN-α noncytolytically controls hepadnavirus infection.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Co-expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) and apolipoprotein E in cell culture: analysis of betaAPP processing. 9174001

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ApoE4 allele is associated with earlier disease onset and greater cerebral deposition of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), the major constituent of senile (amyloid) plaques. The molecular mechanism underlying these effects of ApoE4 remains unclear; ApoE alleles could have different influences on Abeta production, extracellular aggregation, or clearance. Because the missense mutations on chromosomes 14 and 21 that cause familial forms of AD appear to lead to increased secretion of Abeta, it is important to determine whether ApoE4 has a similar effect. Here, we have examined the effects of all three ApoE alleles on the processing of betaAPP and the secretion of Abeta in intact cells. We established neural (HS683 human glioma) and non-neural (Chinese hamster ovary) cell culture systems that constitutively secrete both ApoE and Abeta at concentrations like those in human cerebrospinal fluid. betaAPP metabolites, generated in the presence of each ApoE allele, were analysed and quantified by two methods: immunoprecipitation and phosphorimaging, and ELISA. We detected no consistent allele-specific effects of ApoE on betaAPP processing in either cell type. Our data suggest that the higher amyloid burden found in AD subjects expressing ApoE4 is not due to increased amyloidogenic processing of betaAPP, in contrast to findings in AD linked to chromosome 14 or 21. These co-expressing cell lines will be useful in the further search for the effects of ApoE on Abeta aggregation or clearance under physiologically relevant conditions.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB947
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Apolipoprotein E Antibody
  • Genetic knock-down of HDAC7 does not ameliorate disease pathogenesis in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. 19484127

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion, for which there is no effective disease modifying therapy. In recent years, transcriptional dysregulation has emerged as a pathogenic process that appears early in disease progression. Administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) have consistently shown therapeutic potential in models of HD, at least partly through increasing the association of acetylated histones with down-regulated genes and by correcting mRNA abnormalities. The HDAC enzyme through which SAHA mediates its beneficial effects in the R6/2 mouse model of HD is not known. Therefore, we have embarked on a series of genetic studies to uncover the HDAC target that is relevant to therapeutic development for HD. HDAC7 is of interest in this context because SAHA has been shown to decrease HDAC7 expression in cell culture systems in addition to inhibiting enzyme activity. After confirming that expression levels of Hdac7 are decreased in the brains of wild type and R6/2 mice after SAHA administration, we performed a genetic cross to determine whether genetic reduction of Hdac7 would alleviate phenotypes in the R6/2 mice. We found no improvement in a number of physiological or behavioral phenotypes. Similarly, the dysregulated expression levels of a number of genes of interest were not improved suggesting that reduction in Hdac7 does not alleviate the R6/2 HD-related transcriptional dysregulation. Therefore, we conclude that the beneficial effects of HDAC inhibitors are not predominantly mediated through the inhibition of HDAC7.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB377
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60
  • Amyloid beta-peptide is produced by cultured cells during normal metabolism. 1383826

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the extracellular deposition in the brain and its blood vessels of insoluble aggregates of the amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), a fragment, of about 40 amino acids in length, of the integral membrane protein beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP). The mechanism of extracellular accumulation of A beta in brain is unknown and no simple in vitro or in vivo model systems that produce extracellular A beta have been described. We report here the unexpected identification of the 4K (M(r) 4,000) A beta and a truncated form of A beta (approximately 3K) in media from cultures of primary cells and untransfected and beta-APP-transfected cell lines grown under normal conditions. These peptides were immunoprecipitated readily from culture medium by A beta-specific antibodies and their identities confirmed by sequencing. The concept that pathological processes are responsible for the production of A beta must not be reassessed in light of the observation that A beta is produced in soluble form in vitro and in vivo during normal cellular metabolism. Further, these findings provide the basis for using simple cell culture systems to identify drugs that block the formation or release of A beta, the primary protein constituent of the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB343
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-APP Antibody, APP 643-695 CT fragment, clone 2.F2.19B4
  • Dendritic cells: In vitro culture in two- and three-dimensional collagen systems and expression of collagen receptors in tumors and atherosclerotic microenvironments. 24569142

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells found in the peripheral tissues where they sample the organism for infections or malignancies. There they take up antigens and migrate towards immunological organs to contact and activate T lymphocytes that specifically recognize the antigen presented by these antigen presenting cells. In the steady state there are several types of resident DCs present in various different organs. For example, in the mouse, splenic DC populations characterized by the co-expression of CD11c and CD8 surface markers are specialized in cross-presentation to CD8 T cells, while CD11c/SIRP-1α DCs seem to be dedicated to activating CD4 T cells. On the other hand, DCs have also been associated with the development of various diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, or inflammatory conditions. In such disease, DCs can participate by inducing angiogenesis or immunosuppression (tumors), promoting autoimmune responses, or exacerbating inflammation (atherosclerosis). This change in DC biology can be prompted by signals in the microenvironment. We have previously shown that the interaction of DCs with various extracellular matrix components modifies the immune properties and angiogenic potential of these cells. Building on those studies, herewith we analyzed the angiogenic profile of murine myeloid DCs upon interaction with 2D and 3D type-I collagen environments. As determined by PCR array technology and quantitative PCR analysis we observed that interaction with these collagen environments induced the expression of particular angiogenic molecules. In addition, DCs cultured on collagen environments specifically upregulated the expression of CXCL-1 and -2 chemokines. We were also able to establish DC cultures on type-IV collagen environments, a collagen type expressed in pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis. When we examined DC populations in atherosclerotic veins of Apolipoprotein E deficient mice we observed that they expressed adhesion molecules capable of interacting with collagen. Finally, to further investigate the interaction of DCs with collagen in other pathological conditions, we determined that both murine ovarian and breast cancer cells express several collagen molecules that can contribute to shape their particular tumor microenvironment. Consistently, tumor-associated DCs were shown to express adhesion molecules capable of interacting with collagen molecules as determined by flow cytometry analysis. Of particular relevance, tumor-associated DCs expressed high levels of CD305/LAIR-1, an immunosuppressive receptor. This suggests that signaling through this molecule upon interaction with collagen produced by tumor cells might help define the poorly immunogenic status of these cells in the tumor microenvironment. Overall, these studies demonstrate that through interaction with collagen proteins, DCs can be capable of modifying the microenvironments of inflammatory disease such as cancer or atherosclerosis.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MCYTOMAG-70K
    Product Catalog Name:
    MILLIPLEX MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel - Immunology Multiplex Assay
  • An in vitro culture system that supports robust expansion and maintenance of in vivo engraftment capabilities for myogenic progenitor cells from adult mice. 24940559

    Muscle cell therapy and tissue engineering require large numbers of functional muscle precursor/progenitor cells (MPCs), making the in vitro expansion of MPCs a critical step for these applications. The cells must maintain their myogenic properties upon robust expansion, especially for cellular therapy applications, in order to achieve efficacious treatment. A major obstacle associated with MPCs expansion is the loss of "stemness," or regenerative capacity, of freshly isolated cells, presumably due to the absence of the native cellular niches. In the current study, we developed an in vitro system that allowed for long-term culture and massive expansion of murine MPCs (mMPCs) with the preservation of myogenic regeneration capabilities. Long term in vitro expanded mMPC expressed the myogenic stem cell markers Pax3 and Pax7 and formed spontaneously contracting myotubes. Furthermore, expanded mMPC injected into the tibialis anterior muscle of nude mice engrafted and formed myofibers. Collectively, the method developed in this study can be potentially adapted for the expansion of human MPCs to high enough numbers for treatment of muscle injuries in human patients.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1281
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Nuclei Antibody, clone 235-1
  • An in vitro culture system for long-term expansion of epithelial and mesenchymal salivary gland cells: role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal differe ... 23841093

    Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10), decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple