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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • Culture density regulates both the cholinergic phenotype and the expression of the CNTF receptor in P19 neurons. 9188041

    The P19 embryonal carcinoma cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and fibroblast-like cells following induction with retinoic acid. The cells mature into functional neurons, as determined by their ability to release neurotransmitters in a Ca(2+)- and depolarization-dependent manner. P19 neurons in culture represent a mixed population in terms of their neurotransmitter phenotype. The cholinergic phenotype of these neurons is modulated by culture density. Cholinergic markers, such as the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, acetyl cholinesterase, and choline acetyltransferase, are expressed in about 85% of the cells in sparse cultures and are largely suppressed at high cell densities. In contrast, glutamate release is enhanced in dense P19 neuronal cultures. The factor mediating the density effect is concentrated exclusively on the cell membrane of P19 neurons and not on the nonneuronal cells, which also differentiate from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. This membrane-associated component retains its functionality, even after membrane fixation. The downregulation of the cholinergic properties in dense cultures is paralleled by a downregulation of the alpha subunit of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor. Thus, it is suggested that the membrane-associated factor, which mediates the density effect, downregulates the cholinergic phenotype by inhibiting the responsiveness of these neurons to CNTF. We further suggest that the P19 cell line can serve as a model system for the study of neurotransmitter phenotype acquisition and plasticity throughout neuronal differentiation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB143
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) Antibody
  • Aberrant epigenetic silencing is triggered by a transient reduction in gene expression. 19279688

    Aberrant epigenetic silencing plays a major role in cancer formation by inactivating tumor suppressor genes. While the endpoints of aberrant silencing are known, i.e., promoter region DNA methylation and altered histone modifications, the triggers of silencing are not known. We used the tet-off system to test the hypothesis that a transient reduction in gene expression will sensitize a promoter to undergo epigenetic silencing.The tet responsive promoter (P(TRE)) was used to drive expression of the selectable human HPRT cDNA in independent transfectants of an Hprt deficient mouse cell line. In this system, high basal HPRT expression is greatly reduced when doxycycline (Dox) is added to the culture medium. Exposure of the P(TRE)-HPRT transfectants to Dox induced HPRT deficient clones in a time dependent manner. A molecular analysis demonstrated promoter region DNA methylation, loss of histone modifications associated with expression (i.e., H3 lysine 9 and 14 acetylation and lysine 4 methylation), and acquisition of the repressive histone modification H3 lysine 9 methylation. These changes, which are consistent with aberrant epigenetic silencing, were not present in the Dox-treated cultures, with the exception of reduced H3 lysine 14 acetylation. Silenced alleles readily reactivated spontaneously or after treatment of cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylation and/or DNA methylation, but re-silencing of reactivated alleles did not require a new round of Dox exposure. Inhibition of histone deacetylation inhibited both the induction of silencing and re-silencing, whereas inhibition of DNA methylation had no such effect.This study demonstrates that a transient reduction in gene expression triggers a pathway for aberrant silencing in mammalian cells and identifies histone deacetylation as a critical early step in this process. DNA methylation, in contrast, is a secondary step in the silencing pathway under study. A model to explain these observations is offered.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-371
    Product Catalog Name:
    EZ-ChIP™
  • Multiple-label immunocytochemistry for the evaluation of nature of cell death in experimental models of neurodegeneration. 11431120

    A prominent feature of neurodegenerative diseases is a loss of specific neuronal populations. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible are, however, poorly understood. Primary cultures of rodent embryonic neurons represent a useful experimental system for investigation of molecular pathways of neurodegeneration and mechanisms of cell death. Here, we report a technique utilizing triple-label immunocytochemistry with confocal immunofluorescence detection designed to simultaneously assess multiple parameters of cell injury in individual hippocampal neurons in primary culture. This method combines detection of DNA damage (TUNEL or Klenow assay) with double-label immunocytochemistry for the activated form of caspase-3 or, alternatively, caspase-cleaved actin (fractin), and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) or beta-tubulin. The combined evaluation of the form of nuclear damage (karyorrhexis, pyknosis), the presence or absence of activated caspase-3, and the extent of the damage to cell cytoskeleton, allows for precise assessment of the extent of injury and the mode of cell death (apoptosis, oncosis) for individual neurons.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB3150
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Fractin Antibody, CT
  • Development of a highly reproducible three-dimensional organotypic model of the oral mucosa. 17487190

    In this report we describe the development of a standardized three-dimensional (3D) system of the human oral mucosa based on an immortalized human oral keratinocyte cell line (OKF6/TERT-2). The procedure takes approximately 2-3 weeks to complete and includes three main stages: preparation of collagen-embedded fibroblasts, addition of the mucosal component and airlifting of cultures to ensure adequate differentiation/stratification. This procedure results in a multilayer epithelial structure in which layers are organized similarly to the cells in native oral mucosa. Specifically, this model system consists of a stratum basale, having one layer of columnar to round cells, a relatively flattened stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, and a non-keratinizing stratum corneum. This 3D system resembles the commercially available system based on the cell line TR146 (SkinEthic), with the exception that our model system does not contain dyskeratotic changes and has a submucosal component, and thus better represents the normal human mucosa and submucosa.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    05-538
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-phospho-Raf-1 (Ser338) Antibody
  • Transcriptomal comparison of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells ex vivo and in vitro. 17234577

    The in vivo functions of lymphatic endothelial cells depend on their microenvironment, which cannot be fully reproduced in vitro. Because of technical limitations, gene expression in uncultured, "ex vivo" lymphatic endothelial cells has not been characterized at the molecular level. We combined tissue micropreparation and direct cell isolation with DNA chip experiments to identify 159 genes differentiating human lymphatic endothelial cells from blood vascular endothelial cells ex vivo. The same analysis performed with cultured primary cells revealed that only 19 genes characteristic for lymphatic endothelium ex vivo retained this property upon culture, while 27 marker genes were newly induced. In addition, a set of panendothelial genes could be recognized. The propagation of lymphatic endothelial cells in culture stimulated transcription of genes associated with cell turnover, basic metabolism, and the cytoskeleton. On the other hand, there was downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, signaling via transmembrane tyrosine kinase pathways and the chemokine (C-C) ligand 21. Direct ex vivo analysis of the lymphatic endothelial cell transcriptome is helpful for the understanding of the physiology of the lymphatic vascular system and of the pathogenesis of its diseases.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB5366
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Reelin Antibody, a.a. 164-189 mreelin, clone 142
  • Extracellular serine protease neuropsin (KLK8) modulates neurite outgrowth and fasciculation of mouse hippocampal neurons in culture. 11880192

    A serine protease neuropsin expressed in the hippocampus of adult brain has been implicated in synaptic plasticity. We report here that endogenous neuropsin was localized extracellularly in neuronal cell bodies and their neurites in mouse hippocampal cultures. Furthermore, we found that, in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, recombinant neuropsin enhanced neurite projection from soma after 14 h of culture and neuronal aggregation with neurite fascicles at 48 h. This suggests that neuropsin is involved in neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during the development of the nervous system.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB364
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-MAP2A, 2B, 2C Antibody, clone HM-2
  • Expression of Gab1 lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is associated with neoplastic progression. 11564873

    An in vitro transformation system of carcinogen-treated Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell cultures represents multistep genetic and nongenetic changes that develop during the neoplastic progression of normal cells to tumor cells in vivo. During this neoplastic progression, SHE cells demonstrate an altered response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). In the present report, we examined the role of the adapter protein Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1) in the neoplastic progression of SHE cells. We used two asbestos-transformed SHE cell clones in different neoplastic stages: a 10W+8 clone, which is immortal and retains the ability to suppress the tumorigenicity of tumor cells in cell-cell hybrid experiments, and a 10W-1 clone, which has lost this tumor suppressor ability. 10W+8 cells expressed full-length 100-kDa Gab1 and associated 5.2-kb mRNA. Upon repeated cell passaging, 10W-1 cells showed increasing expression of a novel 87-kDa form of Gab1 as well as 4.6-kb mRNA with diminishing expression of the original 100-kDa Gab1. cDNA encoding the 87-kDa Gab1 predicts a form of Gab1 lacking the amino-terminal 103 amino acids (Gab1(Delta1-103)), which corresponds to loss of most of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Gab1(Delta1-103) retains the ability to be phosphorylated in an EGF-dependent manner and to associate with the EGF receptor and SHP-2 upon EGF stimulation. The endogenous expression of Gab1(Delta1-103) in 10W-1 cells appeared closely related to EGF-dependent colony formation in soft agar. Moreover, transfection and expression of Gab1(Delta1-103), but not Gab1, in 10W+8 cells enhanced their EGF-dependent colony formation in soft agar. These results demonstrate that Gab1 is a target of carcinogen-induced transformation of SHE cells and that the expression of a Gab1 variant lacking most of the PH domain plays a specific role in the neoplastic progression of SHE cells.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    06-579
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Gab1 Antibody, CT
  • Ammonium alters creatine transport and synthesis in a 3D culture of developing brain cells, resulting in secondary cerebral creatine deficiency. 18380667

    Hyperammonemic disorders in pediatric patients lead to poorly understood irreversible effects on the developing brain that may be life-threatening. We showed previously that some of these NH4+-induced irreversible effects might be due to impairment of axonal growth that can be protected under ammonium exposure by creatine co-treatment. The aim of the present work was thus to analyse how the genes of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), allowing creatine synthesis, as well as of the creatine transporter SLC6A8, allowing creatine uptake into cells, are regulated in rat brain cells under NH4+ exposure. Reaggregated brain cell three-dimensional cultures exposed to NH4Cl were used as an experimental model of hyperammonemia in the developing central nervous system (CNS). We show here that NH4+ exposure differentially alters AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 regulation, in terms of both gene expression and protein activity, in a cell type-specific manner. In particular, we demonstrate that NH4+ exposure decreases both creatine and its synthesis intermediate, guanidinoacetate, in brain cells, probably through the inhibition of AGAT enzymatic activity. Our work also suggests that oligodendrocytes are major actors in the brain in terms of creatine synthesis, trafficking and uptake, which might be affected by hyperammonemia. Finally, we show that NH4+ exposure induces SLC6A8 in astrocytes. This suggests that hyperammonemia increases blood-brain barrier permeability for creatine. This is normally limited due to the absence of SLC6A8 from the astrocyte feet lining microcapillary endothelial cells, and thus creatine supplementation may protect the developing CNS of hyperammonemic patients.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB378
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-MAP2A Antibody, 2B
  • Spaceflight regulates ryanodine receptor subtype 1 in portal vein myocytes in the opposite way of hypertension. 22096120

    Gravity has a structural role for living systems. Tissue development, architecture, and organization are modified when the gravity vector is changed. In particular, microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume and thus pressure in the astronaut body, abolishing an upright blood pressure gradient, inducing orthostatic hypotension. The present study was designed to investigate whether isolated vascular smooth muscle cells are directly sensitive to altered gravitational forces and, second, whether sustained blood pressure changes act on the same molecular target. Exposure to microgravity during 8 days in the International Space Station induced the decrease of ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression in primary cultured myocytes from rat hepatic portal vein. Identical results were found in portal vein from mice exposed to microgravity during an 8-day shuttle spaceflight. To evaluate the functional consequences of this physiological adaptation, we have compared evoked calcium signals obtained in myocytes from hindlimb unloaded rats, in which the shift of blood pressure mimics the one produced by the microgravity, with those obtained in myocytes from rats injected with antisense oligonucleotide directed against ryanodine receptor subtype 1. In both conditions, calcium signals implicating calcium-induced calcium release were significantly decreased. In contrast, in spontaneous hypertensive rat, an increase in ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression was observed as well as the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. Taken together, our results shown that myocytes were directly sensitive to gravity level and that they adapt their calcium signaling pathways to pressure by the regulation of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • The specificity protein factor Sp1 mediates transcriptional regulation of P2X7 receptors in the nervous system. 23139414

    P2X7 receptors are involved not only in physiological functions but also in pathological brain processes. Although an increasing number of findings indicate that altered receptor expression has a causative role in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, little is known about how expression of P2rx7 gene is controlled. Here we reported the first molecular and functional evidence that Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor plays a pivotal role in the transcriptional regulation of P2X7 receptor. We delimited a minimal region in the murine P2rx7 promoter containing four SP1 sites, two of them being highly conserved in mammals. The functionality of these SP1 sites was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and Sp1 overexpression/down-regulation in neuroblastoma cells. Inhibition of Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation by mithramycin A reduced endogenous P2X7 receptor levels in primary cultures of cortical neurons and astrocytes. Using P2rx7-EGFP transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of P2rx7 promoter, we found a high correlation between reporter expression and Sp1 levels in the brain, demonstrating that Sp1 is a key element in the transcriptional regulation of P2X7 receptor in the nervous system. Finally, we found that Sp1 mediates P2X7 receptor up-regulation in neuroblastoma cells cultured in the absence of serum, a condition that enhances chromatin accessibility and facilitates the exposure of SP1 binding sites.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple