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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • Mitigation of augmented extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling and apoptosis in cortico-striatal co-cultures from Huntington's disease mice. 22668780

    We recently reported evidence for disturbed synaptic versus extrasynaptic NMDAR transmission in the early pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding huntingtin. Studies in glutamatergic cells indicate that synaptic NMDAR transmission increases phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) levels and drives neuroprotective gene transcription, whereas extrasynaptic NMDAR activation reduces pCREB and promotes cell death. By generating striatal and cortical neuronal co-cultures to investigate the glutamatergic innervation of striatal neurons, we demonstrate that dichotomous synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling also occurs in GABAergic striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which are acutely vulnerable in HD. Further, we show that wild-type (WT) and HD transgenic YAC128 MSNs co-cultured with cortical cells have similar levels of glutamatergic synapses, synaptic NMDAR currents and synaptic GluN2B and GluN2A subunit-containing NMDARs. However, NMDAR whole-cell, and especially extrasynaptic, current is elevated in YAC128 MSNs. Moreover, GluN2B subunit-containing NMDAR surface expression is markedly increased, irrespective of whether or not the co-cultured cortical cells express mutant huntingtin. The data suggest that MSN cell-autonomous increases in extrasynaptic NMDARs are driven by the HD mutation. Consistent with these results, we find that extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced pCREB reductions and apoptosis are also augmented in YAC128 MSNs. Moreover, both NMDAR-mediated apoptosis and CREB-off signaling are blocked by co-application of either memantine or the GluN2B subunit-selective antagonist ifenprodil in YAC128 MSNs. GluN2A-subunit-selective concentrations of the antagonist NVP-AAM077 did not reduce cell death in either genotype. Cortico-striatal co-cultures provide an in vitro model system in which to better investigate striatal neuronal dysfunction in disease than mono-cultured striatal cells. Results from the use of this system, which partially recapitulates the cortico-striatal circuit and is amenable to acute genetic and pharmacological manipulations, suggest that pathophysiological NMDAR signaling is an intrinsic frailty in HD MSNs that can be successfully targeted by pharmacological interventions.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB5905
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 Antibody
  • Expression of angiotensin II and interleukin 6 in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques: potential implications for inflammation and plaque instability. 10736279

    BACKGROUND: Patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or genetic alterations of the RAS are at increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Administration of ACE inhibitors reduces the risk of MI, and acute coronary syndromes are associated with increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques and its influence on IL-6 expression in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemical colocalization of Ang II, ACE, Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, and IL-6 was examined in coronary arteries from patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing heart transplantation (n=12), in atherectomy samples from patients with unstable angina (culprit lesion; n=8), and in ruptured coronary arteries from patients who died of MI (n=13). Synthesis and release of IL-6 was investigated in smooth muscle cells and macrophages after Ang II stimulation. Colocalization of ACE, Ang II, AT(1) receptor, and IL-6 with CD68-positive macrophages was observed at the shoulder region of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and in atherectomy tissue of patients with unstable angina. Ang II was identified in close proximity to the presumed rupture site of human coronary arteries in acute MI. Ang II induced synthesis and release of IL-6 shortly after stimulation in vitro in macrophages and rat smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II, AT(1) receptor, and ACE are expressed at strategic sites of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries, suggesting that Ang II is produced primarily by ACE within coronary plaques. The observation that Ang II induces IL-6 and their colocalization with the AT(1) receptor and ACE is consistent with the notion that the RAS may contribute to inflammatory processes within the vascular wall and to the development of acute coronary syndromes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1254
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Chymase Antibody, clone B7
  • Efficient conversion of ES cells into myogenic lineage using the gene-inducible system. 17466266

    We established genetically engineered ES (ZHTc6-MyoD) cells that harbor a tetracycline-regulated expression vector encoding myogenic transcriptional factor MyoD, for the therapy of muscle diseases, especially Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Almost all the ZHTc6-MyoD cells were induced into muscle lineage after removal of tetracycline. The undifferentiated ZHTc6-MyoD cells are Sca-1+ and c-kit+, but CD34-, all well-known markers for mouse hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, they are able to maintain themselves in the undifferentiated state, even after one month of culture. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a large quantity of ZHTc6-MyoD cells in the undifferentiated state that maintain the potential to differentiate only into muscle lineage. Additionally, at two weeks post-injection of these cells into muscle of mdx, a model mouse of DMD, clusters of dystrophin-positive myofibers were observed at the injection site. Therefore, ES cells have considerable therapeutic potential for treating muscle diseases.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1675
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Antibody, clone E6