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  • Characterization of non-nitrocatechol pan and isoform specific catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors and substrates. 22860182

    Reduced dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex has been implicated as causal for the negative symptoms and cognitive deficit associated with schizophrenia; thus, a compound which selectively enhances dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may have therapeutic potential. Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) offers a unique advantage, since this enzyme is the primary mechanism for the elimination of dopamine in cortical areas. Since membrane bound COMT (MB-COMT) is the predominant isoform in human brain, a high throughput screen (HTS) to identify novel MB-COMT specific inhibitors was completed. Subsequent optimization led to the identification of novel, non-nitrocatechol COMT inhibitors, some of which interact specifically with MB-COMT. Compounds were characterized for in vitro efficacy versus human and rat MB and soluble (S)-COMT. Select compounds were administered to male Wistar rats, and ex vivo COMT activity, compound levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and CSF dopamine metabolite levels were determined as measures of preclinical efficacy. Finally, novel non-nitrocatechol COMT inhibitors displayed less potent uncoupling of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) compared to tolcapone as well as nonhepatotoxic entacapone, thus mitigating the risk of hepatotoxicity.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB5873
  • Functional characterization of gefitinib uptake in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. 20363215

    Gefitinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been developed and approved for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the uptake of gefitinib in gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines. The transport system was temperature-dependent, indicative of an active process and sodium- and potential-independent. Moreover, high cell densities and low extracellular pH significantly reduced the uptake of gefitinib. Inhibitors of the human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1) significantly decreased gefitinib uptake; however, gefitinib was not a substrate for hOCT1 or hOCT2 in overexpressing HEK293 cells. Interestingly, gefitinib significantly reduced uptake of the hOCT prototypical substrate MPP suggesting that gefitinib may exert an inhibitory effect on the intracellular accumulation of drugs transported by hOCT1 and hOCT2. After 15min of treatment at 1microM (the maximum plasma concentration of gefitinib obtained at the clinically relevant dose) gefitinib accumulated within the cell in resistant-cell lines at concentrations similar or even higher than in gefitinib-sensitive cells tending to rule out an alteration in drug uptake as a mechanism of resistance to gefitinib treatment. Moreover, our results suggest that the extrusion of lactate by crowded cells may contribute in decreasing the pH, which in turn can influence the uptake of gefinitib and as a result the inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • BRD4 Inhibition Is Synthetic Lethal with PARP Inhibitors through the Induction of Homologous Recombination Deficiency. 29533782

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are selectively active in cells with homologous recombination (HR) deficiency (HRD) caused by mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and other pathway members. We sought small molecules that induce HRD in HR-competent cells to induce synthetic lethality with PARPi and extend the utility of PARPi. We demonstrated that inhibition of bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) induced HRD and sensitized cells across multiple tumor lineages to PARPi regardless of BRCA1/2, TP53, RAS, or BRAF mutation status through depletion of the DNA double-stand break resection protein CtIP (C-terminal binding protein interacting protein). Importantly, BRD4 inhibitor (BRD4i) treatment reversed multiple mechanisms of resistance to PARPi. Furthermore, PARPi and BRD4i are synergistic in multiple in vivo models.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-10086
    Product Catalog Name:
    EZ-Magna ChIP™ A/G Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Kit
  • The structures of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase with and without inhibitor reveal conformational flexibility in the inhibitor and substrate binding sites. 18672895

    Inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) have been suggested for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, autoimmune diseases, Plasmodium, and bacterial and fungal infections. Here we present the structures of N-terminally truncated (residues Met30-Arg396) DHODH in complex with two inhibitors: a brequinar analogue (6) and a novel inhibitor (a fenamic acid derivative) (7), as well as the first structure of the enzyme to be characterized without any bound inhibitor. It is shown that 7 uses the standard brequinar binding mode and, in addition, interacts with Tyr356, a residue conserved in most class 2 DHODH proteins. Compared to the inhibitor-free structure, some of the amino acid side chains in the tunnel in which brequinar binds and which was suggested to be the binding site of ubiquinone undergo changes in conformation upon inhibitor binding. Using our data, the loop regions of residues Leu68-Arg72 and Asn212-Leu224, which were disordered in previously studied human DHODH structures, could be built into the electron density. The first of these loops, which is located at the entrance to the inhibitor-binding pocket, shows different conformations in the three structures, suggesting that it may interfere with inhibitor/cofactor binding. The second loop has been suggested to control the access of dihydroorotate to the active site of the enzyme and may be an important player in the enzymatic reaction. These observations provide new insights into the dynamic features of the DHODH reaction and suggest new approaches to the design of inhibitors against DHODH.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    07-220
  • Chronic 5-HT transporter blockade reduces DA signaling to elicit basal ganglia dysfunction. 22049417

    Serotonin (5-HT)-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely administered for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but response rates are low, and side effects often lead to discontinuation. Side effect profiles suggest that SSRIs inhibit dopaminergic activity, but mechanistic insight remains scarce. Here we show that in mice, chronic 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade during adulthood but not during development impairs basal ganglia-dependent behaviors in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. Furthermore, chronic 5-HTT blockade reduces striatal dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. A causal relationship between reduced DA signaling and impaired basal ganglia-dependent behavior is indicated by the reversal of behavioral deficits through L-DOPA administration. Our data suggest that augmentation of DA signaling would reduce side effects and increase efficacies of SSRI-based therapy.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB152
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
  • MMP-13 stimulates osteoclast differentiation and activation in tumour breast bone metastases. 22032644

    The increased bone degradation in osteolytic metastases depends on stimulation of mature osteoclasts and on continuous differentiation of new pre-osteoclasts. Metalloproteinases (MMP)-13 is expressed in a broad range of primary malignant tumours and it is emerging as a novel biomarker. Recent data suggest a direct role of MMP-13 in dissolving bone matrix complementing the activity of MMP-9 and other enzymes. Tumour-microenvironment interactions alter gene expression in malignant breast tumour cells promoting osteolytic bone metastasis. Gene expression profiles revealed that MMP-13 was among the up-regulated genes in tumour-bone interface and its abrogation reduced bone erosion. The precise mechanism remained not fully understood. Our purpose was to further investigate the mechanistic role of MMP-13 in bone osteolytic lesions.MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that express MMP-13 were used as a model for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conditioned media from MDA-MB-231 cells were added to peripheral blood mononuclear cultures to monitor pre-osteoclast differentiation and activation. Bone erosion was evaluated after injection of MMP-13-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells into nude mice femurs.MMP-13 was co-expressed by human breast tumour bone metastases with its activator MT1-MMP. MMP-13 was up-regulated in breast cancer cells after in vitro stimulation with IL-8 and was responsible for increased bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis, both of which were reduced by MMP inhibitors. We hypothesized that MMP-13 might be directly involved in the loop promoting pre-osteoclast differentiation and activity. We obtained further evidence for a direct role of MMP-13 in bone metastasis by a silencing approach: conditioned media from MDA-MB-231 after MMP-13 abrogation or co-cultivation of silenced cells with pre-osteoclast were unable to increase pre-osteoclast differentiation and resorption activity. MMP-13 activated pre-MMP-9 and promoted the cleavage of galectin-3, a suppressor of osteoclastogenesis, thus contributing to pre-osteoclast differentiation. Accordingly, MMP-13 abrogation in tumour cells injected into the femurs of nude mice reduced the differentiation of TRAP positive cells in bone marrow and within the tumour mass as well as bone erosion.These results indicate that within the inflammatory bone microenvironment MMP-13 production was up-regulated in breast tumour cells leading to increased pre-osteoclast differentiation and their subsequent activation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Peripheral administration of the selective inhibitor of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) XPro®1595 attenuates nigral cell loss and glial activation in 6-OHDA hemiparki ... 25061061

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Targeting the ongoing neuroinflammation in PD patients is one strategy postulated to slow down or halt disease progression. Proof-of-concept studies from our group demonstrated that selective inhibition of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (solTNF) by intranigral delivery of dominant negative TNF (DN-TNF) inhibitors reduced neuroinflammation and nigral dopamine (DA) neuron loss in endotoxin and neurotoxin rat models of nigral degeneration.As a next step toward human clinical trials, we aimed to determine the extent to which peripherally administered DN-TNF inhibitor XPro®1595 could: i) cross the blood-brain-barrier in therapeutically relevant concentrations, ii) attenuate neuroinflammation (microglia and astrocyte), and iii) mitigate loss of nigral DA neurons in rats receiving a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) striatal lesion.Rats received unilateral 6-OHDA (20 μg into the right striatum). Three or 14 days after lesion, rats were dosed with XPro®1595 (10 mg/kg in saline, subcutaneous) every third day for 35 days. Forelimb asymmetry was used to assess motor deficits after the lesion; brains were harvested 35 days after the lesion for analysis of XPro®1595 levels, glial activation and nigral DA neuron number.Peripheral subcutaneous dosing of XPro®1595 achieved plasma levels of 1-8 microgram/mL and CSF levels of 1-6 ng/mL depending on the time the rats were killed after final XPro®1595 injection. Irrespective of start date, XPro®1595 significantly reduced microglia and astrocyte number in SNpc whereas loss of nigral DA neurons was attenuated when drug was started 3, but not 14 days after the 6-OHDA lesion.Our data suggest that systemically administered XPro®1595 may have disease-modifying potential in PD patients where inflammation is part of their pathology.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB152
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
  • Structure, activity, regulation, and inhibitor discovery for a protein kinase associated with apoptosis and neuronal death. 12191613

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine protein kinase associated with neuronal cell death in animal models of disease. The recent determination of the 1.5A crystal structure of the catalytic kinase domain of DAPK, the discovery of amino acid sequence motifs with sites that are preferentially phosphorylated by this kinase, and the development of a quantitative enzyme activity assay provide a firm foundation for future studies into its regulation, the identification of its physiological substrates, and discovery of inhibitors. We summarize the relevant background and ongoing investigations that will increase our understanding of the role and regulation of this prototype death-associated kinase.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    14-692
    Product Catalog Name:
    DAPK1 Protein, active, 10 µg
  • Inhibition of tumor cell growth, proliferation and migration by X-387, a novel active-site inhibitor of mTOR. 22305748

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is deregulated in about 50% of human malignancies and exists in two complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. Rapalogs partially inhibit mTORC1 through allosteric binding to mTORC1 and their efficacy is modest as a cancer therapy. A few mTOR kinase inhibitors that inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2 have been reported to possess potent anticancer activities. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives targeting mTOR kinase domain and X-387 was identified as a promising lead. X-387 selectively inhibited mTOR in an ATP-competitive manner while sparing a panel of kinases from the PIKK family. X-387 blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2-mediacted signaling pathway in cell lines with activated mTOR signaling and in rapamycin-resistant cells. Specifically, X-387 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT at T308, which is thought to be a target of PDK1 but not mTOR. Such activity was not due to inhibition of PI3K since X-387 did not inhibit translocation of AKT to the cell membrane. X-387 induced autophagy as observed for other mTOR inhibitors, while induced autophagy is pro-survival since concurrent inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA reinforced the antiproliferative activity of mTOR inhibitors. X-387 also inhibited cell motility, which is associated with decrease in activity of small GTPases such as RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. Taken together, X-387 is a promising compound lead targeting mTOR and with a wide spectrum anticancer activity among tumor cell lines. The data also underscores the complexity of the mTOR signaling pathways which are far from being understood.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    04-385
  • Programmed cell death of the megagametophyte during post-germinative growth of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds is regulated by reactive oxygen species and the ubiquitin ... 20833629

    The megagametophyte of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds undergoes programmed cell death following seed germination. This process is characterized by distinct morphological and biochemical features, such as DNA fragmentation and the induction of proteases. Biphasic production of hydrogen peroxide was detected in the megagametophyte following seed germination. ROS scavengers or inhibitors of ROS production decreased caspase-like protease activity and slowed the progression of cell death. One catalase (CAT) of white spruce reacted with antibodies directed against cotton-seed CAT. The corresponding CAT gene was cloned and compared with the catalase genes of other plant species. The activity of the white spruce CAT enzyme was stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The phosphorylated CAT was subjected to ubiquitination and degraded by the proteasome. Furthermore, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibited the degradation of CAT and delayed cell death. These results suggest that the interplay of CAT and the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system is critical in the control of ROS production and subsequent cell death.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB979
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Enterovirus 71 Antibody, cross-reacts with Coxsackie A16, clone 422-8D-4C-4D