|IGF-1 enhances cell proliferation and survival during early differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to neural progenitor-like cells.|
Huat, TJ; Khan, AA; Pati, S; Mustafa, Z; Abdullah, JM; Jaafar, H
There has been increasing interest recently in the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their potential to differentiate into neural lineages. To unravel the roles and effects of different growth factors in the differentiation of MSCs into neural lineages, we have differentiated MSCs into neural lineages using different combinations of growth factors. Based on previous studies of the roles of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in neural stem cell isolation in the laboratory, we hypothesized that IGF-1 can enhance proliferation and reduce apoptosis in neural progenitor-like cells (NPCs) during differentiation of MSCs into NCPs.We induced MSCs differentiation under four different combinations of growth factors: (A) EGF + bFGF, (B) EGF + bFGF + IGF-1, (C) EGF + bFGF + LIF, (D) EGF + bFGF + BDNF, and (E) without growth factors, as a negative control. The neurospheres formed were characterized by immunofluorescence staining against nestin, and the expression was measured by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also studied by MTS and Annexin V assay, respectively, at three different time intervals (24 hr, 3 days, and 5 days). The neurospheres formed in the four groups were then terminally differentiated into neuron and glial cells.The four derived NPCs showed a significantly higher expression of nestin than was shown by the negative control. Among the groups treated with growth factors, NPCs treated with IGF-1 showed the highest expression of nestin. Furthermore, NPCs derived using IGF-1 exhibited the highest cell proliferation and cell survival among the treated groups. The NPCs derived from IGF-1 treatment also resulted in a better yield after the terminal differentiation into neurons and glial cells than that of the other treated groups.Our results suggested that IGF-1 has a crucial role in the differentiation of MSCs into neuronal lineage by enhancing the proliferation and reducing the apoptosis in the NPCs. This information will be beneficial in the long run for improving both cell-based and cell-free therapy for neurodegenerative diseases.
|Morphological, immunocytochemical, and functional characterization of esophageal enteric neurons in primary culture.|
Dong, H; Jiang, Y; Srinivasan, S; Mittal, RK
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
The enteric nervous system of the esophagus plays an important role in its sensory and motor functions. Although the esophagus contains enteric neurons, they have never been isolated and characterized in primary culture. We isolated and cultured enteric neurons of the rat esophagus and determined their morphological appearance, chemical coding for neurotransmitters, and functional characteristics. After primary culture for 2 wk, dendrites and axons appeared in the enteric neurons, which usually have one axon and several dendrites. Although the size of neuronal bodies varied from Dogiel type I to type II, their average size was 39 ± 1.8 μm in length and 23 ± 1.4 μm in width. Immmunocytochemical studies revealed that over 95% of these cells were positively stained for two general neuronal markers, PGP 9.5 or Milli-Mark Fluoro. Chemical coding showed that the neurons were positively stained for choline acetyltransferease (53 ± 6%) or nNOS (66 ± 13%). In functional studies, membrane depolarization and stimulation of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) induced Ca²⁺ signaling in the esophageal enteric neurons. The GPCR stimulation was found to induce both intracellular Ca²⁺ release and extracellular Ca²⁺ entry. The functional expressions of Ca²⁺ channels (voltage-gated Ca²⁺ channels and store-operated channels) and Ca²⁺ pump (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase) were also demonstrated on these neurons. We have grown, for the first time, esophageal enteric neurons in primary culture, and these contain excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. The functional integrity of GPCRs, Ca²⁺ channels, and Ca²⁺ pump in these neurons makes them a useful cell model for further studies.