Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||We recommend storing reagents at -20°C upon arrival. (Store Incubation Buffer at 4°C after opening). The performance of this product is guaranteed for 6 months.|
|Material Size||25 assays|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Density gradient centrifugation before or after magnetic-activated cell sorting: which technique is more useful for clinical sperm selection?|
M Tavalaee,M R Deemeh,M Arbabian,M H Nasr-Esfahani
Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics 29 2012
Although, at present, the selection of sperm prior to ICSI is based on motility and morphology, undetectable anomalies, and more importantly damaged DNA are overlooked. In this regard, novel sperm selection procedures have gained much interest. For instance, sperm has been selected by Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorting (MACS) based on early apoptotic marker, the externalization of phosphatidylserine (EPS). Review of the literature has revealed that the efficiency of this technique has been mainly evaluated post Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC). Therefore, there is a need to prove the efficiency of this technique independent of DGC. In addition, considering the fact that DGC induces EPS due to capacitation and acrosome reaction, therefore, the role of MACS before DGC(MACS-DGC) and MACS after DGC (DGC-MACS) should be assessed.
|HSV and glycoprotein J inhibit caspase activation and apoptosis induced by granzyme B or Fas.|
Jerome, K R, et al.
J. Immunol., 167: 3928-35 (2001) 2001
HSV-1 inhibits apoptosis of infected cells, presumably to ensure that the infected cell survives long enough to allow completion of viral replication. Because cytotoxic lymphocytes kill their targets via the induction of apoptosis, protection from apoptosis could constitute a mechanism of immune evasion for HSV. Several HSV genes are involved in the inhibition of apoptosis, including Us5, which encodes glycoprotein J (gJ). Viruses deleted for Us5 showed defects in inhibition of caspase activation after Fas ligation or UV irradiation. Transfected cells expressing the Us5 gene product gJ were protected from Fas- or UV-induced apoptosis, as measured by morphology, caspase activation, membrane permeability changes, or mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In contrast, caspase 3 activation in mitochondria-free cell lysates by granzyme (gr)B was inhibited equivalently by Us5 deletion and rescue viruses, suggesting that gJ is not required for HSV to inhibition this process. However, mitochondria-free lysates from transfected cells expressing Us5/gJ were protected from grB-induced caspase activation, suggesting that Us5/gJ is sufficient to inhibit this process. Transfected cells expressing Us5/gJ were also protected from death induced by incubation with purified grB and perforin. These findings suggest that HSV has a comprehensive set of immune evasion functions that antagonize both Fas ligand- and grB-mediated pathways of CTL-induced apoptosis. The understanding of HSV effects on killing by CTL effector mechanisms may shed light on the incomplete control of HSV infections by the immune system and may allow more rational approaches to the development of immune modulatory treatments for HSV infection.