Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt||ELISA, FC, IF, IH(P), WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in buffer containing PBS with 0.1% sodium azide and 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Phosphoserine Antibody, clone 4A4 (mouse IgG1) SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|A phosphorylation switch controls the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases in directional cell migration.|
Cao, X; Kaneko, T; Li, JS; Liu, AD; Voss, C; Li, SS
Nature communications 6 7721 2015
Although cell migration plays a central role in development and disease, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here we report that a phosphorylation-mediated molecular switch comprising deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1), tensin-3 (TNS3), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) controls the spatiotemporal activation of the small GTPases, Rac1 and RhoA, thereby initiating directional cell migration induced by growth factors. On epidermal growth factor (EGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation, TNS3 and PTEN are phosphorylated at specific Thr residues, which trigger the rearrangement of the TNS3-DLC1 and PTEN-PI3K complexes into the TNS3-PI3K and PTEN-DLC1 complexes. Subsequently, the TNS3-PI3K complex translocates to the leading edge of a migrating cell to promote Rac1 activation, whereas PTEN-DLC1 translocates to the posterior for localized RhoA activation. Our work identifies a core signalling mechanism by which an external motility stimulus is coupled to the spatiotemporal activation of Rac1 and RhoA to drive directional cell migration.
|Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of a GATA transcription factor functions as a development timer.|
Cai, H; Katoh-Kurasawa, M; Muramoto, T; Santhanam, B; Long, Y; Li, L; Ueda, M; Iglesias, PA; Shaulsky, G; Devreotes, PN
Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 1249531 2014
Biological oscillations are observed at many levels of cellular organization. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, starvation-triggered multicellular development is organized by periodic cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) waves, which provide both chemoattractant gradients and developmental signals. We report that GtaC, a GATA transcription factor, exhibits rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in response to cAMP waves. This behavior requires coordinated action of a nuclear localization signal and reversible G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor-mediated phosphorylation. Although both are required for developmental gene expression, receptor occupancy promotes nuclear exit of GtaC, which leads to a transient burst of transcription at each cAMP cycle. We demonstrate that this biological circuit filters out high-frequency signals and counts those admitted, thereby enabling cells to modulate gene expression according to the dynamic pattern of the external stimuli.
|BAF complexes facilitate decatenation of DNA by topoisomerase IIα.|
Dykhuizen, EC; Hargreaves, DC; Miller, EL; Cui, K; Korshunov, A; Kool, M; Pfister, S; Cho, YJ; Zhao, K; Crabtree, GR
Nature 497 624-7 2013
Recent exon-sequencing studies of human tumours have revealed that subunits of BAF (mammalian SWI/SNF) complexes are mutated in more than 20% of all human malignancies, but the mechanisms involved in tumour suppression are unclear. BAF chromatin-remodelling complexes are polymorphic assemblies that use energy provided by ATP hydrolysis to regulate transcription through the control of chromatin structure and the placement of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) across the genome. Several proteins dedicated to this multisubunit complex, including BRG1 (also known as SMARCA4) and BAF250a (also known as ARID1A), are mutated at frequencies similar to those of recognized tumour suppressors. In particular, the core ATPase BRG1 is mutated in 5-10% of childhood medulloblastomas and more than 15% of Burkitt's lymphomas. Here we show a previously unknown function of BAF complexes in decatenating newly replicated sister chromatids, a requirement for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. We find that deletion of Brg1 in mouse cells, as well as the expression of BRG1 point mutants identified in human tumours, leads to anaphase bridge formation (in which sister chromatids are linked by catenated strands of DNA) and a G2/M-phase block characteristic of the decatenation checkpoint. Endogenous BAF complexes interact directly with endogenous topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) through BAF250a and are required for the binding of TOP2A to approximately 12,000 sites across the genome. Our results demonstrate that TOP2A chromatin binding is dependent on the ATPase activity of BRG1, which is compromised in oncogenic BRG1 mutants. These studies indicate that the ability of TOP2A to prevent DNA entanglement at mitosis requires BAF complexes and suggest that this activity contributes to the role of BAF subunits as tumour suppressors.
|Epidermal growth factor promotes protein degradation of epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN), a putative metastasis suppressor, during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.|
Zhang, S; Wang, X; Iqbal, S; Wang, Y; Osunkoya, AO; Chen, Z; Chen, Z; Shin, DM; Yuan, H; Wang, YA; Zhau, HE; Chung, LW; Ritenour, C; Kucuk, O; Wu, D
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 1469-79 2013
Aberrant expression of EGF receptors has been associated with hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the molecular mechanism for EGF signaling in promoting PCa metastasis remains elusive. Using experimental models of PCa metastasis, we demonstrated that EGF could induce robust epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increase invasiveness. Interestingly, EGF was found to be capable of promoting protein turnover of epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN), a putative suppressor of EMT and tumor metastasis. Mechanistic study revealed that EGF could activate the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of EPLIN through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-dependent signaling cascade. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway effectively antagonized EGF-induced EPLIN degradation. Two serine residues, i.e. serine 362 and serine 604, were identified as putative ERK1/2 phosphorylation sites in human EPLIN, whose point mutation rendered resistance to EGF-induced protein turnover. This study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism for EGF regulation of EMT and invasiveness in PCa cells, indicating that blockade of EGF signaling could be beneficial in preventing and retarding PCa metastasis at early stages.
|Increased NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide is involved in the neuronal cell death induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal hippocampal slice cultures.|
Lu, Q; Wainwright, MS; Harris, VA; Aggarwal, S; Hou, Y; Rau, T; Poulsen, DJ; Black, SM
Free radical biology & medicine 53 1139-51 2012
Neonatal brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI) results in neuronal cell death. Previous studies indicate that reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide, play a key role in this process. However, the cellular sources have not been established. In this study we examine the role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex in neonatal HI brain injury and elucidate its mechanism of activation. Rat hippocampal slices were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic the conditions seen in HI. Initial studies confirmed an important role for NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in the oxidative stress associated with OGD. Further, the OGD-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. The activation of NADPH oxidase was found to be dependent on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the p47(phox) subunit. Using an adeno-associated virus antisense construct to selectively decrease p47(phox) expression in neurons showed that this led to inhibition of both the increase in superoxide and the neuronal cell death associated with OGD. We also found that NADPH oxidase inhibition in a neonatal rat model of HI or scavenging hydrogen peroxide reduced brain injury. Thus, we conclude that activation of the NADPH oxidase complex contributes to the oxidative stress during HI and that therapies targeted against this complex could provide neuroprotection against the brain injury associated with neonatal HI.
|Estrous cycle variations in GABA(A) receptor phosphorylation enable rapid modulation by anabolic androgenic steroids in the medial preoptic area.|
Oberlander, JG; Porter, DM; Onakomaiya, MM; Penatti, CA; Vithlani, M; Moss, SJ; Clark, AS; Henderson, LP
Neuroscience 226 397-410 2012
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABA(A) receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents is dependent upon the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex. Here we show that phosphorylation of the GABA(A) receptor complex immunoprecipitated by β(2)/β(3) subunit-specific antibodies from the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the mouse varies across the estrous cycle; with levels being significantly lower in estrus. Acute exposure to the AAS, 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MeT), had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the mPOA of estrous mice when phosphorylation was low, but increased the amplitude of these currents from mice in diestrus, when it was high. Inclusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin, in the recording pipette eliminated the ability of 17α-MeT to enhance currents from diestrous animals, suggesting that PKC-receptor phosphorylation is critical for the allosteric modulation elicited by AAS during this phase. In addition, a single injection of 17α-MeT was found to impair an mPOA-mediated behavior (nest building) in diestrus, but not in estrus. PKC is known to target specific serine residues in the β(3) subunit of the GABA(A) receptor. Although phosphorylation of these β(3) serine residues showed a similar profile across the cycle, as did phosphoserine in mPOA lysates immunoprecipitated with β2/β3 antibody (lower in estrus than in diestrus or proestrus), the differences were not significant. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex regulates both the ability of AAS to modulate receptor function in the mPOA and the expression of a simple mPOA-dependent behavior through a PKC-dependent mechanism that involves the β(3) subunit and other sites within the GABA(A) receptor complex.
|5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine reactivates gene expression via degradation of pRb pocket proteins.|
Zheng, Z; Li, L; Liu, X; Wang, D; Tu, B; Wang, L; Wang, H; Zhu, WG
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 26 449-59 2012
Not only does 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) induce the reexpression of silenced genes through the demethylation of CpG islands, but it increases the expression of unmethylated genes. However, the mechanism by which 5-aza-CdR activates the expression of genes is not completely understood. Here, we report that the pRb pocket proteins pRb, p107, and p130 were degraded in various cancer cell lines in response to 5-aza-CdR treatment, and this effect was dependent on the proteasome pathway. Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) played a critical role in this 5-aza-CdR-induced degradation of pRb. Furthermore, PP2A phosphatase-induced MDM2 dephosphorylation at S260 was found to be essential for MDM2 binding to pRb in the presence of 5-aza-CdR. pRb degradation resulted in the significant reexpression of several genes, including methylated CDKN2A, RASFF1A, and unmethylated CDKN2D. Finally, knockdown of pRb pocket proteins by either RNAi or 5-aza-CdR treatment induced a significant decrease in the recruitment of SUV39H1 and an increase in the enrichment of KDM3B and KDM4A to histones around the promoter of RASFF1A and thus reduced H3K9 di- and trimethylation, by which RASFF1A expression is activated. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which 5-aza-CdR induces the expression of both methylated and unmethylated genes by degrading pRb pocket proteins.
|Glycine receptor internalization by protein kinases activation.|
Miguel Ángel Velázquez-Flores,Rocío Salceda,Miguel Ãngel VelÃ¡zquez-Flores,RocÃo Salceda
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 65 2011
Although glycine-induced currents in the central nervous system have been proven to be modulated by protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC), the mechanism is not well understood. In order to better comprehend the mechanism involved in this phenomenon, we tested the PKA and PKC activation effect on the specific [(3) H]glycine and [(3) H]strychnine binding to postsynaptic glycine receptor (GlyR) in intact rat retina. The specific binding constituted about 20% of the total radioligand binding. Kinetic analysis of the specific binding exhibited a sigmoidal behavior with three glycine and two strychnine binding sites and affinities of 212 nM for [(3) H]glycine and 50 nM for [(3) H]strychnine. Specific radioligand binding was decreased (60-85%) by PKA and PKC activation, an effect that was blocked by specific kinases inhibitors, as well as by cytochalasin D. GlyR expressed in the plasma membrane decreased about 50% in response to kinases activation, which was consistent with an increase of the receptor in the microsomal fraction when PKA was activated. Moreover, immunoprecipitation studies indicated that these kinases lead to a time-dependent receptor phosphorylation. Our results suggest that in retina, GlyR is cross-regulated by G protein-coupled receptors, activating PKA and PKC.
|Osmotic stress stimulates phosphorylation and cellular expression of heat shock proteins in rhesus macaque sperm.|
Cole JA, Meyers SA
Journal of andrology 32 402-10. Epub 2010 Nov 18. 2011
The cryosurvival of sperm requires cell signaling mechanisms to adapt to anisotonic conditions during the freezing and thawing process. Chaperone proteins heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP 90; recently renamed HSPA and HSPC, respectively) facilitate some of these cell signaling events in somatic cells. Sperm were evaluated for their cellular expression and levels of phosphorylation of both HSP 70 and HSP 90 under anisotonic conditions as a potential model for cell signaling during the cryopreservation of macaque spermatozoa. In order to monitor the level of stress, the motility and viability parameters were evaluated at various time points. Cells were then either prepared for phosphoprotein enrichment or indirect immunocytochemistry. As controls, the phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and phosphotyrosine levels were measured under capacitation and cryopreservation conditions and were compared with the phosphoprotein levels expressed under osmotic conditions. As expected, there was an increase in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation under capacitation and cryopreservation conditions. There was also a significant increase in the level of all phosphoproteins under hyperosmotic conditions. There was no change in the level of expression of HSP 70 or 90 under osmotic stress conditions as measured by Western blot. The enrichment of phosphoproteins followed by Western immunoblotting revealed an increase in the phosphorylation of HSP 70 but not HSP 90 under osmotic stress conditions. Indirect immunofluorescence localized HSP 70 to the postacrosomal region of sperm, and the level of membrane expression of HSP 70 was significantly affected by anisotonic conditions, as measured by flow cytometry. Taken together, these results suggest a differential role for HSP 70 and HSP 90 during osmotic stress conditions in rhesus macaque sperm.
|CDK11p58 phosphorylation of PAK1 Ser174 promotes DLC2 binding and roles on cell cycle progression.|
Kong, Xiangfei, et al.
J. Biochem., 146: 417-27 (2009) 2009
CDK11(p58), a CDK11 family Ser/Thr kinase, is a G2/M specific protein and contributed to regulation of cell cycle, transcription and apoptotic signal transduction. Recently, CDK11(p58) has been reported to exert important functions in mitotic process, such as the regulation of bipolar spindle formation and sister chromatid cohesion. Here, we identified p21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a new CDK11(p58) substrate and we mapped a new phosphorylation site of Ser174 on PAK1. By mutagenesis, we created PAK1(174A) and PAK1(174E), which mimic the dephosphorylated and phosphorylated form of PAK1; further analysis showed PAK1(174E) could be recruited to myosin V motor complex through binding to dynein light chain 2 (DLC2). PAK1(174E) could accelerate the mitosis progression in a nocodazole blocked cell model, while PAK1(174A) exhibited an opposite role. Our results indicated PAK1 may serve as a downstream effector of CDK11(p58) during mitosis progression.